Which of the following is an approach to justice which focuses on repairing harms through processes.

Which of the following is an approach to justice which focuses on repairing harms through processes involving the offender, victim, and community?

Selective enforcement

Broken windows

General deterrence

Restorative justice

Which of the following comes closest to what Aristotle regarded as the highest human good?


Avoidance of pain



Disloyalty, greed, mercilessness, prejudice, and intolerance are examples of:
Moral virtues.

Corrective emotions.

Other-directed traits.

Moral vices.

Which of the following frameworks encourages us to imagine alternative solutions to moral dilemmas, “focusing less on deciding between given alternatives” and, instead, “envisioning new alternatives” that we may not have initially considered?


Kantian ethics

Care ethics

Ethical egoism

Which of the following would be considered biogenic needs?

Shelter and clean air



According to Aristotle, human beings are different from all other living things because of our:
Tolerance for pain.

Reason and rationality.

Free will.


When confronted with a moral dilemma, care ethics encourages us to consider:
Relevant duties and imperatives.

Equality and proportionality.

Situational factors and the needs of all involved.

Natural and legal rights.

With regard to how we feel about ourselves and our own accomplishments, which of the following would be the virtuous midpoint between moral deficiency and excess?



Self-respect/proper pride


Which of the following is a key Aristotelian idea that describes a midpoint between extremes of excess and deficiency?

The Golden Mean

The Middle Path


Which of the following is NOT one of the universal conditions of human flourishing outlined in your text?

Cooperative relationships.

Fulfillment of biogenic needs.

Pleasurable activity.

Connectedness with others.

In order to lead an ethical life, you should avoid relying on tradition or convention as the sole source of ethical beliefs or reason for decisions.



A democratic fallacy occurs where we appeal to majority belief to justify a decision or belief.



What is a key indicator of a narrow-minded person?
Lack of dogma

Changes ideas often

Unwillingness to change

Has a great deal to learn
What term does NOT refer to a type of reasoning?
Theoretical reasoning

Pure reasoning

Descriptive reasoning

Practical reasoning
What is an example of thinking in an exclusive way, which may inhibit the process of intellectual growth and moral development?
Being a female officer

Identifying strongly with a particular political party

Coming from a family in which many generations practiced a particular religion

None of the above
Decisions should be made based on self-interest or the interests of a group to which you belong.

Good beliefs and decisions require that the reasons that led to making the decision are true and acceptable, and the conclusion naturally follows from those reasons.

Beliefs held on the basis of authority (such as laws, public opinion, or the U.S. Constitution) are always justified.

An ethical life involves thinking dichotomously.

Which of the following cases violates the principle of universalizability?

Being opposed to abortion and capital punishment, because both involve acts of killing, which is wrong.
Being opposed to abortion on the basis that taking a life is morally wrong, but being in favor of hunting for sport regardless of the fact that a life is taken.
Being in favor of going green on the basis that it is important to protect future generations, while opposing same-sex marriage on the basis that it is the freedom of equality.
Being in favor of lower taxes and being opposed to capital punishment, because your favorite author has the same views.
Which of the following is NOT one of Ross’s Prima Facie Duties?


Which of the following is NOT an ethical framework for making decisions?

Deciding with Consequences

Deciding with Virtue

Deciding with Care

Deciding with Practicality
Which of the following is NOT a utilitarian method of reaching conclusions?
Considering all the benefits and harms that an action would likely cause
Completely abandoning any conclusion that does not produce beneficial consequences for everyone
Accounting for all people affected by the decision
Attempting to produce the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people
Instrumental goods outweigh intrinsic goods.


Kantianism states that it is not the consequences of our actions with which we should be concerned, but rather the actions themselves.

What does it mean to “decide with duties”?
Determining what duties, rights, principles, and / or obligations apply to a given issue or situation
Recognizing that it is your duty to decide on a solution
Deciding whether or not to fulfill your moral duty
Following a moral code
What are virtues?

Innate abilities possessed by certain types of people, but not others
Morally desirable traits of character, such as honesty or avoidance of greed
Unattainable ideals set forth by ethical leaders
A series of ethical texts by Aristotle
What are “moral goods”?

The consequences of our actions and decisions
The consequences of sound business decisions
Gifts or tokens given to us as a result of our decisions
All of the above
How did Aristotle view virtue?
The swift use of reason
The use of practicality
The practical use of reason
The human condition
Rule Utilitarianism addresses problems that arise when otherwise morally undesirable actions might produce good consequences.


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