Week 3 Reflection

Use these answers to these questions to better help you.
Also, please use the week 3 example uploaded below/
Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult).
Answer – Early childhood
Elaborate on your feelings about how the discussions in this course thus far matches your qualities and characteristics to serve in the education field.
Answer – The discussions have somewhat helped me to better understand what areas of communication I need to work on.
Has your desire to become an educator increased or decreased since the beginning of this course and what has sparked that change?
Answer- I think they have increased some it has always been a passion to teach in early childhood.
Here are links to previous assignment for this class –
https://www.sweetstudy.com/questions/social-media-20506839
https://www.sweetstudy.com/questions/i-will-be-a-great-educator
Reflection
ATTACHED FILE(S)
A large part of being a responsible and evolving educator is to become what is called a “reflective practitioner.” This means educators must always take time to stop and reflect upon what they have done so they can identify areas in which to improve.
Prior to writing your journal entry, read Chapter 6: History of Schools in Education and Chapter 16: Succeeding in Your Teacher Education Program, and Beyond in yourIntroduction to Teaching: Making a Difference in Student Learningtextbook.
In this journal entry you will reflect upon what has been discussed thus far in this course.
· Identify the level of education in which you wish to serve (early childhood, elementary, middle school, and high school, adult).
· Elaborate on your feelings about how the discussions in this course thus far matches your qualities and characteristics to serve in the education field.
· Has your desire to become an educator increased or decreased since the beginning of this course and what has sparked that change?
Journal Guidelines
· Your journal must be 1 to 2 double-spaced pages in length.
· This is a journal assignment so, APA formatting is not required. It is still suggested that you follow the APA guidelines set down in theAPA paper template(Links to an external site.)provided by the UAGC Writing Center. The more you practice APA style the better you are at it.
CHAPTER6
HistoryofSchoolsintheUnitedStates
TeacherInterview:MarvinKuhn
MeetMarvinKuhn,ateacherof43½ yearswhojustretired.Overhiscareer, Mr.Kuhntaughtinthreeschool systemsinIndiana,spendingthelast 30yearsintheruralschoolsofRush County,southeastofIndianapolis, wherehegrewup.RushCountyisafarmingcommunitywherethe populationisoverwhelminglywhite;lessthan2%ofthePreK–12students areAfricanAmericanorMexicanAmerican.Thepercentageofstudents whoareonfreeorreduced-pricelunchintheschoolsinwhichMr.Kuhn taughtoverhiscareerhasgrownfrom10%whenhebeganteachingto 50%inthelargestelementaryschoolinthecounty.Forthelast19years, hehasservedasthesciencecoordinatorforthefiveelementaryschools inthecounty.Hecontinuedtobeclassifiedasateacherwhilehewas thecoordinatorbecausehewasalwaysworkingwiththeelementary teachersintheschoolsashemodeledhands-onscienceteachingintheir classrooms.InretirementhecontinuestoteachclassesforschoolsinRush CountyandsurroundingareasonthestarsandplanetsusingStarLab, whichisaportableplanetarium.Healsomaintainsandteachesclassesata naturecenterthathecreatedandusesasalabforelementarystudents.
Whatcanteacherslearnfromthehistoryofeducationthatwillbehelpfulintheirwork?
Interestingly,IwasnotcrazyabouthistorywhenIwasinschool,butInowloveteachinghistoryandmakingitfunforstudents.Knowingwherewehavebeencanbeveryhelpfulinlookingforward.Youshouldnotbeafraidoftryingsomethingnew,butIhavelearnedoverfourdecadesofteachingthatnoteverythingisnew.Manyteachingstrategiesthatwehavebeenexpectedtoimplementarerefinementsofmethodsdevelopedearlierinourprofession.
Whatdoesexcellenceinteachinglooklike?
Themoreenthusiasmyoushowinwhatyoudoandthemoreexcitedyouare,themoreexcitedthekidsbecome.Fromthebeginningofschooling,studentshavebeenaskedtoreadandthendiscusswhattheyreadandanswerquestions.Youneedtobemuchmorecreativethanthattoengagestudentsinthelesson.Ialsofindthathands-onactivitieshelpstudentsrememberwhatisbeingtaughtbecausetheyareactuallydoingit.Yearsafterstudentshaveleftmyclassroom,theyremindmeofahands-onactivitytheydidwhentheywereinmyclassroom.
Whatdoyoufindjoyfulaboutteaching?
Seeingthekidssucceedandseeingthemgofromnotdoingsomethingtobeingabletodosomethingandsay“lookwhatIdid.”Itisthekidsthatalwayskeptmegoingeachandeveryday.Justtoseethesmilesontheirfaces,toseetheiraccomplishments.Iwouldsay,“Thisiswhatyouneedtodo;Iwanttoseeyoudoit.”Andwhentheydid,Iwasproudofthem,andtheywereproudofthemselves.
QuestionstoConsider
1.Whataresomeofthelessonsfromhistorythatcanhelpyoureflectonyourownworkinschools?
2.Whatreformsarebeingdiscussedtodaythathavebeentriedinoneformoranotherinthepast?
3.Whataresomecreativeandhands-onstrategiesthatyoucanusetoengagestudentsinlearningandbeingexcitedaboutlearning?Whatdoweknowfromhistoryaboutthisapproachtolearning?
INTRODUCTION
LearningOutcomes
Afterreadingthischapter,youshouldbeableto
1.Identifyreasonsthatthestatesestablishedfreeanduniversaleducation.
2.Describethepracticalandpedagogicalreasonsfortheestablishmentofschoolsbytheageofchildren.
3.Listsomeofthepeopleandeventsthathavebeeninfluentialindeterminingschoolcurriculuminthenation’sschools.
4.Analyzesomeofthehistoricaleventsthathaveresultedindifferenteducationalexperiencesamongstudentsfromdiverseracialandethnicgroups.
5.Identifychangesintheprofessionallivesofteachersbetweenthe19thcenturyandnow.
Knowingthepasthelpsusplanthefuture.SincetheBostonLatinSchoolwasestablishedin1635,thenationhasadopteduniversalschoolingforallchildren,establishedapubliceducationsystem,desegregatedschools,andopenedpost-secondaryeducationtoalmostanystudentwhodesiresit.Instudyingthehistoryofeducation,wefindthatsomeeducationalpracticesappearcyclical,reappearinginadifferentformeveryfewgenerations.Movementssuchasprogressivismhavehadalastingeffectinsomeaspectsofschoolingeventhoughitfelloutoffavorasamovementbythe1950s.Reformsofschoolscomeandgoasschooladministratorsandpolicymakersstrivetofindthemagiccurriculum,teachingstrategies,andsystemthatwillensurethatstudentslearnathighlevels.
HOWDIDPUBLICSCHOOLSCOMETOBE?
TheUnitedStateshashadalonghistoryofprovidinga
freeanduniversaleducation
foritschildren.Manyhard-foughtpoliticalandlegalbattlesoverthepastfourcenturieshaveledtouniversaleducationforallstudentsregardlessoftheirrace,ethnicity,socioeconomicstatus,ornativelanguage.However,thishasnotalwaysbeenthecase.Incolonialtimesaccesstoschoolinginbasicliteracyandnumeracywasavailableonlytotheaffluent.Criticalthemesintheseearlydebateswerearoundtherightsofindividualstodecideforthemselveswhethertoattendschoolandthebasicrequirementsnecessaryforallcitizensinademocracy.
AudioLink
Listentothewaysteachinghaschangedovertheyears.
AswithmanyotheraspectsofearlysocietyintheColonies,thePuritanstransferredtheirviewsandexpectationsforeducationfromEnglandtotheUnitedStates.WhoshouldbeeducatedandthepurposesofeducationwerehottopicsacrossEuropeinthe1600s.Citizenswereaskingwhetherallchildrenshouldattendschoolandwhethergirlsaswellasboysshouldattend.Theywerealsoaskingwhatstudentsshouldlearn,howlongtheyshouldattendschool,whoshouldpay,andwhetherschoolattendanceshouldbecompulsory.
SchoolsintheColonies
Beforecommunitiesbuiltschools,childrenwereoftentaughtbywomenintheirneighborhoodswhoestablished“dameschools”intheirhomes.Mostschoolswereestablishedandcontrolledbychurches,wherereligionwastaughtalongwithreading,writing,andarithmetic.LocallycontrolledschoolswerefirstestablishedintheNewEnglandcolonieswheretheNewEnglandPrimerwasthefirstwidelyusedtextbook.ItincludedtheLord’sPrayer,theTenCommandments,andalistofthebooksofthebible.Studentswereaskedtomemorizetheprimer’s
catechism
,whichwasaseriesofquestionsandcorrectanswersthattaughttheProtestantfaith(Spring,2011).
TheMassachusettsBayColonyiscreditedwithfirstrequiringallchildrentoreceiveformaleducation.TheMassachusettsLawof1642calledforchildrentolearntoreadsotheycouldunderstandthebibleandthecountry’slaws.A1647statute,theOldDeluderSatanLaw,establishedschoolsbyrequiringtownswith50ormorefamiliestoappointateacherandcollecttaxestosupportschools.In1650,Connecticutestablisheditsownschoolstatutes.Othercolonieswereslowertoengagewiththesecoreissues,andtheSouthcontinuedtoresisttheestablishmentofschoolsforanyoneotherthanaristocrats.
AlthoughtheearlyMassachusettsandConnecticutstatutesmadereferencetotheimportanceofreadingtheScriptures,theyalsoimpliedthatthestatewouldbebetteroffwitheducatedcitizens.Thisviewhadbeenchampionedbyleadingphilosophers,scientists,andpoliticiansinEuropeforseveralcenturies.Jean-JacquesRousseau,FrancisBacon,ThomasHobbes,RenéDescartes,andJohnLockearguedinthe18thcenturythattherewasapublicinterestinhavingallcitizenseducated.Theybelievedthatcitizenshadtohaveskillsinliteracyandnumeracyforademocracytothriveandthateducationshouldbeavailabletoallchildrenandyouth(Urban&Wagoner,2009).MostleadersintheUnitedStatesagreedthatafreeanduniversaleducationwasacornerstoneofdemocracy.
AroundthetimeoftheRevolutionaryWar,theconceptofsecularschoolsemerged.Someleaderswereconcernedthatreligiouscontrolofschoolscouldlimitpoliticalfreedomandthescientificrevolution.ThomasJefferson,forone,believedthatfreedomofthoughtandbeliefswaskeytoarepublicansociety.ThisconcernledtotheadoptionoftheFirstAmendmenttotheConstitution,whichpreventstheestablishmentofastatereligion.Thefocusonfreedomofideasduringthisperiodopenedthedoortoteachingmorethanreligion,
morals
,andcivilobedience.Educationbegantobeseenasprovidingintellectualtoolsbasedonsciencethatwouldhelpcreateabettersociety(Spring,2011).
CreatingaSystemofPublicEducation
ThatthestatesshouldberesponsibleforeducationwasseenasimportantevenbeforetheConstitutionwaswritten.DuringtheRevolutionaryWar,theContinentalCongresspassedseveralordinancesrelatedtotheopeningupoflandsintheWest.TheLandOrdinanceof1785requiredeachnewstatetoformacentralgovernmentandaddresseducationasacomponentofitsfoundinglaws.ItalsorequiredeachtownshipinthenewterritoriesnorthandwestoftheOhioRivertodesignateonesection(onesquaremile)ofits36allocatedtownshipsectionsforpublicschools.TwoyearslatertheNorthwestOrdinanceencouragedtheestablishmentofschoolsbecausereligion,morality,andknowledgewerecriticalforagoodgovernment(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
WhentheU.S.Constitutionwasadoptedin1789,itmadenoreferencetoeducation.Eventhoughsomeofthefounderswantededucationtobeafederalresponsibility,theresponsibilityforeducationwasclarifiedintheTenthAmendment,whichstatesthat“(t)hepowersnotdelegatedtotheUnitedStatesbytheConstitution,norprohibitedbyittotheStates,arereservedtotheStatesrespectivelyortothepeople.”Statelegislaturesbecameresponsibleforestablishingeducationpoliciesandfinancingapubliceducationsystem.
Asthe1800sunfolded,schooldebatesfocusedonwhetherattendanceshouldbecompulsoryandhowschoolsshouldbesupportedandmanaged.Graduallyaconsensusemergedthateachstatewouldsetexpectationsforpublicschools,thattownswereresponsiblefortheoperationofschools,andthatschoolswouldbefinancedthroughtaxation.Concernsaboutthequalityandrigorofeducationacrossthestatesledtoasystemofeducationthatwassomewhatuniformintheorganizationandoperationofpublicschools.Bythe1830s,childrenwereattendingpublicprimaryschoolstolearnreading,writing,andarithmeticinwhatwerecalled
commonschools
.ImportantdatesinthedevelopmentofasystemofeducationareoutlinedinTable6.1.
Table6.1SignificantEventsintheDevelopmentoftheAmericanSystemofEducation

1635

BostonLatinGrammarSchoolestablished.

1647

Massachusetts’sOldDeluderSatanLawrequiredestablishmentofschools.

1785–1787

NorthwestOrdinancespassedtosupportschoolsinnewterritories.

1789

UnitedStatesConstitutionadoptedwithoutreferencetoeducation.

1821

TheEnglishClassicalSchool,thefirsthighschoolestablishedinBoston.TheTroyFemaleSeminaryfirstpreparedteachersforcertification.

1825–1826

FirstknownchildcarecenteropenedinNewHarmony,Indiana.

1827

Massachusettslawestablishedhighschools.

1837

Massachusettsestablishedfirststateboardofeducation;HoraceMannappointedthefirstsecretary.

1839

FirstpublicnormalschoolforpreparingteachersopenedinLexington,Massachusetts.

1848

QuincySchool,basedongrades,wasestablishedinBoston.

1852

Massachusettsestablishesfirstcompulsoryattendancelaw.

1872

KalamazooDecisionmadepublichighschoolslegal.

1873

St.LouisopenedthefirstpublickindergartenintheUnitedStates.

1918

Compulsoryeducationrequiredinallstates.

1965

Elementary-SecondaryEducationAct(ESEA)passed.

1979

TheU.S.DepartmentofEducationestablishedbyPresidentJimmyCarter.

