Writing Assignment 2

Prompt: Review the text section regarding diversity and the video on diversity vs. differences.
Regarding the organization with which you are familiar, describe any identifiable signs of diversity that you see, identifying multiple forms of diversity (if multiple forms exist).
Describe efforts made by the organization to achieve diversity, and evaluate whether the organization is truly diverse or just has differences.
Requirements: Minimum of 500 words; 2 peer-reviewed or trade journal sources, in addition to your text; APA-compliant
Unit # 2
Individual Differences and Perception
Unit Introduction
In this unit, we will begin to explore the psychological and sociological issues that form the foundations of Organizational Behavior.
We will also explore how to go about performing competent research into Organizational Behavior topics.
Topics we’ll cover in this unit
Chapter 3
Individual differences
Abilities vs. Skills
Locus of control
Emotional Intelligence
Chapter 4
The perceptual process
Cognitive biases (grouping errors)
Impression management
Appendix A
Research introduction
Methods of research
As we enter the second unit of our course, we should be:
Thinking deeply and critically about the topics that we are learning. Do not just skim the surface, but spend time thinking about how they affect how we manage and treat others.
Thinking deeply about the application of Biblical concepts to the course topics that we are learning.
At this point you should have selected the organization for your service learning and portfolio project.
Biblical Foundation
I Corinthians 10:31-33 (NIV)
31So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God. 32Do not cause anyone to stumble, whether Jews, Greeks or the church of God— 33even as I try to please everyone in every way. For I am not seeking my own good but the good of many, so that they may be saved.
Treatment of persons should be a paramount concern of a workplace leader employing a Christian worldview.
Variables affecting work behavior
These variables give workplace behavior its complexity and make it interesting.
As you think about these variables, think about Psalm 139:13-15
Diversity: those attributes that make people different from one another.
Primary dimensions are usually considered stable or difficult to change
Primary Dimension Secondary (Dimensions
Age Educational background
Ethnicity Marital status
Gender Religious beliefs
Physical attributes Health
Race Work experience
Sexual/affectional orientation

Diversity, (cont.)
Diversity is NOT:
Just understanding demographic projections
A synonym for equal employment opportunities
The same thing as “differences”
Stop now and watch Dr. Samuel Betances discuss the how diversity and differences are not the same thing:

Diversity, (cont.)
Benefits of Diversity in the Workplace
Abilities and skills
Good leaders know they cannot do everything, but capitalize on their strengths and work to overcome any lack of ability or skill.
Attitude: a mental state of readiness for need arousal.
Key facts:
Everyone has attitudes about many things
Attitudes define how you are predisposed to think about those things.
Attitudes are learned.
Attitudes provide the emotional basis for how you interact with others.
Attitudes are close to the core of personality.
Attitudes, (cont.)
Attitudes are relatively permanent, but may change.
Attitudes toward work affect performance, but there are three theories of why.
Personality:Relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors.
Has observable and measurable patterns.
Has superficial aspects as well as a deeper core.
Involves common and unique characteristics.(People are all different, but have many similarities).
Big Five Personality Dimensions
Big Five, (cont.)
What are your Big Five characteristics?Leaders should know this.Go to http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/ for a brief interactive Big Five evaluation. Using the results, think about how you an develop the strong higher and strengthen the lower ones.
Emotion: State of physiological arousal accompanied by changes in facial expression, posture, gestures or subjective feelings.
Mood:A long-lasting state of emotion.
Eight Primary Emotions
Surprise Joy
Anticipation Fear
Acceptance Sadness
Disgust Anger

Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence:The ability to manage one’s own and others’ emotions in order to guide one’s behavior and achieve goals.
Dimensions of EI:
Self-awareness. Awareness of one’s own thoughts and feelings.
Social awareness.Demonstrating empathy or relating to others.
Self-management. Marinating self control.
Relationship management. Maintaining positive and productive relationships with others.
Perception:The process by which a person gives meaning to environmental stimuli.How we interpret what we observe, hear and experience.
Key elements of the perceptual process:
Our senses are continually bombarded by stimuli.The perceptual process helps us filter these stimuli and react to the most important.
Perceptual inaccuracies
A translation step in the perception process
Used to classify or categorize events, people or situations
A type of mental shorthand
Helps us recognize patterns
Useful so long as its limitations are recognized.
A special type of stereotype
A stereotype that refuses to change even when presented with information that the stereotype is inaccurate.
More perceptual inaccuracies
Selective attention Giving some messages priority and ignoring others
Divided attention Dividing one’s mental efforts between several competing tasks.Leads to a higher use of stereotypes.
Halo effect Allowing one noticeable characteristic of another person to bias the evaluation, perception or impression of that person.
Similar-to-me error Using self as benchmark for judging others
Situational factors Time limitations that affect the ability to clearly evaluate a situation.

Attribution theory
Human beings try to explain the reasons for events. Attribution theory tells us HOW we do this.
Our brains look for 3 characteristics to help us explain things:
Distinctiveness:does the person behave this way in other situations
Consistency: does the person behave in this manner at other times
Consensus:do other people behave like this?
Attribution process applied to events
General illustration of attribution process
Application of the general process to the workplace
Attribution process applied to behavior
Our brains look for 3 characteristics to help us explain things:
Distinctiveness:does the person behave this way in other situations
Consistency: does the person behave in this manner at other times
Consensus:do other people behave like this?
Applying attribution to behavior
Yes + Yes + No = Internal Attribution (behavior caused by factors the person can control)
No + No + Yes = External Attribution (behavior caused by factors the person cannot control)
Impression management
Impression management: the attempt to influence others’ perception of you.
Everybody does it, some more than others.
Can be done through:
How one talks
How one dresses
Office location and furnishing
Who one selects as employees
Researching organizations
Sources of knowledge about organizations
Peer reviewed journals
Trade journals
History as a way of learning about organizations
For instance, our look at Scientific Management and the Hawthorne Studies
Experience as a way of learning about organizations
Science as a way of learning about organizations
Scientific method
The scientific method is used in the social sciences as well as in the physical sciences.
Public The work is done publicly and results are reported so that others can use them.
Precise Procedures, variables used and results are clearly defined and measured.
Objective Data collection is objective and free from bias.
Replicable Other researchers can use, test and reproduce the results.
Systematic and cumulative Builds on and adds to existing knowledge
Purposes are explanation, understanding and prediction “Why” and “how” are vigorously pursued.

Methods of inquiry
Case study:useful in diving deep into one incident or situation.
Field study:useful in investigating current practices or events.
Experiments: Most rigorous, involves manipulation of variables to see what happens.
Meta-analysis: rigorously pooling and analyzing the results of multiple research studies to look for aggregated results.
Qualitative methods
Used instead of or in conjunction with experimental designs.
Open ended and interpretive.
Often adds meaning and depth to other studies.
Research is not:
Research is not:
Just finding things out at random.It is systematic.
Just finding support for a position you already have. Research tries to eliminate bias.
What’s Next
Complete your detailed reading
Answer the discussion questions
Complete the writing assignments
Take the Unit Quiz
Souder, Betances and Associates [betancesspeaks]. (2013, February 17). Samuel Betances: Confusing Differences with Diversity [Video file].Retrieved from ttps://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=fWTtfuWawp8.
This ends this session

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