2001

ESEAreauthorizedasNoChildLeftBehindAct.
AlthoughpublicschoolshavelongbeenarealityintheUnitedStates,criticsoftoday’sschoolsquestiontheirabilitytopreparestudentsfortheglobalworldinwhichwelive.Whenaskedhowimportantpublicschoolsaretoday,retiredteacherMarvinKuhnreplied,
Itisjustasimportantasbackthen.Everybodyneedsaneducation.Ifyoudon’thavethemoney,whereelseareyougoingtogetyoureducationbutthroughpubliceducation?OneofthethingsI’veseeninthepastfewyearsisthecreationofcharterschoolsandvouchers.Eventhoughtheymaybeavailabletolow-incomestudents,charterandprivateschoolspickwhotheywantintheirschools,andifthosestudentsdonotperformattheexpectedlevel,theschooldoesnothavetoletthemcomeback.
HOWDIDSCHOOLSBECOMEDESIGNEDBASEDONTHEAGEOFSTUDENTS?
Earlyinthe18thcenturyeducatorsandpolicymakersenvisionedschoolsasawaytoovercomepovertyandcrimebyinculcatingagoodmoralcharacterintostudentswhothereformersbelievedlackedappropriateparentalguidance.
Charityschools
,whichweretheforerunnerofthecommonschool,weredevelopedforthispurpose(Spring,2011).Althoughsomestudentsfromlow-incomefamiliesattendedtheschoolsthatexistedduringthisperiod,many,includingAfricanAmericanstudentsinthenorth,attendedcharityschoolswhilemoreaffluentchildrenattendedprivateorpublicschools(Spring,2011).
Theelementaryschoolcurriculuminthefirsthalfofthe19thcenturywasinfluencedgreatlybythespellersandtextbookswrittenbyNoahWebster.Hisinfluencewasnotonlyonschools;hewroteanAmericandictionarywithwhichmanyofyoumaybefamiliar.Websterwasaschoolmasterwho,in1779,hadanideaforanewwayofteachingthatincludedaspellingbook,grammarbook,andreader.Whenhefinishedwritingthebooksfiveyearslater,hebecameanitinerantlecturer,ridingthroughthecountrysellinghisbooks.Hewasagoodsalesman,selling1.5millioncopiesby1801and75millionby1875.Webster’sbookscontainedcatechisms,buthedidnotlimittherecitationtoreligion.Heincludedamoralcatechismandafederalonethatstressednationalismandpatriotism(Spring,2011).
Teachersintheone-roomschoolsofthepastandtodayservenotonlyastheteachers,butalsoasthecustodian,nurse,secretary,andprincipal.
Thefirstschoolsbuiltinmanyruralcommunitieswereone-roomschoolswithateacherwhotaughtallsubjectstostudentswhosometimesrangedinagefromfiveto17.Theseschoolsgenerallyhaddesksorlongbenchesonwhichstudentssattogether.Apopularinstructionalmethodwasrecitationinwhichpupilsstoodandrecitedtheassignedlesson.Valuesofpunctuality,honesty,andhardworkwerestressedintheseruralschools(Howey&Post,2002).
Inthe1830sand1840s,thefatherofcommonschools,HoraceMann,wasconcernedwithdivisionsbetweensocialclassesandsawmixingthesocialclassesinthecommonschoolasonewaytoreducethetensionsbetweengroups.MannappliedhisideastoschoolswhenhebecamethefirstsecretaryoftheMassachusettsBoardofEducationin1837.Hisconceptofthecommonschoolbecamethetax-supported,locallycontrolledelementaryschoolsthatdominatedU.S.educationintheindustrialera.
Thecurriculumofthecommonschoolincludedtheskillsneededforeverydaylife,ethicalbehavior,andresponsiblecitizenship,withstandardizedsubjectmatterinreading,writing,arithmetic,spelling,history,andgeography(Cremin,1951).CommonschoolswerealsoexpectedtocreateconformityinAmericanlifebyimposingthelanguageandideologicaloutlookofthedominantAngloAmericanProtestantgroupthatgovernedthecountry.EducationincommonschoolswasseenasavenueforupwardsocialandeconomicmobilityfornativewhitesandEuropeanimmigrantsintheUnitedStates.Bothgirlsandboysattendedthecommonschools,usuallytogether.
VideoLink
WatchaclipaboutNoahWebster.
ElementarySchools
ThefirstschoolbasedongradeswasestablishedinBostonin1848asQuincySchool.Teachershadtheirownseparateclassroom,andeachstudentsatatadeskinclassroomsdesignedfor56students.Withinsevenyears,allBostonschoolsweregraded.OthercitiesandcommunitiessoonadoptedtheQuincymodel,settingthestageforthegradedschoolsoftoday(Spring,2001).
Manyurbanschoolspriorto1850hadclassroomsformorethan100students.Oneteachermanagedtheclassroomwiththeassistanceofstudentmentorswhowereselectedfromthebetterstudents.InthisLancasterianmethod,developedbyEnglishmanJosephLancaster,studentssatinlongrowsandtheteachersatatadeskonaraisedplatformatthefrontoftheroom.Whenitwastimeforinstructionbytheteacher,studentsmarchedtothefrontoftheroom.Afterwards,theywerereplacedatthefrontoftheroombyanothergroup.Thefirstgroupofstudentsmovedtoanothersectionoftheclassroomforrecitationanddrillwithoneofthementors.Throughouttheday,studentsmovedfromonepartoftheroomtoanothertoworkwithdifferentmentorswithseveralrecitationsoccurringsimultaneouslyintheroom.Manyeducatorsandpoliticiansofthiserasawthisverystructuredandorderlylearningenvironmentasthepanaceaforefficientschoolingofthemasses(Spring,2011).
TheLancasterianclassroomwasdesignedforoneteachertomanagetheeducationofasmanyas100studentsatonetimeinthesameroom.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,thestandardclassroomhadrowsofdesksboltedtothefloor.Asthecenturyprogressed,manyeducatorsmovedfromlectureandrecitationtostudent-centeredactivities,whichcalledforsmallerclassesthatallowedexperimentationandflexibility.NewYorkCityclassrooms,forexample,averaged50studentsaroundWorldWarI;by1930,theaveragewas38students(Spring,2001).
TheWebsterspellerswerereplacedinthelasthalfofthe19thcenturybytheMcGuffeyReaders,whichwerewrittenbyWilliamHolmesMcGuffey.Thereadersprovidedmorallessonsforanindustrializedsociety.Theleadingcharactersinthereaderswerestereotypicallymale(Spring,2011).Althoughthestoriesweremoresecularthanthoseinearliertextbooks,religiousselectionswereincludedalongwithstoriesfocusingonmoralcharacterandtheimportanceofcharity.TheMcGuffeyReaderssoldmorethan120millioncopiesbetween1836and1960(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Textbooksinthelastthirdofthe20thcenturybecamemuchmoreseculartothechagrinofsomechurchleaders,whosometimessuggestedthatthenationwouldbebetteroffiftextbooksandschoolsreturnedtotheirPuritanroots.The“DickandJane”readers,whichwerepopularfromthe1930sthroughthe1950s,reflectedwhitemiddle-classlifestylesandbehaviors(Kaestle&Radway,2009).
VideoLink
LearnmoreabouttheLancastarianmethod.
Inresponsetothequestionaboutchangesthathaveoccurredintheelementaryschoolsince1968whenMr.Kuhnbeganteaching,hesaid:
Oneofthethingsthatisdifferentisthemassamountofpaperworkyouhavetodo.Yes,youhadtodopaperworkwhenIfirststartedteaching,andyouwereaccountableforyourwork,butyounowhavetodocumenteverythingyoudo.You’rebasicallyteachingmoretothestandardsthananythingelse.Ifyouarenotteachingtothestandards,youaresupposedlynotontherighttrack.
HighSchools
Duringthecolonialperiod,astruggleforintellectualfreedomwasunderwayinEnglandtoexpandeducationbeyondtheclassicalstudyofLatinandGreek.Dissentersbelievedthatschoolswerelimitingthefreedomofideasbyteachingstudentstobeobedienttoachurchorthegovernment.Thescientificrevolutionfueledthedebate,andintellectualssuchasFrancisBaconarguedthateducationshouldprovidetheintellectualtoolsandscientificknowledgerequiredtocreateabettersociety.Thismovementledtothedevelopmentofwhatwascalleddissentingacademies(Spring,2001).
WhentheideacrossedtheAtlanticOcean,theacademiesbecameapopularalternativetotheLatingrammarschools.Anearlymodelofahighschool,theacademiestaughtideasandskillsrelatedtothepracticalworld,includingthesciencesandbusiness.Theyprovidedusefuleducationandtransmittedtheculturethathelpedmovegraduatesintothemiddleclass.Sometimestheacademieswereconsideredsmallcolleges,atothertimeshighschools(Spring,2001).
TheEnglishClassicalSchoolwasfoundedinBostonin1821asanalternativetoboardingschoolsandtheBostonLatinSchool,whichprovidedaclassicaleducation.ThecurriculumincludedEnglish,geography,arithmetic,algebra,geometry,trigonometry,history,navigation,andsurveying.Afewyearslater,itwasrenamedEnglishHighSchool,becomingthefirsthighschoolintheUnitedStates(Spring,2001).Withinafewyears,Massachusettspassedalawtoestablishhighschoolsacrossthestate.Otherstatesfollowedsuit,butnotwithoutresistance.OneofthemostfamouscasesagainstpublichighschoolswastheKalamazoodecisioninthe1870s,broughtbythreeprominentcitizenswhobelievedthathighschoolshouldnotbesupportedwithpublicfunds.Thecourtsdidnotagree,settlingthequestionabouttaxessupportinghighschools.
Massachusettsenactedthefirst
compulsoryattendance
lawin1852,requiring12weeksofschool.Bytheendofthe19thcentury,27stateshadcompulsoryattendancelaws,butall48stateshadpassedthemby1918(Urban&Wagoner,2009).However,theestablishmentofattendancelawsdidnotcomeaboutwithoutobjections.Therewerecompetinginterestsforwhatchildrenshouldbedoingataspecificage,whichsometimesmeantworkinginsteadofattendingschool.
Bytheendofthe19thcenturychildrenwerealargecomponentoftherapidlygrowingindustriallaborforce,especiallyinthetextilemills.Threein10millworkersintheSouthwereunder16yearsofageand75%ofthespinnersinNorthCarolinawere14oryounger(Woodward,1971).Theyworkedlonghoursindark,dirty,anddangerousconditions,whicheventuallyledtochildlaborlaws.However,thiswasslowtohappen,especiallyintheSouth.Itwasnotuntil1912thatsouthernstatesprohibitednightworkforchildrenandsetageandhourlimitsthatwereaslowasage12and60hoursperweek.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,most7-to13-year-oldchildrenattendedschool.However,only10%remainedinschoolbeyondage14,andlessthan7%ofthe17-year-oldsgraduatedfromhighschool(Olson,2000).Asthe20thcenturyunfolded,thecombinationofchildlaborlawsandcompulsoryattendancelawswereincreasinglyeffectiveinpushingyoungpeopleintoschool.
Ashighschoolswereestablishedinsmalltownsandcities,debatesaboutthepurposeofhighschoolsweresimilartothosethatledtothedevelopmentofacademiesduringthecolonialdays.Somepeoplearguedthatthehighschoolshoulddevelopawell-disciplinedmindinthetraditionoftheoldgrammarschools.Othersbelievedthatthecurriculumshouldpreparestudentsforthepracticalworldandoccupations.Mostoftheearlyhighschoolsendedupfocusingonadvancedscience,math,English,history,andthepoliticaleconomy,butthecurriculumwasgenerallydeterminedbythetextbooksoftheperiod.Admissionrequiredpassingrigorousexaminations;only4%ofeligiblestudentswereenrolledinahighschoolinthe1870s.Lessthanoneinthreeoftheadmittedstudentscompletedhighschool.Thosewhodidn’tcompletethefour-yearcurriculumenteredbusinessortaughtelementaryschool(Cuban,2004).
TheNationalEducationAssociation(NEA),whichtodayisthelargestteachers’union,formedtheCommitteeofTenonSecondarySchoolStudiesin1892todevelopuniformrequirementsforcollegeadmission.Instead,itsfinalreportidentifiedgoalsforsecondaryeducation,recommendingthatthechildrenofwealthyandlow-incomefamiliestakethesamecourseofstudy,regardlessofwhethertheywouldattendcollege.TheCommitteecalledforatleastfouryearsofEnglish,fouryearsofaforeignlanguage,andthreeyearseachofmathematics,science,andhistory(Spring,2001).Thenumberofhighschoolsgrewdramaticallyattheturnofthecentury.Seventypercentofthestudentsenteringcollegein1872weregraduatesofacademies;by1920,90%werehighschoolgraduates(Alexander&Alexander,2001).
Highschoolsattheturnofthe20thcenturywerebeginningtosortstudentsforspecificrolesinsociety.TheNEA’sCommissionontheReorganizationofSecondaryEducationpublisheditsreport,CardinalPrinciplesofSecondaryEducation,in1918.Itsattempttoredesignthehighschooltomeettheneedsofthemoderncorporatestateimpactedthehighschoolcurriculumforthenext50years.TheproposedcomprehensivehighschoolsweretoteachEnglishandsocialstudiestopromoteunityamongstudentsfromdifferentsocioeconomic,ethnic,andlanguagebackgrounds,butalsoincludedvocationalprogramsinagriculture,business,industry,finearts,andthehousehold.Thepurposeofhighschoolswasexpandedfromanarrowfocusonacademicstoalsoattendtothesocializationofstudentsbyencouragingtheirinvolvementincommonactivitiessuchasathleticsandextracurricularactivitiessuchasstudentgovernment,thestudentnewspaper,andclubs.Thereportalsocalledforhighschoolstopromotegoodhealththroughphysicalandhealtheducation(Spring,2011).Duringthisperiod,highschoolsdevelopedanacademictrackforstudentswhowereencouragedtoattendcollege.Allotherstudentswereguidedintogeneralorvocationaltracksthatwouldpreparethemforjobsimmediatelyafterhighschool.Overtime,fewerandfewerstudentstooktheacademiccourses,asshowninFigure6.1.
Figure6.1PercentageofHighSchoolersTakingAcademicCourses:1928to1961
Source:ThefailedpromiseoftheAmericanhighschool,1890-1995byAngus,Davidl.:Mirel,JeffreyE.Copyright1999.ReproducedwithpermissionofTeachersCollegePressintheformatofTextbookviaCopyrightClearanceCenter.
ItwasnotuntilafterWorldWarIIthattheneedforahighschooleducationbecamewidespread.Bythe1950s,amajorityofteenagerswereearninghighschooldiplomas.Althoughmorestudentswereattendinghighschool,notallofthemwerehappywiththecurriculumandthewaytheyweretreated.Bytheendofthe1960sandintothe1970s,studentsofcolorweredisruptingmanyhighschoolsastheyconfronteddiscriminationanddemandedthattheirculturesbeincludedinthecurriculum.Highschoolsenteredthe1980smorepeacefully,butwithmorerightsforstudents,inpart,duetoanumberofcourtcases.Thecurriculumandtextbooksbegantoincorporatecontentontheexperiencesandhistoryofpeoplebeyondthewhite,Anglo-Saxon,Protestantmale.
MiddleLevelEducation
Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,psychologistG.StanleyHallarguedthatearlyadolescentswereneitherchildrennoradults.Hebelievedthatseparateeducationwouldbetterservethestudentsbetweenelementaryandhighschool(Beane,2001).Asecondreasonforthecreationofthisnewlevelofschoolingwastoprepareyoungpeopleforthedifferentiatedcomprehensivehighschoolinwhichtheywouldbesortedintoacademicandvocationaltracks(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Table6.2listssomeoftheeducatorswhohaveinfluencedU.S.education.
Thefirstjuniorhighschoolwasestablishedin1909inColumbus,Ohio,followedbyoneinBerkley,California,in1910.Althoughsomeeducatorsandpsychologistswerecallingforthecreationofschoolsbetweenelementaryandhighschool,thenumberofjuniorhighschoolsgrewoverthenextfewdecadesprimarilyinresponsetosocialconditions.Elementaryschoolswereovercrowdedwiththelargeinfluxofimmigrantchildrenandtheincreasingnumberofstudentsnotbeingpromotedtothenextgrade(Beane,2001).Fourinfivestudentswereattendingjuniorhighschoolby1960(McEwin,Dickinson,&Jenkins,2003).Forthemostpart,theyhadbecomeminiaturehighschoolsthatwerenoteffectivelyservingyoungadolescents.
Stillbelievingthatearlyadolescentsdeservedaneducationthatwasdifferentfromthatprovidedinelementaryandsecondaryschools,middleleveleducatorsproposedanewstructure.Likejuniorhighschools,middleschoolsevolved,inpart,becauseofthepracticalitiesofthetimes.Bythelate1950s,thebabyboomgenerationwasovercrowdingelementaryschools,whichsuggestedbuildingmoreelementaryschools.Anotheroptionwastoaddawingtothehighschool,movetoittheninthgradefromthehighschool,andgrades6–8fromtheelementaryschool.Somecommunitiesbuiltanewhighschoolandremodeledtheoldoneforgrades6–8.Sometimesthefifthgradewasmovedintothenewintermediateschools.
Middleschooladvocatesarguedthatschoolingforyoungadolescentsshouldfocusontheirdevelopmentalaswellasacademicneeds.Ratherthanalarge,departmentalizedschoollikehighschool,theirvisionwassmallerclustersofteachersandstudents.Teachersandotherschoolprofessionalsintheseschoolsweretoprovideguidancetohelpstudentsmaneuverthoughtheirchangingsocialandphysicaldevelopment.Educatorsweretobemoreaffectionateandsensitivetoyoungpeople.
Asthepopularityofjuniorhighschoolsdeclined,thenumberofmiddleschoolsgrewquicklytomorethan11,000by1999(Snyder&Dillow,2011)andmorethan15,000today(McEwin&Greene,2011).Withthenationalfocusonacademicsinthe1990s,middleleveleducatorspushedforacurriculumthatwouldprovideaccesstoacademicsubjectsinapositiveandnurturingclimate.Teacherswereencouragedtousecollaborativeandcooperativelearningwithinterdisciplinaryteamsofteachersandblockscheduling.Advocatespromotedeliminatingthetrackingofstudentsandcreatingheterogeneousgroupsinwhichculturaldiversitywascelebratedanddiverselearningstyleswererecognized.
DeeperLook
ReadaboutthehistoryofHeadStart.
Howtobestservepreadolescentstudentsremainsanunsettledissue.Criticschargethatthemiddleschoolphilosophyfocusesontheself-exploration,socialization,andgrouplearningtothedetrimentofacademics.Thesechargesarefueledbypoorshowingsofeighthgradersonnationalandinternationaltestswheretheyranklowerthanfourthgraders,suggestingthattheyarelosinggroundastheyprogressthroughthemiddlegrades.SomeresearchsuggeststhatthesestudentswouldbebetterservedinK–8schools(Meyer,2011).Youarelikelytobeengagedindiscussionsaboutthevalueofmiddleschoolsasyouproceedthroughyourteachingcareer.
EarlyChildhoodEducation
Throughouthistory,somemothershavehadtoworktosupporttheirfamilies.Almostalways,theyhavehadtoleavetheirchildrenwithsomeone,oftenarelativeoraneighbor.Somewomenintheneighborhoodwatchedseveralchildren,butorganizedschoolswithchildcareproviderswerenotavailableuntilthe19thcentury.RobertOwensopenedthefirstknownchildcarecenteratamillinNewHarmony,Indiana,in1825–1826withmorethan100children(Ranck&NAEYC’sHistory&ArchivesPanel,2001).

NoahWebster

Authorofspellersandtextbooksthatinfluencedtheelementaryschoolcurriculumfrom1783–1875.

EmmaWillard

AnearlyfeministwhoopenedtheTroyFemaleSeminaryin1821wherewomenpreparedforacertificatetoteach.

ReverendSamuelHall

EstablishedtheColumbianSchoolinVermontin1823forpreparingteachers.

RobertOwens

WelshsocialreformerwhoopenedthefirstknownchildcarecenteratamillinNewHarmony,Indiana,in1825–1826.

HoraceMann

FirstsecretaryoftheMassachusettsBoardofEducationandfatherofthecommonschoolmovement.

WilliamHolmesMcGuffey

WrotetheMcGuffeyReadersthatwereusedbetween1836and1960.

FriedrichFroebel

Establishedthefirstkindergartenin1837inGermanythatservedasthemodelforearlykindergartensintheUnitedStates.

SamuelChapmanArmstrong

FounderofHamptonInstitutein1868toprepareAfricanAmericanteacherswhopaidfortheireducationthroughmanuallabor.

BookerT.Washington

EducatorandauthorwhoservedasthefirstpresidentofTuskegeeNormalandIndustrialInstitutein1881andpromotedpreparingAfricanAmericansforthetradesandtheirappropriaterolesintheJimCrowSouth.

W.E.B.DuBois

Sociologist,historian,professor,author,andcivilrightsactivistwhochallengedtheoppressivesoutherneconomyandarguedthatAfricanAmericansshouldhaveaclassicaleducationtopreparethemtobeleaders.

JohnDewey

PhilosopherandprofessorwhoestablishedalaboratoryschoolinChicagoin1896totesthisprogressiveideasaboutachild-orientedcurriculum.Hisideashavebeenveryinfluentialineducationandsocialreform.

WilliamJames

Harvardphilosopherandpsychologistwhofoundthatthestimulus-responseconceptsoflearningcouldbeusedtohelpchildrendevelopdesirablehabits.

G.StanleyHall

Psychologistwhoestablishedchilddevelopmentandchildpsychologyasfieldsthatinfluencededucationattheendofthe19thcentury.

MargaretHaley

ActivistteacherwhowasanearlymemberoftheChicagoFederationofTeachersandlateranorganizerfortheAmericanFederationofTeachers.

CatherineGoggin

AlongwithMargaretHaley,shehelpedaffiliatetheChicagoFederationofTeacherswithorganizedlabor.

EdwardThorndike

ProfessoratTeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityandauthorofEducationalPsychology(1903).Hepromotedbehaviorismandtesting,whichwaswidelyusedbythemilitary.

MaryMcLeodBethune

AneducationalleaderwhoopenedaschoolforAfricanAmericangirlsin1904inDaytonaBeach,Florida,thatevolvedintoBethune-CookmanUniversity.AlsoservedasanadvisertoPresidentFranklinD.Roosevelt.

WilliamChandlerBagley

ProfessorandauthorofClassroomManagement(1907),whichwastheprimaryguideforpreparingeffectiveteachersformanyyears.

WilliamHeardKilpatrick

TeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityprofessorwhosupportedprogressiveeducationandintroducedin1918the“projectmethod”inwhichstudentsdirecttheirownlearning.

ThurgoodMarshall

U.S.SupremeCourtjusticewhohadarguedBrownv.BoardofEducationin1952–1953.

TheodoreSizer

EducationreformerwhowroteHorace’sCompromiseandfoundedtheCoalitionofEssentialSchoolsin1984tocreateagroupofhighschoolsbasedontheprogressivetradition.
Table6.2Who’sWhoinU.S.Education
ThefirstkindergartenwasopenedbyFriedrichFroebelin1837inGermanyforthree-andfour-year-oldchildren.Hebelievedthatthekindergartenteachershouldnotbe
authoritarian
,butinsteadwouldguidechildren’slearningthroughtheirownplay,songs,stories,andactivities(Gutek,2012).ThefirstpublickindergartenintheUnitedStatesopenedinSt.Louisin1873toservechildreninpoverty.Childrenweretolearnthevirtuesandmanners,moralhabits,cleanliness,politeness,obedience,promptness,andself-controlthatwouldpreparethemforelementaryschool.Bythe1880s,FroebeliankindergartenshadbecomepopularintheUnitedStates(Spring,2001).
Earlynurseryschoolsweredevelopedinthe1920sand1930sonwhatwasknownfromtheemergingfieldofchilddevelopmentandpsychology.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,about6%ofthekindergarten-agedpopulationwasenrolledinkindergarten.ItwasatthistimethattheworkofG.StanleyHallestablishedchilddevelopmentandchildpsychologyasfieldsofstudy.Hedefinedchildhoodastheyearsbetweenfourandeight,whichremainsthegeneralrangeforprimaryeducationtoday.Thefocusofakindergartenclassfocusedoncreatingorderanddisciplineinthechild’slife,butcontinuedtoencouragechildrentoplayandbecreative.Duringthisperiod,theageforkindergartenersinpublicschoolswasraisedtofive.Approximately90%offive-year-oldswereattendingkindergarteninthe1980satthetimethatthecurriculumwasbeginningtoshiftfrombeingchild-centeredtoacademics(Berg,2003).
UnderstandingandUsingEvidence
PublicSchoolStatisticsfor1879
Thefederalgovernmenthascollecteddataonthepopulationandinstitutionsformorethan100years.Thesedataprovidedemographicinformation,buttheyalsoassistpolicymakersandotherleadersinplanningforthefuture.Thefollowingstatisticsontheschoolpopulationsbyselectedstatewerereportedbythefederalgovernmentin1879.
aIn1878.bIn1876.cForcoloredpopulation,theschoolageisfrom6to16.dIn1877.eIn1873.
Source:U.S.CensusBureau.(2006).StatisticalabstractoftheUnitedStates:2006.Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
YourTask:Usingthesestatistics,answerthefollowingquestionstocompareattendanceandlengthofschoolyearsin1879totoday.
1.Howdotheagesofstudentsin1879comparewiththeagesofstudentsinschoolstoday?
2.Whatpercentageoftheschool-agedpopulationwasenrolledinschoolsin1879inthestatesabove?
3.Howmanymonthsdidstudentsinschoolsin1879attendschool?Howdoesthelengthoftheschoolyearcomparewiththetimespentinschoolstoday?
4.Whatpercentageoftheenrolledstudentsin1879attendedschooldaily?
WHATHASINFLUENCEDTHESCHOOLCURRICULUM?
CurriculumhasgonethroughsomemajorchangessincethefirstschoolswereestablishedinthePlymouthcolony.Itnolongerhasthereligiousandmoralovertonesofthepast.Educatorstodayareconcernedabouttheacademicperformanceoftheirstudentsandprovidingequalaccessforallstudentstolearn.Inhisreflectionsoncurriculumchangesoverhis43yearsofteaching,Mr.Kuhnreportsthat
youusedtousethetextbooktodevelopcurriculumguidesthatreflectedthecurrentstatestandards.Statestandardsexisted,buttheywerenotemphasizedasmuchasnow.Atthattime,thebasictesttakenbyalmostallIndianastudentswastheIowaBasicSkillsTest.NowitistheISTEP,whichallIndianastudentstakeatexactlythesametimeoftheyear.
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Inaddition,thecurriculumhasbeeninfluencedbythechangingneedsofbusinessesandevolvingnewtechnologies.Theintensityofdebatesamongeducators,politicians,andthepublicaboutwhatshouldbetaughtandhowitshouldbetaughtcontinuesasreflectedinnumerousnationalandstatereportsaboutthestateofeducation.Inthissectionwewillexaminehowthecurriculumchangedindifferenthistoricalperiods.
TheIndustrialRevolution
AsindustrializationtookholdinthecitiesoftheNortheasternUnitedStatesattheendofthe19thcentury,schoolingwasgreatlyinfluencedbytheneedtohelpnewimmigrantpopulationsbecomeliterateanddisciplinedworkers.Educationwasbecomingmorestandardized,compartmentalized,andcentralized.TheLancasteriansystemwaspromotedasaninexpensivesolutionfortheeducationofthemasses.
Themovetowardpreparingyoungpeopletocontributeeffectivelytotheindustrialrevolutionwasassistedbytheworkofpsychologistsattheturnofthecentury.HarvardphilosopherandpsychologistWilliamJamesfoundevidencethatthestimulus–response,orbehavioral,conceptsoflearningcouldbeusedtohelpchildrendevelopdesirablehabits.HisideaswereexpandedbyEdwardThorndike,whoseideasofteachingasascienceandbehaviorisminwhichrewardsandpunishmentwereusedtocontrolstudentbehaviorinfluencededucationforthenextfewdecades(Spring,2011).Healsopromotedtestingasawayofdeterminingwhichpeoplearesuitedforwhichsocialroles.Thorndike’sprincipleswereappliedtoschoolsinthepopulartextbookClassroomManagementbyWilliamChandlerBagley,whobelievedthatschoolsshouldhelpstudentsdeveloptheindustrialhabitsneededfortheassemblyline.
Progressivism:CurriculumforReform
InEmile,publishedin1762,EuropeanphilosopherJean-JacquesRousseauquestionedthefocusofeducationonmemorizationandthesubordinationtoauthority.Hethoughtthatlearningoccurredthroughexperienceanddiscovery.Healsobelievedthatmoraleducationshouldoccurinadolescence,notchildhood(Urban&Wagoner,2009).InfluencedbyRousseau,JohannPestalozziofSwitzerlandintroducedateachingapproachin1781thatusedteachingobjectsfromtherealworld,learningbydoing,andactivitiesratherthanseatwork(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
Aphilosopherwhointegratedpsychologyandpedagogyintohisthinkingabouteducation,JohnDeweyopenedhislaboratoryschoolinChicagoin1896totesthisprogressiveideasaboutachild-orientedcurriculum.Hisclassroomshadmovabletablesratherthanindividualdeskstoencouragegroupworkandlearning(Spring,2011).Unlikemostofhiscolleagues,Deweysaweducationascriticaltochangingsocietyandpreparingstudentstoparticipateinademocraticsociety(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
AcolleagueofDewey’satColumbiaUniversity,WilliamHeardKilpatrick,introducedin1918the“projectmethod”thatwaswidelyadoptedbyschooldistricts.Theprojectmethoddevelopedschoolactivitiesthatweremeaningfultostudentsandrelevanttosociety(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Intheeyesofprogressives,traditionalcurriculumwithitsemphasisonlectureandrecitationcouldnotpossiblyaddressstudents’individualneedsandlearningstyles.Theybelievedthatcurriculummustbemoderatedthroughactivitiesdirectedbythelearner.
Student-centeredinstructionhadbecomegoodpracticeinthe1940s,andschoolsweremorehumanebythe1950s.Asprogressivespressedforreformedschoolsthattheybelievedcouldsolvesocietalproblems,theybecamemorevulnerabletocriticismforneglectingacademicsubjects(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Nottobekeptdown,progressivethoughtreappearedinthe1960sandearly1970s,butitwasconfrontedbytheback-to-basicsmovementattheendofthe1970s.Nevertheless,itcontinuestoreappear.Forexample,TheodoreSizerfoundedtheCoalitionofEssentialSchoolsin1984tocreateagroupofhighschoolsalongprogressivelines.Theprogressiveideologywasadoptedbyhundredsofschoolsacrossthecountry(CoalitionofEssentialSchools,2012).Theprogressiveideologycontinuestobereflectedtodayincharterschoolsandotherschoolsofchoicethathavesomefreedomfromthecentral-office-drivenculture.Manyofthepracticesoftheprogressivemovementarenowtakenforgrantedbyeducatorsastheyusemovablefurniture,placestudentsinsmallworkgroups,andteachanintegratedcurriculum.
Theprogressivemovementledtomoveablefurniture,small-groupwork,andmorehands-onworkinclassrooms.
SputnikI
AnurgentdemandfornewcurriculumandteachingtechniquesemergedaftertheSovietUnionlaunchedthefirstsatellite,SputnikI,onOctober4,1957.U.S.leaderswereboundtodowhateveritwouldtaketoregaintheirnation’sscientificandtechnologicalsupremacyovertheSovietUnionduringthisColdWarperiod.CongressionalresistancetofinanciallysupportingeducationdisappearedwithpassageoftheNationalDefenseEducationAct(NDEA)in1958toimprovethecurriculumandteachingofscience,mathematics,andforeignlanguages.Thelawalsoincludedsupportforguidance,counseling,testing,andtheidentificationofthebrighteststudents.Thedevelopmentofmorescientists,mathematicians,andengineerswasseenascriticaltoU.S.prominenceintheworld,andthefederalgovernmentbegantotakeitsfirststeptowardanationalcurriculum(Kliebard,2004).
TheNationalScienceFoundation(NSF)waschargedwithdevelopingcurriculaforscienceandmathematics.Professorsinmajorresearchuniversities,ratherthanprofessionaleducators,designedthenewcurriculathatwouldtransformtheteachingofscienceandmathinthenation’sschools.“Newmathematics”wasoneoftheoutcomesofthisworkthatchangedhowmathwastaughtinschools.Mathteachersparticipatedinprofessionaldevelopmentworkshopstolearnthenewmathandhowtoteachbasicconceptssuchassettheoryandfunctions.Althoughthepublicgenerallysupportedthenewfocusonreformingschools,theyquestionedtheneedforthenewmathastheytriedtohelptheirchildrenwiththeirhomework(Spring,2011).
Newformatsfortextbooksandideasforthepresentationofrelevantsubjectmatteremergedfromtheseprojects.Teachersweresuddenlypresentedwithanavalancheofchoicesregardingwhatandhowtoteach.TherewereAttributeGamesandTangrams.ElementaryschoolsciencepackagesofferedPetridishesfulloffungiandamoebasonorderfromthelocalsciencelaboratory(Spring,2001).Readingtextswereorganizedaroundliterarythemesandgeneralizationsrelatingtothestudents’ownlives.Manyteachersbenefitedfromtheprogramsthattaughtnewmathandintroducedthemtonewcurriculummaterials.
ThecurriculumreformsafterSputnikIcontinuetoresurfaceinthenation’sdiscourseaboutimprovingeducation.Today’scriticsonceagainareconcernedthattheUnitedStatesisfallingbehindothercountriesinscientificandtechnologicaladvances.Asaresult,achievementonstandardizedtestsisofutmostimportancetothepublicandpolicymakers.Thefederalgovernmenthascalledfortherecruitmentofmorebrightstudentsinscience,technology,engineering,andmathematics(STEM).Finally,commoncorestandardsformathematicsandreadinghavebeenadoptedbymoststatestoimprovetheacademicachievementofstudentsandtheprominenceoftheUnitedStatesinthesefields.
HOWHASTHEEDUCATIONALSYSTEMCONTRIBUTEDTOEQUALITY?
AnexaminationofhowdifferentgroupshavebeentreatedinoureducationalsystemoverthepastfourcenturiesprovidesinsightsintotheimportanceofeducationinthestruggleforequalityintheUnitedStates.Allgroupshavefoughtforqualityeducationfortheirchildren.Theprogresstowardriddingthenationofinequalityandprovidingequaleducationforallstudentshasinvolvedcommittedpeopleofcoloraswellaswhites.Thejoyinthissadhistoryofdiscriminationandinequalityisthatmuchhaschanged,especiallyinthepast50years.Inaddition,teachersarekeyinprovidingaqualityandequitableeducationforallstudents.Ourunderstandingofhowwegottowherewearetodayshouldencourageustomakeacommitmenttoensurethatallofourfuturestudentshaveeverypossibleopportunitytolearn.AchronologyofsignificanteventsinprovidingequalityforstudentsisshowninTable6.3.
FirstAmericans
EuropeancoloniststhoughtthatAmericanIndianleadersshouldbeeducatedintheschoolsofthecolonistsforthepurposesoflearningChristianityandtheAnglo-Saxonculture,withthegoalofreplacingtheirnativeculturesandlanguages.WhenVirginia’sWilliamandMaryCollegewasestablishedin1693,apartofitsmissionwastheeducationofNativeAmericanstudents(Glenn,2011).NewHampshire’sDartmouthCollegehadthesamegoalwhenitwasestablishedin1780,butmostofitsstudentswerewhite(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadmoreaboutthehistoryandcurrentstateofNativeAmericaneducation.
ResistancetoConversion
TheconversionofAmericanIndianstotheAnglo-Saxonculturemetwithgreatresistancefromtribesandtheirmembers.TheconversionthatdidoccurwasmostoftenamongthefamiliesformedbymarriagesofwhitesandAmericanIndians.Becausethegovernment’splansfor
deculturalizing
NativeAmericanswereineffective,CongresspassedtheCivilizationActof1819withtheexplicitpurposeofculturallytransformingthenativepopulation,especiallythesoutherntribes.Tomovetheeffortforward,theSuperintendentofIndianTrade,ThomasL.McKenney,encouragedtheestablishmentoftribalschoolswithmissionaryteachers.TheProtestantchurchesthatjoinedthiseffortbelievedthatthespreadofAnglo-Saxonculturearoundtheworldwaspartofthenation’s
manifestdestiny
.MostNativeAmericanfamilieswhoparticipatedinthemissionaryschoolshadadifferentgoalthanthefederalgovernment.Theywereinterestedinliteracy,nottheextinctionoftheirculturesortheadoptionofChristianity(Spring,2011).
Oneofthefederalgovernment’sgoalsforthetribesinthesouthwastoconvincetribalmemberstodividetriballandsintoprivatepropertythatcouldthenbesoldtoAnglosettlers—agoalthatwasreinforcedbymissionaryschools.WhenfewNativeAmericanswerewillingtoselltriballands,CongresspassedtheIndianRemovalActof1830,authorizingthepresidentoftheUnitedStatestosetasidelandwestoftheMississippiRiverforNativeAmericanswhothenwerelivinginthesouthernstateseastoftheMississippiRiver.Withinafewyears,theCherokees,Creeks,Choctaw,Chickasaws,andSeminoleswereforciblymovedtothenew“IndianTerritory.”IntheTrailofTearsoneinfourCherokeesdiedonthetrekwestfromtheirancestralhomelandinGeorgia.Inthenewterritory,whichisnowOklahoma,tribesestablishedtheirownschools.By1848theChoctawshadnineboardingschoolswithmanyChoctawteachers.TheChoctawsalsoestablishedsegregatedschoolsforthechildrenoffreedslavesaftertheCivilWarandasystemofschoolsthatincludedacademiesforboysandgirls(Spring,2011).
Table6.3SignificantEventsintheMovementTowardEducationalEquality

1693

WilliamandMaryCollegeestablishedwithmissiontoeducateNativeAmericans.

1855

Massachusettsoutlawedthesegregationofschools.

1896

SupremeCourtfinds“separatebutequal”lawsconstitutionalinPlessyv.Ferguson.

1905

SanFranciscoschoolsaredesegregated,allowingChineseyouthtoattendregularhighschools.

1915

StudentstrikeinPuertoRicosupportsinstructioninSpanish.

1918

TexasmakesitacriminaloffensetouseanylanguageotherthanEnglishforinstruction.

1928

MeriamReportattacksgovernment’spoliciesofremovingAmericanIndianstudentsfromtheirhomes.

1934

PadinReformrestrictsEnglishinstructiontohighschools.

1940

FederalcourtrequiresequalsalariesforAfricanAmericanandwhiteteachersinAlstonv.SchoolBoardofCityofNorfolk.

1947

FederalappealscourtstrikesdownsegregatedschoolingforMexicanAmericansinMéndezv.WestminsterSchoolDist.

1951

PuertoRicogainsgreatercontroloftheirschoolsystemsafterbeinggrantedcommonwealthstatus.

1954

SupremeCourtmakesschoolsegregationunconstitutionalinBrownv.BoardofEducation,overturningPlessy.

1956

Virginialegislaturecallsfor“massiveresistance”toschooldesegregation.

1958

InCooperv.AarontheSupremeCourtrulesthatfearofsocialunrestorviolencedoesnotexcusestategovernmentsfromcomplyingwithBrown.

1959

OfficialsclosepublicschoolsinPrinceEdwardCounty,Virginia,ratherthanintegratethem.

1964

CongresspassestheCivilRightsAct,whichprohibitsdiscriminationinschoolprogramsandactivitiesthatreceivefederalassistance.

SupremeCourtordersPrinceEdwardCountry,Virginia,toreopenitsschoolsonadesegregatedbasis.

1965

InGreenv.CountySchoolBoardofNewKentCountytheSupremeCourtordersstatestodismantlesegregatedfacilities,staff,faculty,extracurricularactivities,andtransportation.

CongresspassestheHandicappedChildren’sEarlyEducationAssistanceAct.

1968

TitleVIIofESEAsupportsbilingualprogramsinIndianlanguagesandEnglish.

1971

InSwannv.Charlotte-MecklenbergBoardofEducationthecourtapprovesbusing,magnetschools,compensatoryeducation,andothertoolsasappropriateremediestoovercometheroleofresidentialsegregationinperpetuatingraciallysegregatedschools.

1972

CongresspassesTitleIXEducationAmendmentoutlawingdiscriminationbasedonsex.

1973

Courtrulesthateducationisnota“fundamentalright”andthattheConstitutiondoesnotrequireequaleducationexpenditureswithinastateinSanAntonioIndependentSchoolDistrictv.Rodriguez.

1974

SupremeCourtblocksmetropolitan-widedesegregationplanstodesegregateurbanschoolswithhighminoritypopulationsinMillikenv.Bradley.

InLauv.NicholstheSupremeCourtstipulatesthatspeciallanguageprogramsarenecessarytoprovideequaleducationalopportunitytostudentswhodonotunderstandEnglish.

1975

CongresspassesEducationforAllHandicappedChildren,PublicLaw94-142.

CongresspassesIndianSelf-DeterminationandEducationAssistanceAct.

1978

SupremeCourtrulesthatracecanbeafactorinuniversityadmissions,butitcannotbethedecidingfactorinRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke.

1982

SupremeCourtrejectstaxexemptionsforprivatereligiousschoolsthatdiscriminateinBobJonesUniversityv.U.S.andGoldboroChristianSchoolsv.U.S.

1986

FederalcourtfindsthataschooldistrictcanbereleasedfromitsdesegregationplanandreturnedtolocalcontrolafteritmeetstheGreenfactorsinRiddickv.SchoolBoardoftheCityofNorfolk,Virginia.

1988

TriballyControlledSchoolsActgivesgrantsfortribalschools.

1990

NativeAmericanLanguagesActpromotespreservationofNativeAmericanlanguages.

1996

Federalappealscourtprohibitstheuseofraceincollegeanduniversityadmissions,endingaffirmativeactioninLouisiana,Texas,andMississippiinHopwoodv.Texas.

2003

SupremeCourtupholdsdiversityasarationaleforaffirmativeactionprogramsinhighereducationadmissionsbutdeclarespointsystemsinappropriateinGratzv.BollingerandGrutterv.Bollinger.
Federaldistrictcourtcaseaffirmsthevalueofracialdiversityandrace-consciousstudentassignmentplansinK–12educationinLynnv.Comfort.

2007

SupremeCourtstrikesdowntheuseofraceindeterminingschoolsforstudentsinParentsInvolvedinCommunitySchoolsInc.v.SeattleSchoolDistrictandMeredithv.JeffersonCounty(Ky.)BoardofEducation.
BoardingSchools
StilltryingtoconvertAmericanIndians,the1867IndianPeaceCommissionsaidthatAmericanIndianscouldbecomecitizensiftheygaveuptheirnativereligionsandwaysoflife.Again,educationwastoplayanimportantroleinthisprocess.ThechargetoschoolswastoreplacenativelanguageswithEnglish,destroytribalcustoms,anddevelopallegiancetothefederalgovernment.Thenewstrategycalledforboardingschools,requiringtheremovalofchildrenfromtheirfamiliesatanearlyagetoisolatethemfromthelanguageandcustomsoftheirparentsandtribes.Between1879and1905anumberofboardingschoolswerelocatedfarfromthereservation.ThousandsofyoungNativeAmericansfromtheDakotaswereboardedattheCarlisleIndianSchoolinPennsylvania(Glenn,2011).Parentsandtribescontinuallycomplainedabouttheboardingschools,howtheirchildrenwerebeingtreated,andhowtheirnativecultureswerebeingdenigrated.
FederalpoliciesremovedmanyAmericanIndianchildrenfromtheirhomestoattendboardingschoolsintothe20thcentury.
ChildrencontinuedtoberemovedfromtheirhomesandplacedinboardingschoolsatthetimecitizenshipwasgrantedtoNativeAmericansin1924.Notuntilthendidconcernedcitizensseriouslyinvestigatethehorribleconditionsintheseschools.RedCrossinvestigatorsfoundthatchildrenattheRiceBoardingSchoolinArizonawerefed“bread,blackcoffee,andsyrupforbreakfast;breadandboiledpotatoesfordinner;morebreadandboiledpotatoesforsupper”(Szasz,1974).Thepoordietandovercrowdedconditionscontributedtothespreadofdiseasessuchastuberculosisandtrachoma(Spring,2011).Investigatorsfoundthatboardingschoolsweresupportedbytheworkofstudentswhoattendedclasseshalfthedayandworkedtheotherhalf.The1928MeriamReportbyJohnsHopkinsUniversityattackedthegovernment’spoliciesofremovingNativeAmericanchildrenfromtheirhomes.Followingthereleaseofthisreport,thegovernmentbegantosupportcommunitydayschoolsandnativecultures(Spring,2011).
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AmericanIndianControl
WhenJohnF.Kennedywaselectedtothepresidencyin1960,theBureauofIndianAffairsbegantoinvolveAmericanIndiansinpolicydecisions.TheOfficeofEconomicOpportunityandtheBureauofIndianAffairssupportedthecreationoftheRoughRockDemonstrationSchoolontheNavajoreservation,inparttopreservetheNavajolanguageandculture.Inaddition,Navajoparentswereagainabletocontroltheeducationoftheirchildren.
AstheCivilRightsMovementgrewinintensityinthe1960s,AmericaIndiantribesbegantoparticipateinaPan-Indianmovementthatrecognizedthattribessharedacommonsetofvaluesandinterests.TheAmericanIndianMovement(AIM)andtheIndiansofAllTribesleddemonstrationsdemandingself-determination.Atthesametime,aSenatereport,IndianEducation:ANationalTragedy—ANationalChallenge,condemnedpreviousfederaleducationalpoliciesforNativeAmericans.Thereportsaid“acarefulreviewofthehistoricalliteraturerevealsthatthedominantpolicyoftheFederalGovernmenttowardtheAmericanIndianhasbeenoneofforcedassimilation.…[becauseof]adesiretodivesttheIndianofhisland”(SenateCommitteeonLaborandPublicWelfare,1969,p.9).
Federalpolicybegantochange.TitleVIIoftheElementaryandSecondaryEducationActof1968providedsupportforbilingualprogramsinIndianlanguagesandEnglish.In1975,CongresspassedtheIndianSelf-DeterminationandEducationAssistanceAct,whichgavetribestherighttooperatetheirownschools.The1988TriballyControlledSchoolsActgavegrantstotribestooperatetheirownschools.Inacompleteswitchofearlierpolicyforassimilationandthedestructionofnativeculturesandlanguages,the1990NativeAmericanLanguagesActpromotedthepreservationoftraditionalNativeAmericanlanguages.
AfricanAmericans
TheeducationofAfricanAmericansisalsobuiltonahistoryofdiscrimination,buttheirrelationshipwiththeEuropeancolonizerswasdifferentthanthatoftheAmericanIndians.TheywerenotthenativeinhabitantsoftheUnitedStates.Forthemostpart,theyhadnotchosentoimmigratetotheUnitedStates,butenteredinvoluntarilybyforce.Theydidnotownlandthatthesettlerswanted,buttheywereacriticalsourceoflabornecessaryforthesoutherneconomy.MostAfricanAmericanswereownedandsold,andhadlittlecontrolovertheirownlives.Untiltheearlypartofthe20thcentury,mostAfricanAmericanslivedintheSouthwherebeforetheCivilWaritwasillegaltoattendschool.AlthoughliteracywasapunishablecrimeforAfricanslavesintheSouth,atleast5%ofthemwereliteratebytheoutbreakoftheCivilWar(Anderson,1988).
ParticipationinSchoolsAftertheRevolutionaryWar
AfricanAmericanchildrenintheNorthmostoftenattendedsegregatedandinferiorschools.Charityschoolsforfreedslavesopenedattheendofthe18thcenturyinPhiladelphia,NewYorkCity,andBaltimore(Kaestle,1983).AfricanAmericanchildrencouldattendBostonschoolsatthattime,butmostdidnotbecauseoftheirpooreconomicsituationsandthehostilereceptionoftheminschools.In1798agroupofblackparentspetitionedtheSchoolCommitteeforaseparateschooltoprotecttheirchildrenfromthehostileenvironment.TheSchoolCommitteedidnotaccepttheparents’proposalatfirst,butitchangeditspositionin1806andopenedasegregatedschoolwithpublicfundsandmoneyfromwhitephilanthropists(Spring,2011).
Bythe1820sblackparentsdecidedthatthesegregatedschoolwasprovidinganinferioreducationfortheirchildrenandbegantodemandbetterconditionsandteachers.TheypetitionedtheBostonSchoolCommitteein1846todesegregateschools.EventhoughtheSchoolCommitteefoundthesegregatedschoolsunacceptable,ittooknoactiontochangethoseconditionsortorequireitspublicschoolstobeopentoAfricanAmericanchildren.Inresponse,BenjaminRobertssuedthecityforexcludinghisdaughterfromall-whiteschoolsneartheirhome.HelosthiscasebeforetheMassachusettsSupremeCourtwhenitruledthatthecityhadprovided“aseparate,butequal”schoolforhisdaughter.Notlongafterwards,in1855,however,thestatelegislaturepassedalawthatpreventedthesegregationofschoolsbasedonraceorreligion,becomingthefirststatetooutlawschoolsegregation.TheBostonschoolswereintegratedthatyear(Spring,2011).
EducationintheSouth
BeforetheendoftheCivilWar,formerslavesintheSouthwerefightingforuniversaleducation.Theycravedliteracybutwereunwillingtowaitforthegovernmenttoprovideschools.TheyestablishedandstaffedtheirownschoolswithAfricanAmericanteachersthroughouttheSouth.TheAfricanAmericanteachers,schoolofficials,andotherleadersadoptedthecommonschoolidealwiththeNewEnglandclassicalliberalcurriculum.Thecurriculuminelementaryschoolsincludedreading,spelling,writing,grammar,diction,history,geography,arithmetic,andmusic.Intheblackcolleges,studentsstudiedLatin,Greek,mathematics,science,andphilosophy(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadaboutsegregatedschoolsintheSouth.
Topursuethegoalofuniversaleducation,theformerslavessoughtthehelpofRepublicanpoliticians,northernmissionarysocieties,theUnionarmy,andtheFreedmen’sBureau,whichhadbeencreatedbyCongressin1865.However,itwasveryimportanttothemthattheycontroltheirowneducation,whichwassometimesdifficultasnorthernmissionariesmovedintotheSouthtoestablishschools.WhenJohnW.AlvordwasappointedthenationalsuperintendentofschoolsfortheFreedmen’sBureauin1865,hediscoveredasystemofatleast500“nativeschools”ashetraveledacrosstheSouth(Anderson,1988).Theseschoolshadbeenestablishedandwerebeingmanagedbyex-slaveswhowerecommittedtoensuringthatAfricanAmericanchildrenandadultswouldlearntoreadandwriteassoonaspossible.Insomecommunities,blackchurchesdevelopedSabbathschoolsthatofferedliteracyinstructionintheeveningsandontheweekends.Intheseschools,thespellerwasasprevalentasthebible(Anderson,1988).
Mostplantersresisteduniversaleducationforformerslavesandimpoverishedwhites.Theiroppositionwas,inpart,duetoeconomics.Theplantersneededaworkforcethatwouldworkforlowwages;itdependedheavilyonchildlabor,whichledtoschoolsbeingopenedaslateasDecember.Theysupportedlowtaxes,opposedcompulsoryschoolattendance,anddiscourageduniversalpubliceducation.Eventually,theybegantoprovideschoolsforlow-incomewhitestudents,buttheyfailedtoprovideschoolsforblackchildreninmostcommunities.ThegainsmadebyAfricanAmericansinthe1860swerequicklystymiedandtheproportionattendingschoolbegantodrop(Anderson,1988).
EducationattheBeginningofthe20thCentury
Althoughex-slaveshadfoundedtheirschoolswithaclassicalcurriculum,someleadersquestionedtheneedforsuchadvancedstudy.TheyarguedthatblackchildrenwouldbebetterservedwithtrainingforthetradesandlearningtheirappropriateroleintheSouthernculture.Withthisgoalinmind,NorthernerSamuelChapmanArmstrongfoundedHamptonInstituteinVirginiatoprepareteachers.MostofHampton’searlystudentshadcompletedonlytheeighthgrade.Theywererequiredtoworklonghoursinasawmill,ontheschool’sfarm,orintheschool’skitchenordiningroomtodeveloptheethicofhardworkthatSouthernlandownersexpectedoftheirlaborers.OneofArmstrong’stopstudents,BookerT.Washington,foundedTuskegeeNormalandIndustrialInstitutein1881toextendArmstrong’spedagogy.
MostAfricanAmericanshadadifferentvisionfortheireducation.TheysawWashingtongivingintothewhitedemandsofindustrialistswhowantedasteady,complacentworkforceatlowwages.Theprimaryspokespersonforadifferentvision,W.E.B.DuBois,wantednocompromiseswiththepowerfulwhiteelites.Instead,hewantedtochallengetheoppressivesoutherneconomy.HearguedthatblackeducationshouldbeaboutpreparingtheAfricanAmericanleadersofthefuture.HesupportedtheclassicaleducationthatwasavailableinblackcollegeslikeAtlantaandWilburforce.WhileWashingtonsupportedsegregatedschooling,DuBoisbecameoneofthefoundersoftheNationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople(NAACP)—theorganizationthatspearheadedtheefforttodesegregateschoolslaterinthecentury.By1915,theDuBoissupportershadprevailed;theHampton-Tuskegeemodelbegantolosefavoramongitsprevioussupporters(Spring,2011).
Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,mostAfricanAmericanchildrendidnotattendelementaryschoolbecausenoschoolsexistedforthem,andtheywerenotallowedtoattendtheschoolsthatwhitechildrenattended.Iftheywantedaschool,AfricanAmericanfamiliesintheSouthoftenhadtobuildtheirownschoolseventhoughtheypaidlocalandstatetaxestosupportwhitesegregatedschools(Spring,2011).WhenAfricanAmericanchildrencouldattendschool,theirschoolswereusuallyinferiortothoseattendedbywhitestudents.Theschoolslackedequipmentandsupplies.Theywereallocatedtextbooksaftertheyhadwornouttheirusefulnessinthewhiteschools.FamiliesandleadersintheAfricanAmericancommunityturnedtothecourtsforsupportinaccessingresourcesfortheeducationoftheirchildren.
SchoolDesegregation
Nearly100courtcasesfrom20statesandtheDistrictofColumbiawerefiledforequaleducationinthe19thcentury.AfricanAmericansintheNorthwonamajorityoftheircases,prohibitingsegregationintheirpublicschools(Hendrie,2000).Nevertheless,segregationcontinuedintheSouth.AfterHomerPlessywasarrestedforrefusingtorideinthe“colored”sectionofatraininLouisiana,heprotestedthathis
FourteenthAmendment
rightshadbeenabridged.TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtdisagreed,rulinginits1896Plessyv.Fergusondecisionthat“separatebutequal”facilitieswerelegal.Thisdecisionsupportedthesegregationofschoolsforthenextsixdecades.
TheNAACPdecidedtopursuealegalpathtowarddesegregatingpublicschools.FivecasesfromSouthCarolina,Virginia,Delaware,Kansas,andtheDistrictofColumbiawerepercolatinginthelowercourtsinthemid-1940s.ThefirstfourcaseswerearguedbeforetheU.S.SupremeCourtin1952and1953byThurgoodMarshall,wholaterbecamethefirstAfricanAmericanSupremeCourtjustice.In1954theCourtdeclaredthat“[i]nthefieldofpubliceducationthedoctrineof‘separatebutequal’hasnoplace.Separateeducationalfacilitiesareinherentlyunequal”(Brownv.BoardofEducationofTopeka,1954).Thefifthcase,Bollingv.Sharpe(1954),declaredthatthefederalgovernmentcouldnotsegregateschoolsintheDistrictofColumbia.
Mostschooldistrictsdidnotrespondtothismandateuntilafterthepassageofthe1964CivilRightsAct.Manywhitefamiliesfiercelyresistedthedesegregationoftheirschools.IncitieslikeLittleRock,Arkansas,theNationalGuardprotectedAfricanAmericanstudentswhowereenteringwhiteschoolsforthefirsttime.Virginia’sPrinceEdwardCountySchoolBoardresisteddesegregation,closingitspublicschoolsforfiveyears.WhitefamiliesestablishedprivateChristianschoolsormovedtothesuburbswherethepopulationwasprimarilywhitetoavoidintegration.The1971Swannv.Charlotte-Mecklenburgdecisionmoveddesegregationeffortstoanotherlevelwhenituphelddistrict-widebusingtoovercomesegregation.
Asschoolsweredesegregated,manyAfricanAmericanteachersandprincipalswhohadworkedinsegregatedschoolswerenotinvitedtoteachintheintegratedschools,leavingmanyofthemwithoutjobs.However,theraceofthestudentsinschoolsdidchangeinthethreedecadesfollowingtheBrowndecision.Inthemid-1960sonly2%ofblackstudentsattendedintegratedschools;bythelate1980s,45%ofthemwereinintegratedschools(Frankenberg,Lee,&Orfield,2003).Duringthisperiod,ruralandsmall-townschoolsacrosstheSouthwereintegrated.Theachievementgapbetweenblackandwhitestudentsclosedsubstantially,studentsofcolorhadgreateraccesstoqualityschoolsandcollegeadmission,andstudentswerebetterpreparedtoworkandinteractinamulticulturalsociety(Boger&Orfield,2005).EvenmoredramaticthanthedesegregationofschoolsduringthisperiodwasthedismantlingofPlessyv.Fergusonanditsresulting
JimCrowlaws
,whichdidnotallowAfricanAmericanstousethesamefacilitiesaswhites.
Bythemid-1980sfederalcourtsanctionsforintegrationbegantobelifted.AftertheSupremeCourtallowedfederalcourtstoenddesegregationplanswithBoardofEducationofOklahomaCityv.Dowellin1991,manyfederalcourtsprohibitedschooldistrictsfromvoluntarilyusingrace-consciousassignmentpoliciestomaintaindiversityintheirschools(Boger&Orfield,2005).Becauseof
defactosegregation
inmanycommunities,neighborhoodschoolswereoftencomprisedofstudentsofthesamerace.Segregationinschoolsbegantoreturntopre-1970levels.Atthebeginningofthe21stcenturyAfricanAmericanandLatinostudentswereagainmuchmorelikelythanotherstudentstoattendschoolsthatarecharacterizedbypovertyandtheirpeersarepredominantlyotherstudentsofcolor.Halfofthenation’sschoolsarehighlysegregatedwhiteschools,butthedegreeofpovertyinthoseschoolsisconsiderablyless.Althoughtheabilitytoattendlessimpoverishedschoolsprovidesallstudentsabetterchanceatbeingsuccessfulinschoolandlife,theone-timegoalofintegratingschoolshasbeenabandoned(Boger&Orfield,2005).
Latinos
WhetherMexicanAmericanstudentscouldattendthesameschoolsaswhitesdependedonwhethertheywereclassifiedaswhite.TherewasnocommonagreementontheraceofMexicanAmericans.In1897,TexascourtsruledthatMexicanAmericanswerenotwhite.However,CaliforniaclassifiedthemasCaucasianuntil1930whentheAttorneyGeneralcategorizedthemasAmericanIndians(Spring,2001).Asaresultofnotbeingwhite,mostMexicanAmericanchildrenattendedsegregatedschoolsthroughthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury.ThesameseparatebutequallawsappliedtothemastoAfricanAmericans.
AfricanAmericanstudentsoftenhadtobeprotectedbytheNationalGuardastheydesegregatedschoolsinthe1960s.
TheBattlefortheUseofSpanish
Inadditiontobeinginsegregatedschools,MexicanAmericanstudentsoftenwerenotallowedtospeakSpanishinschool.ToensurethatteacherswoulddeliverinstructioninEnglish,statespassedlawstothateffect.In1918TexasmadeitacriminaloffensetouseanylanguageotherthanEnglishforinstruction.Often,studentswereforbiddentouseSpanishatanytimewhiletheywereinschool.Inthelasthalfofthe19thcentury,MexicanAmericanssenttheirchildrentoCatholicornonsectarianprivateschools,bothofwhichweremorelikelytoprovidebilingualinstruction,toescapetheanti-Mexicanattitudesofpublicschools(Spring,2011).
ManyMexicanAmericanchildrenwerenotattendingschoolatthebeginningofthe20thcentury,inpart,becausefarmerswerenotwillingtoreleasethemfromworkinthefieldtoattendschool.Ontheotherhand,manyschoolofficialswantedtheminschoolstoAmericanizethemandridthemoftheirculturesandlanguage(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadmoreaboutLatinoeducation.
ConcernedaboutdiscriminationagainstMexicanAmericanstudentsinpublicschools,theLeagueofUnitedLatinAmericanCitizens(LULAC)calledforbilingualinstructionandthemaintenanceofMexicanculturaltraditionsinschoolsasearlyas1929.However,theEnglish-onlylawswerenotrepealeduntil1968whenthefederalgovernmentsupportedbilingualeducationasanoptionforteachingEnglish-languagelearners(Spring,2011).Asthefederalpolicyhasmovedawayfromsupportofbilingualeducationinrecentyears,somestateshavenowreturnedtolawsprohibitingbilingualeducationandtheuseofanylanguageotherthanEnglishforclassroominstruction.
MexicanAmericanfamilieswerefightingfortherighttoattendwhiteschoolsatthesametimethatAfricanAmericanshadturnedtothecourtsforassistance.Inthe1930stheTexascourtsupheldtherightofschoolboardstoprovidesegregatededucationforMexicanAmericans.Thefirstbreakthroughforintegrationoccurredwiththe1947Mendezv.WestminsterSchoolDistrictdecisionthatrequiredaCaliforniaschooldistricttoallowaMexicanAmericangirltoattendthewhiteschool.TheMexicanAmericanLegalDefenseandEducationFund(MALDEF)wasestablishedin1967tocontinuesuingforthecivilrightsandequalityofMexicanAmericanstudents.Courtcasessincethenhavefocusedondiscriminatorypracticesinthefundingofschools,thesoleuseofEnglishinclassrooms,andthedisproportionateplacementofSpanish-speakingchildreninspecialeducationclassesasaresultofbiasedtestsortestsbeinggiveninEnglish.
EquityforPuertoRicans
EducationforstudentsinPuertoRicohasbeeninterrelatedwithahistoryofoccupationbytheUnitedStates.PuertoRicohadjustreceiveditsautonomyfromSpainwhenitcameunderthecontroloftheUnitedStatesaspartofthespoils(alongwiththePhilippinesandGuam)fromtheSpanish-AmericanWarattheendofthe19thcentury.Withthe1900ForakerAct,CongressestablishedacolonialgovernmenttoreplacemilitaryruleinPuertoRicoandappointedthefirstU.S.CommissionerofEducationforPuertoRico.JustaswithAmericanIndians,thefederalpolicywastoAmericanizePuertoRicansthrougheducation.BecausethelanguageofinstructionwastobeEnglishandmanyPuertoRicanteachersspokeonlySpanish,teachersfromtheUnitedStateswerehired.NotonlywerestudentsexpectedtolearnEnglish;theywerealsosupposedtolearnAmericanways.EducationalpoliciesrequiredcelebrationoftheU.S.patrioticholidays,suchastheFourthofJuly.StudentswererequiredtopledgeallegiancetotheU.S.flagandstudyU.S.heroes.LocaltextbookswerereplacedwithU.S.textbooks.Whennewteachersappliedforateachingcertificate,theirtestincludedanEnglishexamination(Spring,2011).
PuertoRicanswerenotinterestedinbecomingAmericansandlosingtheirownnativelanguageandculture.In1912,thePuertoRicanTeachersAssociationbegantodefendSpanishasthelanguageofinstruction.WhenastudentatSanJuan’sCentralHighSchoolwasexpelledin1915forcollectingsignaturesinsupportofinstructioninSpanish,astudentstrikewassparked(Spring,2011).Callsfornationalismandindependencewerecommon.CongressgrantedPuertoRicanscitizenshipin1917,whichobligatedthemtoserveinthemilitary,butdidnotgranttherighttovoteinelections.
Tensionsincreasedinthe1920swhenaPuertoRicanwhosupportedtheUnitedStates’assimilationpoliciesbecametheCommissionerofEducation.Hepressedhispredecessor’spoliciesevenfurther.HerequiredseniorstopassanEnglishexaminationbeforetheycouldgraduate.HebannedschoolnewspapersinSpanish.TeacherswererequiredtouseEnglishinteachermeetingsandinformaldiscussionswithstudents.Protestsbyteachers,professors,andcollegestudentsexpanded.Collegestudentswereexpelledforparticipatinginanti-Americanmarchesandprofessorswerewarnedtostopsupportingstudentprotests(Spring,2011).
TheeffortstochangeU.S.educationalpoliciesinPuertoRicoresultedinthePadinReformof1934,whichrestrictedEnglishinstructiontohighschools.Spanishcouldbeusedatotherlevels.However,textbookscontinuedtobeprintedinEnglish.AftertheTeachersAssociationhadsuccessfullylobbiedthePuertoRicanlegislaturetopassabillrequiringtheuseofSpanish,PresidentHarryTrumanvetoedit.AfterPuertoRicowasgrantedcommonwealthstatusin1951,PuertoRicansgainedgreatercontroloftheirschoolsystems,restoringSpanishasthelanguageofinstruction(Spring,2011).
AsianAmericans
ThefirstChinesemigrantsarrivedinCaliforniainthe1850stojointhegoldrushasfreelaborers.Theyfacedagreatdealofhostilityanddiscriminationfromthedominantwhitepopulation.ThecourtsconsideredChineseimmigrantsashavingthesamestatusasAmericanIndians,andpoliciesrelatedtocitizenshipcontinuedtodiscriminateagainstAsians.Itwasnotuntil1943thattheChineseExclusionLawwasrescinded,allowingChineseimmigrantstherighttobecomenaturalizedcitizens(Spring,2011).
Whenthecourtruledin1885thatnative-bornMamieTapehadequalaccesstopublicschooling,theCalifornialegislaturerespondedbyallowingschooldistrictstoestablishsegregatedschoolsforAsianAmericans.By1905,thesegregatedsysteminSanFranciscowasbrokenasChineseyouthswereadmittedtotheregularcityhighschool(Spring,2011).SoutherncourtsretainedAsianAmericanchildreninsegregatedschoolsattendedprimarilybyAfricanAmericans.ThefamilyofaChineseAmericangirlarguedthatshewasnotblackandthereforeshouldbeabletoattendthewhiteschool.However,thecourtruledin1924thatshewasnotwhiteandgaveschoolstheauthoritytodeterminetheraceoftheirstudents(Spring,2011).
Afterthepassageofthe1965ImmigrationAct,thenumberofAsianimmigrantsbegantogrow.SchoolsincitieslikeSanFranciscowerefacedwithagrowingnumberofstudentswhospokelanguagesotherthanEnglish.BecausethelanguageofinstructionwasEnglish,parentsworriedthattheirchildrenwerenotabletoachieveatthehighacademiclevelstheyexpected.TheysuedtheSanFranciscoschoolsystemand,in1974,wontherighttohavetheirfirstlanguageusedininstructioninLauv.Nichols.Thecourtsaid“understateimposedstandards,therewasnoequalityoftreatmentmerelybyprovidingstudentswiththesamefacilities,textbooks,teachers,andcurriculum;forstudentswhodonotunderstandEnglishareeffectivelyforeclosedfromanymeaningfuleducation”(Lauv.Nichols,1974).
HOWHASTEACHINGEVOLVED?
Askedabouttheteachingprofessionitself,Mr.Kuhn,whohasservedonnegotiatingteamsfortheteachers’union,indicatedthat“teachersaregenerallyhighlyrespectedinmycommunity.Youhavetoearntheirrespect.Onceyouhavegainedthatrespect,studentsandtheparentswillrespectyou.”
Theroleofwomeninteachingdefinestheprofession.Becauseoftheirtraditionalrolesasnurturingmothers,womenhavebeenseenasthenaturalteachersofchildren.Historically,theyhaveprovidedastable,inexpensive,moralteachingforceforthecountry.Womenhavenotalwaysbeenthemajorityofteachers.Duringthecolonialperiod,teachersweremenexceptinthedameschools.AftertheRevolutionaryWar,femalesbegantoberecruitedasteachers.Teacherstodayareevenmorelikelytobewomenthaninthe19thcentury,whichmaycontributetothelowerstatusattributedtoteaching.
Theemergingpatterninthe19thcenturywasmenadministratorsmanagingwomenteachers.TheleadershipoftheNEAwasmaleschooladministrators,collegepresidents,andprofessorsthroughoutmostofitsfirst100years.Womenteachershadtoseekpermissionfromthemaleleadershiptospeakatthebusinessmeetingsoftheannualconference.TheAmericanFederationofTeachers(AFT),ontheotherhand,evolvedfromtheChicagoFederationofTeachers,wheretwoactivistwomenteachers—MargaretHaleyandCatherineGoggin—joinedforceswithorganizedlaborbecausetheyfelttheysharedthesameinterestsasworkers(Spring,2011).
Althoughteachersareheldresponsibleforpreparingstudentstomeetnationalstandards,theyhavenotalwaysbeenrepresentedinthegroupsdevelopingthosestandards.Theexpertiseandknowledgeofteachersarenotyetvaluedbythepolicy-makers,businessleaders,andthinktanksasreflectedbytheirlimitedinvolvementonmanynationalandstatecommitteesoneducationreform.TheCenterforTeachingQualityassertsthat“teachersmustbeseenassolutions,notproblems”toraisestudentachievementandservestudentseffectively(Berry,2011,p.20).
TeacherPreparation
Toensurethatteacherstaughtthecurriculumthateducationalleadersdesired,teachereducationprogramsweredeveloped.ReverendSamuelHalliscreditedwithestablishingoneofthefirstinstitutionsforpreparingteachersin1823inConcord,Vermont,butEmmaWillardhadopenedtheTroyFemaleSeminaryin1821,inwhichwomenearnedtheircertification,whichmanyschoolboardsrequired.However,certifiedteacherswerenotreadilyavailableinmanyruralareasforanothercentury(Spring,2011).
Womenteachersinthe19thcenturywereexpectedtobesingle andfollowstrictcodesofbehaviorsetbylocalschoolboards.
Normalschoolswereestablishedin1839inLexington,Massachusetts,toprepareteachersforelementaryschools.Moststudentsinnormalschoolswerewomenwhohadcompletedelementaryorcommonschools,buthadnotcompletedhighschool.Curriculuminthenormalschoolsrequiredonetotwoyearsofstudyinwhichtheelementaryschoolcurriculumwasreviewed,classroommanagementstudied,andteachingmethodstaught.Manyoftoday’sstatecollegesanduniversitiesbeganasnormalschools.Theychangedtheirnamesandexpandedtheirmissionsbeyondthepreparationofteachersinthemid-1900s.Today,theycontinuetopreparethemajorityofteachersinthecountry.
Teachersofchildreninthe1700shadnotalwaysfinishedelementaryschoolalthoughteachersofadolescentsmayhaveattendedcollege.Theamountofeducationincreasedineachcenturythatfollowed.Inthe1800s,agrowingnumberofelementaryschoolteacherscompletedhighschoolandbegantoattendteacherinstitutesandnormalschoolstofurtherdeveloptheirknowledgeofthesubjectstheywereteachingaswellastheirteachingskills.Itwasnotuntilthemid-1900sthatmostteacherscompletedafour-yearcollege,whichisnowrequiredforateachinglicense.Intothemid-1900steachershadmoreeducationthanmostmembersoftheircommunity.However,bythebeginningofthe21stcentury,alargerproportionofthepopulationhadabachelor’sdegreethaninpreviouscenturies.
TeacherBehavior
Teachershavelongbeenunderthecontrolofschoolboardsandadministrators.Notonlydidadministratorsoverseetheworkofteachersandselecttheirtextbooks;theyalsomonitoredtheirpersonalbehavior.Teacherswereexpectedtoliveexemplarymorallives.Theirsocialactivitiesweremonitoredbyschoolofficialsthroughoutthe19thcenturyandintothe20th.HoraceMannin1840indicatedthatateachershouldhave“perfect”knowledgeofthesubjectbeingtaught,anaptitudeforteaching,whichhebelievedcouldbelearned,theabilitytomanageandgovernaclassroomandmoldmoralbehavior,goodbehaviorasamodelforstudents,andgoodmorals(Spring,2011).
EventhoughmoralswereonlyoneofHoraceMann’sfivequalifications,itappearedtobeoneofthemostimportanttoschoolsuperintendentsandschoolboardmembers.Contractsforwomenteachersdidnotallowthemtosocializewithmenorbemarried.Theemphasisonhighmoralcharactercontinuedintothe20thcenturyasteacherswerewarnedthattheyshouldbeverycarefulabouttheirdressandbehavior.Althoughmoralcharacterisnotincludedintoday’steachercontracts,teachersarestillexpectedbythepublictobemodelsofhighmoralcharacter.
Teachers’Lounge
One-RoomSchool
ThisstorywastoldtoDr.Sturgeonin2003.Theinformationwasgatheredaspartofanundertakingtodocumenttheteachingexperiencesof1930sand1940sone-roomschoolteachersinMasonCounty,WestVirginia.
OK,I’lltellyouaboutfunthingsintheone-roomschool.Thechildrenlikeditwhenweplayed“button,button,whohasthebutton”becausetheyalwaysseemedsoexcited.Theyalsolookedforwardtoplaying“ISpy.”Whenweplayed“ISpy”youwouldhidethesescissorssothatmaybeonlythetipendwouldstickout.Thentheywouldhavetohidetheireyes;allbuttheonethatwashidingthescissorswasupandaround.Hewouldwalkaroundandaroundinsidetheschoolandthenafterhehadhiddenthescissorssomewherehewouldpretendhewasputtingtheminotherplacessothattheywouldn’tknowjustwhereyouwere.So,OKtheyarehiddenandthekidsgetupoutoftheirseatsandthentheteacherwouldsay“Wayne,you’regettinghot,you’regettinghot.”Thecloseryougottoit,thehotteryou’dget.Or,“Oh,Thelma,you’recold,you’rejustsocoldit’sawonderyouwouldn’tbefreezing,”youknow,stufflikethat.Anyway,thenwhoeverfounditgottohideitthenfromtherestofthem.Then,“Button,Button,WhoHastheButton?”you’dseatthemall;youhadthesefrontseats,youknow,wherethekidscameuptorecite,andsotherewouldbealongrowofjustpeoplesittingandtheywouldhavetoholdtheirhand.Thenyouhadabutton,anditwouldslidethroughtheirhands.Onlyonepersongotthebuttonupthere.Soyouhadtomake,pretendlikeyouweredroppingitwhenyouweren’tsothatwhenyougotthroughthenfinallyyou’dopenyourhandandshowittosomeoneelse.Thentheteacherwouldsay,“OK,button,button,whohasthebutton?”Thenshe’dsay,“CarlaMayhasit.”Thenshe’dsay,“NoIdon’t.”“Fred.Fredhasit.”“Nope.”Sofinallythey’dgetitandwhoeverhaditlast,theygottobethebuttonhider.Theywerefun,becausewedidn’thaveanytoysorplaygroundequipmentorcomputergames,youknow.Wewerealltogetherintheschool,inoneroom.Wehadabaseballbatandsoftball.Andthat’saboutallwehad.Alotdifferentfromtoday.ButIlovedeveryday.Thatschoolwasthecenterofthoselittlecommunities.
Dr.DouglasSturgeon
ShawneeStateUniversity
Portsmouth,Ohio
ChallengingAssumptions
Arecollegestudentspreparingtobeteachersasacademicallystrongascollegestudentspreparingforotherjobs?
TheAssumption
Someteachercandidatesarenotasacademicallytalentedasothercollegestudents,contributingtothelowerthanexpectedacademicperformanceofPreK–12students.
StudyDesignandMethod
AresearcherattheEducationalTestingService(ETS)examinedcollegestudents’performanceontheSAT,PraxisIIlicensuretestsofcontentknowledge,andundergraduateGPAstodeterminewhetherthisassertionwastrue.
StudyFindings
TeachercandidatestodayhavestrongerundergraduateGPAsthantheirpredecessorswithover80%ofthemreportinga3.00orhigherGPA.AsmallerproportionofcandidatestakingPraxisIIarepassingit,primarilybecausestateshaveraisedtheirlicensurerequirements.Bothcandidateswhohavecompletedteachereducationprogramsandthoseinalternaterouteprogramshavestrongeracademicprofilesthaninthepastacrossethnic,racial,andgendergroups.
TheresearchdataindicatedthatcandidatesinsecondaryprogramshadverbalSATscoresatleastasstrongasothercollegestudentsandsometimesstronger.TeachercandidatesinmathandsciencehadmathSATscoreswellaboveothercollegegraduates.AlthoughscoresontheverbalandmathportionsoftheSATareimproving,candidatesinelementary,special,andphysicaleducationscorelowerthanothercollegestudents.Theacademicprofilesofmiddlelevelteachercandidatesaremorelikeelementaryteachersthansecondaryteachers.
Implications
Toensurethatmorecandidatespassthecontenttestforlicensure,collegesanduniversitiesmayconsiderraisingrequirementssuchasGPAsforadmissionintoteachereducation.Ananalysisofcandidateperformanceonlicensuretests,theirperformanceonauthenticassessmentssuchasperformanceinstudentteaching,andtheachievementoftheirstudentsduringthefirstyearsofpracticecouldprovidevaluableinformationaboutthepredictabilityofcurrentassessmentsfordeterminingsuccessfulpracticeinclassrooms.
Source:Gitomer,D.H.(2007).Teacherqualityinachangingpolicylandscape:Improvementsintheteacherpool.Princeton,NJ:EducationalTestingService.
CONNECTINGTOTHECLASSROOM
Thischapterhasprovidedyouwithsomebasicinformationabouthowschoolsandtheeducationofdifferentstudentshaveevolvedtotheschoolsweknowtoday.Belowaresomekeyprinciplesforapplyingtheinformationinthischaptertotheclassroom.
1.Thehistoryofeducationhelpsusunderstandteachingpracticesthathavebeentriedpreviouslybyeducators,thereasonsfortheirfallingoutoffavor,andthepossibilityoftheirrecyclingagainasdesirablepractice.
2.Teachersinprimary,middle,andhighschoolsareexpectedtoprovideage-appropriateeducationforstudentsbasedonresearchonchildandadolescentdevelopment.
3.Goodteachersareabletoanalyzeandevaluatethedifferentcurriculumpackagestheirschooldistrictsarelikelytoimposeonthemduringtheircareersandmakewise,pedagogicallysounddecisionsabouttheiruseintheirclassrooms.
4.TheCivilRightsMovementofthe1960sand1970swasthefoundationforensuringthatanequaleducationcouldfinallybeaccessibletoallchildrenregardlessoftheirrace,ethnicity,socioeconomicstatus,language,gender,andabilities.
5.Expectationsforthehighacademicachievementofteacherscontinuestoriseinthesetimesofaccountability.
SUMMARY
Thischapterreviewedkeydevelopmentsoverthepastfourcenturiesthatestablishedpublicschoolsandinfluencedtheschoolsyouknowtoday.Thefollowingfivemajortopicswerediscussed:
· EstablishmentofpublicschoolsintheUnitedStates.TheConstitutiongavetheresponsibilityforeducationtostates,whichwereexpectedtoprovideschoolsfortheirchildren.
· Schoolsdesignedbystudents’age.Asscholarslearnedmoreaboutchildandadolescentdevelopment,schoolsweredividedintogradelevelstomeettheneedsofearlychildhood,elementary,middlelevel,andhighschoolstudents.
· Historicalinfluencesontheschoolcurriculum.Thecurriculumhasbeeninfluencedbystrongreligiousandnationalisticthemes,theindustrialrevolutioninthe1800s,theprogressivemovementintheearly1900s,andthelaunchingofthefirstsatellitebytheSovietUnionin1957.
· Educationandequality.Whenstudentsofcolorbeganattendingschool,theywereenrolledinsegregatedschools,whichdidnotchangeuntilschoolsweredesegregatedinthe1960s.
· Theevolutionofteaching.Thepreparationofteachershasevolvedfromtherequirementforcompletionofelementaryschoolincolonialdaystoacollegedegreetoday.
CLASSDISCUSSIONQUESTIONS
1.TodayAmericansassumethatafreeanduniversaleducationisa“right,”butthathasnotalwaysbeenthecase.Ifyouhadbeenaparticipantinthevariousdebatesofthepastthreecenturies,whywouldyouhavearguedfor,oragainst,thestateestablishingcommonschools?Howwouldyouhavearguedaboutcitizensbeingtaxedtopayforpublicschoolsforallchildren?Whatistherelationshipoftheseissuestodebatestodayaboutvoucherstoattendprivateschools,charterschools,anddecreasesinstatesupportofpubliceducation?
2.Youhaveprobablydecidedthatyouwanttoteachstudentsofaspecificage.Howlonghaveschoolsforthisgroupofstudentsexistedandwhatmakesstudentsofthisagedifferentfromstudentsatadifferentlevel?Whyhaveyouchosentoworkwithchildrenofthisage,andhowwillyoulearntheage-appropriatestrategiesforthesestudents?
3.TheIndustrialRevolution,progressiveness,andSputnikIareamongsocietalchangesthathaveimpactedtheschoolcurriculumoverthepast200years.Whatremnantsoftheseeventsandtheearlyemphasisonreligionandnationalismarereflectedintoday’sschools?
4.Historically,notallchildrenhavehadaccesstothesamequalityofeducation,sometimeslegallynotbeingallowedtoeitherattendschoolorattendschoolwithwhitestudents.Whatfactorsledtothechangesinequaleducationalopportunitythatoccurredinthe1960sand1970s?Howhaseducationchangedforstudentsofcolorsincethe1954Brownv.BoardofEducationdecisionbytheSupremeCourt?
5.Theeducationleveloftoday’steachersismuchhigherthaninthepast.Inwhatotherwayshavetheconditionsofteachingchangedoverthepasttwocenturies?Whatconditionsappeartoremainlittlechangedfromthepast?
KEYTERMS

Authoritarian

Compulsoryattendance

Freeanduniversaleducation

Catechism

Deculturalizing

JimCrowlaws

Charityschools

Defactosegregation

Manifestdestiny

Commonschools

FourteenthAmendment

Morals
SELF-ASSESSMENT
WHATISYOURCURRENTLEVELOFUNDERSTANDINGANDTHINKINGABOUTTHEHISTORYOFSCHOOLSINTHEUNITEDSTATES?
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.Afteryouanswerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan,rateyourknowledgeontheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanapplytheideaspresentedinthischapter.
1.Whoaresomeofthekeyeducatorsandscholarswhocontributedtotheestablishmentofthecommonschoolsinthe1800sandtheearlychildhoodandmiddleschoolmovementsinthe1900s?
2.Howhasthefieldofchilddevelopmentcontributedtothetypesofschoolsthatexisttoday?
3.Whywerehighschoolsinitiallyestablished?Whyandhowhavetheychangedsincethoseearlydays?
Whatisyourcurrentlevelofunderstandingofwhyschoolsdevelopedintoeducationalsettingsforstudentsofdifferentagelevels?

ComplexityofThinkingRubric

Parts&Pieces

Unidimensional

Organized

Integrated

Extensions

Indicators

Elements/concepts aretalkedabout asisolatedand independententities.

Oneorafew conceptsare addressed,while othersareunderdeveloped.

Deliberateand structured considerationof allkeyconcepts/ elements.

Allkeyconcepts/ elementsare includedinaview thataddresses interconnections.

Integrationofallelements anddimensions,with extrapolationtonew situations.

Understanding ofhistory ofschool development

Identifiessomeofthe keypeopleinvolved inestablishing commonschools,early childhoodeducation, andmiddlelevel education.

Identifiestheroleof childdevelopment increatingthetype ofschoolsthatexist today.

Describesthe developmentof schoolsbasedonthe ageofstudents.

Discussesthe developmentofschools basedontheageof studentsandthework ofthescholarsand educatorswhocontributed totheirdevelopment.

Exploresthemajor developmentsovertime oftheleveloftheschool inwhichhe/sheplansto teachanddiscussesthe majorissuesfacedatthat schoolleveltoday.
STUDENTSTUDYSITE
VisittheStudentStudySiteat
www.sagepub.com/hall
toaccesslinkstothevideos,audioclips,andDeeperLookreferencematerialsnotedinthischapter,aswellasadditionalstudytoolsincludingeFlashcards,webquizzes,andmore.
FieldGuide
forLearningMoreAbouttheHistoryofSchoolsintheUnitedStates
AskaTeacherorPrincipal
Identifyateacherwhohasbeenteachingformorethan10yearsandaskhimorhertodescribesomeofthecurriculumpackagesorprogramstheschoolsystemhasaskedteacherstouseovertheyears.Howlongdidmostofthemsurvive?Whyweretheysuccessfulornotsuccessful?Whatdoestheteacherthinkarekeystoacurriculumpackagebeingsuccessful?
MakeYourOwnObservations
Whenyoubeginteaching,youwillprobablyworkinapreschool,kindergarten,orprimary,elementary,middle,orhighschool.Yourteachinglicensemayallowyoutoteachobservationsattwoormorelevels.Thelevelsaredifferentnotonlyinthecurriculumtaught,butalsotheorganizationofaschooldayandtheinteractionsofstudentsandteachers.Asyouobserveteachersinschoolsattwodifferentlevels(forexample,middleandhighschool),makenotesofthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthelevels.Youcouldorganizeyournotesintoatableornarrative.Writeabriefpaperonwhatlevelyouwouldprefertoteachandwhy.
ReflectThroughJournaling
Expectationsforeducationhavechangedgreatlysincecolonialtimes.Takeafewminutestoreflectinyourjournalonwhathaschangedandremainedthesamesincetheprimarygoalofeducationwastolearntoreadthescripturesandbeamoralandpatrioticperson.Inyouropinion,whatshouldbethegoalsofeducationtoday?
BuildYourPortfolio
Whatisthelargestgroupofcolorinyourcommunityorstate?Whatdoyouknowaboutthehistoricaleducationalexperiencesofthisgroupinyourcommunityorstate?Writeabriefpaperonthehistoricandcurrentsegregationorintegrationofschoolsinyourarea.
Teachershaveahistoryofnotbeingincludedasmembersofcommitteesorpanelsdevelopingpoliciestoreformeducation.Whyaretheynotincluded?Howcouldteachersbecomemoreinvolvedintheseactivities?Prepareabriefpaperabouttheimportanceofteacherinvolvementonpolicygroupsthataremakingrecommendationsforimprovingteachingandpublicschools.
ReadaBook
Formoreinformationontheissues,trends,andpersonalitiesthathaveshapededucationintheUnitedStatessince1900,checkthesearticlesbyEducationWeekstaff:EducationWeek,LessonsofaCentury:ANation’sSchoolsComeofAge(2000;Bethesda,MD:EditorialProjectsinEducation).
TolearnmoreaboutthecourtcasesthatledtoBrownv.BoardofEducationofTopekaandtheonesthatstoppeddesegregationlaterinthe1900s,readtheSpring2004issueoftheSouthernPovertyLawCenter’smagazineTeachingTolerance.
SearchtheWeb
CheckoutthereferencestotheConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesandtheamendmentsmentionedinthischapter(
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html
).
ListentoNationalPublicRadio’sdiscussionandbackgroundonthehistoricSupremeCourtcaseBrownv.BoardofEducationofTopekabyhistorians,politicalleaders,andeducators(
http://www.npr.org/news/specials/brown50/
).
Toreviewthe200-yearhistoryofeducationintheUnitedStateswithimagesofschools,classrooms,andstudents,visit
http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/timeline.html
,apartofthewebsiteofthePublicBroadcastingSystem(PBS).
CHAPTER16
SucceedinginYourTeacherEducationProgram,andBeyond
TeacherInterview:AmberVelasquez
AmberVelasquezisasecond-gradeteacher atChandlerOaksElementarySchool,in RoundRock,Texas.Ms.Velasquezisinher secondyearofteaching.Shegrewupin RoundRock,didherstudentteachinginthe schooldistrict,andisnowasecond-yearteacher.FromthetimeIwas5yearsold IknewthatIwantedtobeateacher.IwenttoschoolinRoundRock,graduatedfrom there,andnowIteachthere.
Whatisyourschoollike?
TheschoolhasgradesK–5andisinitssecondyearwith600-plusstudents.Ourfamiliesaremiddleandupperclass,dependingonwheretheylive.Thetwo-storybuildingisbrandnew,withlotsoftechnology.OurdistricthasacontractwithDell,abigcompanyinAustin,sowehavelotsoftechnology.
Wehavewindowsontheoutsideofeachclassroom.Theyarefairlybig.Wealsohavewindowslookingintothehallway.Theschoolexpectationisthatyourblindsarealwaysupforthewindowslookingoutsideandtheonesfacinginside.Inmanywaysyouareteachinginafishbowl!
Allsixofthesecond-gradeclassroomdoorsfaceabigcentralareacalledthe“Village.”Thisareaisanextensionofourclassrooms.TheVillagehousestechnologyincludingabigdocumentcameraandSmartBoardthatwecanuseforgrade-levelpresentationsandlessons.Eachclassroomhasabathroom,sotherearenobigbathroombreaks.Also,thereisabackwalkwayjoiningeachclassroom.
Whatadvicedoyouhaveforteachereducationcandidates?
LetmefastforwardtosomethingIwishIhadknown:Ijustwanttosharethatthisprofessionisachangingprofession.Therearegoingtobelotsoftrendsthathappen.Thereisgoingtobealotofcurriculumthatyouwilllearnisthe“rightway,”andtheonlywayduringyourteacherpreparationclasses.Thenyouwilllearnthatintherealworlditwillbetaughtinadifferentway.
Bestpracticeisagrowingpractice.ItisOKtofeelpassionateaboutthewayacurriculumistaught,butyoustillneedtobeknowledgeableaboutotherwaystodeliverthesamecurriculum.Sethighexpectationsforyourselfasapersonallearner.Asyoumoveclosertosecuringateachingpositionandevenafteryouhaveobtainedone,seekoutprofessionaldevelopmentopportunities,conferences,seminars,andbooks.Thepressureoflearningbestpracticeincreasesonceyouearnyourlicense.Holdyourselfaccountableformeetingyourlearningexpectations.
Towhatextentareparentsinvolvedinyourschool?
Ourparentsareveryinvolved.Theyareoncampusallthetime.Ifteachershavesomethingtheyneeddone,suchasabulletinboard,copies,orsomethingcutout,aparentwillvolunteertodothatforyou.ThereisaroomcalledtheProCenter.Parentscanworkonprojectsthere.Whatiswonderfulaboututilizingparentvolunteersisthatateachercanspendhertimeworkingonthingsthataremoreacademic,ratherthanspendingtimeputtingupbulletinboards.Theyreallyhelpout!
Ourparentssupporttheschoolbeyondtakingonbulletinboardsandcopying;theyorganizeeventsandfundraisersthatdirectlybenefitthecampusandthestudentsaswell.Wehada“CheetahWalk”—thatwasanamazingfundraiserheldattheschoolinthefall.Lotsofhardworkwaspouredintotheeventtomakeitasuccessfulfundraiserbytheparentsandtheteachers.TheparentsroutinelyorganizemonthlySpiritNightsatsurroundinglocalrestaurantsalso.Thelocalrestaurantsdonateapercentageoftheirearningsbacktotheschoolbetweenthesethours.Parentsalsolendtheirhandoutsideoftheschool;severalvolunteersjointeachersonfieldtripstohelpchaperonesmallgroupsofchildren.Theparentsworkhardtomakesureallneedsoftheteachersandstudentsaremetdaily!
Whatbringsyoujoyinteaching?
KnowingIamgivingbacktomycommunity.That’sahugepartofit.Igetachancetoteachinmyowncommunity.Seeingthechildrengrow.Youcanseeachildgrowinreading.Youcanseeachildgrowinwriting.Andyoualsocanseethemgrowsociallythroughtheirinteractionseveryday.
Also,youbecomeapersonofmanystrengths.Youstartthedayasateacherandasthedayprogressesyouadaptintoseveraldifferentsiderolestoaccommodatetheneedsofyourstudents:mother,nurse,confidant.Thejobisnotone-dimensional.It’sfastpaced;thenextdaywillneverbethesameastheonebefore,andeachdaywilltryyou.That’sprettyrewarding.
QuestionstoConsider
1.Howwouldyoufeelabouthavingsomanywindowsinyourclassroomandteachingina“fishbowl”?
2.InMs.Velasquez’sschool,parentsareintheschoolallday,everyday.Inwhatwayswillyouexpecttoinvolveparents?
3.Ms.Velasqueztalksalotabouthowimportantitistocontinuelearningonceyouareateacher.Isthisanewexpectationforyou?
INTRODUCTION
LearningOutcomes
Afterreadingthischapter,youshouldbeableto
1.Nameandhaveplansforwhatyouwillwanttoaccomplishduringyourteachereducationprograminorderforyoutobecomeahigh-qualitybeginningteacher.
2.Havenotesaboutthekeystepsyouwillneedtotaketogetyourfirstteachingposition.
3.Describewaysteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherscanbeleaders.
4.Identifyquestionsandtopicsrelatedtowhatyoucanlearnfromtalkingwithahighlysuccessfulteacher.
Teachingisoneofthemostimportantprofessions.Now,morethanatanyothertimeinhistory,students,parents,communities,andthenationneedoutstandingteachers.AshasbeendescribedinChapters1through15,becausetheneedissogreatandteachingissocomplex,thepreparationtobecomeateacherismorerigorousthaneverbefore.Theexpectationsforbeginningteachersarehighertoo.Forallofthesereasonsitisveryimportantforyoutotakeadvantageofeveryopportunitypresentedthroughoutyourteacherpreparationprogram.Nowisthetimetobeginanticipatingwhatyouwillneedtoknow,beabletodo,andhaveonrecordasyouseekandobtainyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition.Failuretobethinkingaheadcouldresultinnotobtainingyourmostpreferredbeginningteachingposition.
Thischapterbeginswithrecommendationsforsucceedinginyourteachereducationprogram.Theremainderofthechapterdescribesthemes,offersrecommendations,andidentifiesissuesrelatedtobeingasuccessfulandinfluentialbeginningteacher.Again,itisnottooearlyforyoutobeginthinkingabout,preparingfor,andanticipatingwhatyouwillneedtohaveandbeabletodotobeasuccessfulbeginningteacher.Howwillyouapplyforateachingposition?Whatkindsofdocumentationwillyouneedtohave,andhowcanyouprepareforthepositioninterview?Ifyoustartanticipatingandplanningnowyouwillseehowmuchofwhatyoudointheremainderofyourpreparationprogramwillbeusefultoyouinseeking,applyingfor,andobtainingtheperfectteachingposition.
Walkingintotheschoolasateacherforthefirsttimeisexcitingandalittlescary.
WHATAREKEYSTOSUCCEEDINGINYOURTEACHEREDUCATIONPROGRAM?
Somethingthatisveryimportantisreflection.Ikeptajournalmyfirstyearofstudentteachingandmyfirstyearasateacher.Iwouldwritedownthingsastheyhappened.ThenIwouldlookbackathowIhandleddifferentsituations.SometimesIwouldtweakitandwritewhatIwoulddothenexttimethathappened.Istillhavethatjournal.Iwouldrecommendreflection,becauseyoucanlearnsomuch.—Ms.Velasquez
Therearethreeveryimportantcomponentstoreflection.Thefirstistoappreciatehowimportanttheprocessofreflectingcanbetoyourlearningandcontinuallyimprovinginyourteaching.Second,keepingajournalprovidesarecordofyourefforts,whatworkedwell,andwhatyouwillwanttododifferentlynexttime.Thethirdimportantaspectisthatreflectionisapersonalexperience.Yourjournalingandthinkingaboutwhatyouhavedone,whatyouaredoing,andwhatyouwilldoisallaboutyourbecominganexceptionalteacher.Thesesamenotesandinsightsalsobecomeimportantexamplesforyoutodrawfromwhenyouareapplyingforyourfirstteachingposition.
Tohelpyouinrefiningyourreflectionefforts,weoffertwosetsofconceptualtools.Eachoftheseisagenericframeworkthatyoucanuseinreflectinguponyourteachingandthinkingabouthowwellyourstudentsarelearning.Thefirstprovidesaresearch-basedmethodtoreflectaboutyourdevelopingperceptionsandfeelingsaboutbecomingateacher.Thesecondframeworkintroducestwoveryusefulwaystothinkaboutlearning-centeredinstruction.
VideoLink
Learnmoreaboutteacherreflection.
Asyoucontinuewithyourpreparationstobecomeateacher,youwilltakeanumberofprofessionaleducationcoursesandhaveavarietyofclinicalandfieldexperiences.Asyouwillhaveheardalreadyfromyourfellowcandidates,somecoursesandexperiencesareperceivedasbeing“better”thanothers.Whatyouwilldiscoveristhatregardlessoftheperceivedqualityofthecourseorexperience,thereallygoodcandidatesusethemtoadvantage.Theyuseeveryassignmentandactivityasanopportunitytolearnmoreaboutteaching,studentlearning,andwhatclassroomsandschoolsarelike.Regardlessofthesituation,thehigh-qualitycandidateslearnandcontributetothelearningofothers.Theyareabletodothisbecausetheyunderstandthemselves,whatteachingisabout,andtheimportanceofusingeveryexperienceandopportunitytolearnmore.Theyalsocollectevidencetodocumenttheireffortsandwhattheyhavelearned,andartifactsthatindicatethedifferencestheymake.Theydoallofthisinspiteoftheirfeelingsofnotknowingitallandbeingverybusy.Thefollowingframeworkscanhelpyouunderstandanduseeverysituationasalearningexperience.
Teachersneedtosharetheirconcernsaboutindividualstudentsaswellashowthewholeschoolisdoing.
UnderstandingYourConcerns
Inordertounderstandtheirstudents,teachersmustfirstunderstandthemselves.Thisdoesnotrequireacomplexpsychologicalanalysis;however,eachofuswillhavecertainfeelingsandperceptionsabouteverysituation.Inaddition,eachofusmayperceivethesamesituationdifferently.Dependinguponourownperceptions,weconstructourpersonalinterpretationsofwhateachsituationmeans.Teachersdothisallthetimewhentalkingwithstudentsandcolleagues,andwhenthinkingaboutwhattheyandothersaredoing.
WhatAreYourConcernsRightNow?
Teachereducationcandidatesworryaboutgettinggoodgradesandwonderingwhatitwillfeelliketobeinfrontofawholeclassofstudents.Understandingthatallofusfilterandascribepersonalmeaningtoeventsandactionsisveryimportant,especiallyforteachers.Thisisthepersonalsideofteaching:understandingour
concerns
.Atanytimeyouwillhaveamixtureoffeelings,perceptions,worries,andpreoccupationsaboutteaching.Toillustratethisidea,takeaminutetorespondtothefollowingtask.
Open-EndedConcernsStatement
Asyouthinkaboutyourbecomingateacher,whatareyourconcerns?Don’tsaywhatothersareconcernedabout;instead,whatareyourconcernsatthistime?(Write/typeadescriptionofyourconcernsusingcompletesentences.)
Don’treadanyfurtheruntilyouhavewrittenyourresponse.
Theactivityofwritingyourconcernsiseasy.Developinganunderstandingofwhatyouhavewrittenisguidedbymorethan40yearsofresearch.Researchershavedocumentedthattheconcernsofteachereducationcandidatescanbeplacedincategoriesandusedbycandidatesandtheprogramfacultytoimprovelearning.Intheendteacherswhounderstandtheirownconcernsarebetterabletounderstandtheconcernsoftheirstudentsandcolleagues.
Itturnsoutthatourconcernscanbesortedintoasetofeasy-to-understandcategories.TheoriginalresearchonteacherconcernswaspioneeredbyFrancesFuller(1969),aprofessorattheUniversityofTexasatAustin.Sincethentheanalysisofconcernshasexpandedbeyondteachersandnowincludesunderstandingtheconcernsofpeopleinvolvedinchange(Hall&Hord,2011).
Table16.1StagesofConcern
StagesofConcernAbouttheInnovation
Source:Formoreinformation,seeHall,G.E.,&Hord,S.M.(2011).Implementingchange:Patterns,principlesandpotholes(3rded.).UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:Pearson.
DescribingTeacherConcerns
Teachereducationcandidates,teachers,andotherswilltypicallyhaveconcernsinoneoffourareas:Unconcerned,Self,Task,andImpact.Researchershavedividedthesemajorareasofconcernintoasetof
StagesofConcern
thatpeoplemaymovethroughastheyexperienceanytypeofchange.Sincebecomingateacherrepresentsamajorchangeprocess,theConcernsModelcertainlyapplies.AtypicalquestionthatateacherwouldaskwhensheorhehasconcernsineachoftheseareasandstagesispresentedinTable16.1.Thefollowingaregeneraldescriptionsofeachoftheseareasofconcern:
UnconcernedThereislittleornoconcernaboutteaching.Insteadtheconcernsareaboutothertopicssuchaswork,afamilyproblem,gettingalongwitharoommate,oranupcomingeventsuchasgettingticketsforaconcert.
SelfConcernsHavingenoughinformationandwantingtoknowmoreareofconcern,aswellasconcernsaboutone’sadequacyandabilitytobeasuccessfulteacher.Doubtmightbeaboutknowingenoughcontent,controllingtheclass,knowinghowtoteachaparticularlesson,orbeinguncomfortablewhenstandinginfrontoftheclass.Theseconcernscanpopupeachtimeyouenteranewclassroomoraregettingreadytoteachalessonforthefirsttime.
TaskConcernsFindingthetimetofiteverythingin,gettingallthematerialsorganized,preparinglessonplans,andgradingpapersarelikelytopicsofconcern.Learningthehow-to-do-itsofteachingandcoordinatingschedulesareotherindicatorsofTaskconcerns.Teachershavealottodo,sobeingconcernedaboutgettingitalldoneshouldmakesensetoyou.
ImpactConcernsHavingideasaboutwhatcouldbedonetofurtherimproveyoureffectivenessasateacherandespeciallyconcernsaboutstudentlearningareindicatorsofImpactconcern.Thinkingaboutwaystoincreaseallstudents’learning,improvingone’seffectivenessasateacher,andgettingthelasttwostudentstounderstandareclearindicatorsofImpactconcern.Anotherconcerncouldbeaboutworkingwithoneormorefellowteacherssothattogetheryoucanhaveagreatereffectonstudentlearning.
ThereIsaDevelopmentalPatterntoTeacherConcerns
Itisveryimportanttokeepinmindthatthereareno“bad”areasofconcern.Allareasofconcernarepossible.Infact,therearesomegeneralpatternstohowteacherconcernsevolve.TeachereducationcandidateswillhavemoreSelfandTaskconcerns,whileexperiencedteachershavemoreImpactconcerns.Ifyouthinkaboutit,thisdifferenceinthedistributionofconcernsmakessense.Beginnersaremorelikelytohavedoubtsabouttheirabilitytodosomething(Selfconcerns)andtobemorepreoccupiedwithlogisticsandgettingeverythingdone(Taskconcerns).Theseareasofconcernarealsocharacteristicoffirst-yearteachers.
Impactconcernsaremorelikelytobepresentwiththosewhoarecomfortableandconfidentwithwhattheyaredoing.Thisisthetimewhenteacherconcernscantrulyfocusonimprovingstudentlearning.Mostteacherswon’thaveamajorityoftheirconcernsbeingaboutImpactuntilaftertheyhavetaughtforseveralyears.
AssessingYourConcerns
Assessingone’sconcernsiseasytodo.OncethereisanunderstandingofthefourareasofconcernandthemorespecificStagesofConcern,asoutlinedinTable16.1,aperson’sconcernscanbeanalyzed.Whetherwrittenorspoken,mostconcernscanbesortedintooneofthefourareasandthenthespecificstagecanbeidentifiedusingthedescriptionsinTable16.1.
Asafirstexampleofhowtoassessanopen-endedconcernsstatement,readwhatyouwroteinresponsetotheopen-endedconcernsstatementthatwaspresentedabove.Dothefollowing:
1.Whichareaofconcern(Unconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact)ismostpresent?Wereyourconcernsmainlyrelatedtoteaching,ormoreaboutotherthings?Wereyourconcernscenteredmainlyonyourabilitytosucceedinyourcollegecourses?Didtheyrelatetohowyouwillmanageteaching?Didanypartofyourstatementrelatetostudentlearning?Asyoureadwhatyouwrote,whatistheoverallview—Unconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact?
2.WhichStage(s)ofConcernwasmostpresent?UsethedefinitionspresentedinTable16.1astheguidefordeterminingwhichStagesofConcernaremostoftenreflectedinyourstatement.Sometimeswhatyouhavewrittenwillnotbeaseasytofigureout,butwithalittlepracticesortingconcernstatementsbecomeseasier.
3.Keepthisanalysisofyourconcernsinmindasyoureadbelow.
ImplicationsoftheConcernsModelforTeacherEducationCandidates
Onceateacher’sconcernshavebeenanalyzed,theveryimportantfollow-upquestionshouldbethis:Whatneedstobedonetoaddresstheconcernsandtofacilitatetheteachercontinuingtoimprove?ThisquestioniswhatmakestheConcernsModelsoimportantforteachereducationcandidatesandinserviceteachers.Whenyouunderstandyourconcerns,youcandosomethingaboutthem.Effectiveteachereducationprogramsaredesignedwithcandidateconcernsinmind.Forexample,mostcandidateshaveconcernsaboutmanagingtheclassroom(Taskconcerns),somanypreparationprogramsincludeacourseonclassroommanagement.Anotherimportantcomponentofeffectiveteachereducationprogramsishowtoassessstudentlearning(TaskandImpactconcerns).
Candidatesthatunderstandtheirconcernscandomanythingsontheirowntoaddressthem.Forexample,candidateswithSelfconcernswillbemorehesitanttoaskquestionsofothers.“Whatiftheythinkmyquestionisstupid?”Understandingthistendencycanhelpyoutoassertyourselfmore.ThisinsightshouldalsohelpyoutobemoreunderstandingwhenyourstudentshaveSelfconcerns.
VideoLink
Watchavideoaboutprofessionalteachingconcerns.
MonitoringYourConcernsAboutTeaching
Asyoucontinueinyourteachereducationprogramandasyoubecomeafirst-yearteacheritwillbeimportantforyoutodocumenttheevolutionofyourconcerns.Atregularintervals,respondagaintotheopen-endedconcernsstatement.Youwilllikelyseeaprogressioninyourconcerns.Ideally,bytheendofstudentteachingyouwillhavefewerSelfandTaskconcernsandmoreImpactconcerns.However,asyoubecomeafirst-yearteacher,whatdothinkwillhappentoyourconcerns?
Mostfirst-yearteacherswillreturntohavingmoreSelfandTaskconcerns.Theyhavealottolearn,manylessonstoprepare,andmeetingstoattend,andtheyalsohavetogettoknowtheircolleaguesandtheprincipal.Itmakessensethatfirst-yearteacherswillhavemoreSelfandTaskconcerns.ThisisOK.Itiswhathappenstoanyofuswhenweareexperiencingsomethingnew(Hall&Hord,2011).
ImplicationsforYou
Wehaveintroducedtheideaofconcernswiththehopethatunderstandingyourconcernswillhelpyouinbeingreflective.Thisunderstandingwillhelpyoutotakestepstoresolvemanyofthem.Aswestatedabove,themoreyouunderstandaboutyourself,themorequicklyyoucanbecomeanexceptionalteacher.
TheConcernsModelcanhelpyouinanotherwaytoo.Whataboutyourclassmates?Whatdoyouhearabouttheirconcerns?DoyouhearmoreUnconcerned,Self,Task,orImpactconcerns?Theconcernsideaalsoappliestoyourstudents.Whatconcernsaretheyreflectingwhentheysay,“Idon’tknowifIcandothis”;“Ah,homeworktonight;Ialreadyhavetwohoursofitfortwoofmyotherclasses!”;or“Ihavecomparedmywritingtotherubriconthewall.Ineedtoworkontopicsentences.”
WhatAboutMs.Velasquez’sConcerns?
RereadtheopeninginterviewwithMs.Velasquez.WhichareasofconcernandwhichspecificStagesofConcerndidshetalkabout?ClearlyheroverallperspectiveisbasedinImpactconcerns.Shenotonlyexpressedconcernsaboutherstudentslearning(Stage4,Consequence);shealsoofferedsuggestionsforyourlearningasateachereducationcandidate(Stage4,Consequence).Ms.VelasquezalsoexpressedImpactconcernsabouttheimportanceofworkingwithcolleagues(Stage5,Collaboration).Giventhatatthetimeoftheinterviewshewasnearingtheendofhersecondyearofteaching,intermsoftheConcernsModelsheclearlyalreadyisahigh-qualityteacher.
StriveforQualityinYourTeaching
Ineverythingthatyoudoinyourteacherpreparationprogram,striveforquality.Ifaninstructormakesanassignmentthatisconfusing,askforclarification.Ifyouarenotfullysatisfiedwithafieldplacement,thinkthroughwhatyoucandotostilllearnfromtheexperience.Useeveryassignmentandexperienceasanopportunitytolearnmoreaboutteaching.Ineverysituationthereisthepotentialtofindanideathatcanhelpyoubecomeabetterteacher.Findingtheseideasisyourresponsibility.Herearethreeparticularlyusefulstrategies:
1.Haveinmindagenericteachingmodelthatcanbeusedtoexamineanyteachingsituation.
2.Takeadvantageofeveryfieldexperiencetolearnsomething.
3.Wheneverpossible,collectsamplesofteacherandstudentwork.
Teachersneedtospendtimethinking/reflectingandconsideringwhattodonextbasedonwhattheirstudentsaredoingnow.
Elliott’sGeneralModelofEffectiveInstruction
Throughoutthistexttheauthorshaveemphasizedtheimportanceofteachersfocusingonstudentlearning(backtoImpactconcerns).Wehavedescribedabroadarrayofcontextualfactors(e.g.,studentdiversity,specialneeds,andELL)andintroducedseveralinstructionalstrategies(e.g.,differentwaysofgroupingstudents).Theimportanceofassessingstudentlearningandmethodsfordoingso(e.g.,rubrics)hasbeenemphasized.Giventhelargenumberofmethods,strategies,andfactorsthathavebeenintroduced,itnowshouldbehelpfultoofferageneralmodelthatcanserveasanoverallorganizer,reminder,andguide.Suchamodelcanhelpyoukeepinmindallthatteachersneedtodotohavehigh-qualityteachingthatresultsinallstudentslearning.
OnesuchmodelhasbeenproposedbyEmersonElliott(2005)(seeTable16.2),whoisanationalexpertonaccreditationofteachereducationandassessinghigh-qualityteaching.Hismodel“definesexpectationsforevidencethatPreK–12studentlearninghasoccurred,constructedaroundacoreofactivitiesinwhichthecandidatetakesresponsibilityforasignificantunitofinstruction”(p.1).Thismodelisgeneric;itcanbeappliedtoalllevelsofschooling,differentkindsofstudents,andallsubjectareas.Eachofthecoreactivitiesisbasictoeffectiveandhigh-qualityteaching.TheelementsoutlinedinTable16.2havebeenintroducedandemphasizedthroughoutthistextbook.
Oneofyourmajorresponsibilitiesasyoucompleteyourpreparationprogramistobecomeknowledgeableandskilledatdoingeachoftheelementsoutlinedinthismodel.Theymaybegivendifferentnames.Whatevertheyarecalled,thesearetheessentialcomponentsofhigh-qualityinstruction.Bytheendofyourprogramyouwillneedtohaveartifactsinyourportfoliothatdocumentyourcapabilitiestodoeachofthecomponentsofthismodel.Besuretocollectspecificexamplesandartifactsrelatedtoeachcomponentofthemodel.
OneusefulapproachthataddresseseachoftheactivitiesofthisgenericmodelistheTeacherWorkSample(TWS)methodologythatwasdescribedinChapter13.
TheImportanceofEachandEveryFieldExperience
Strivingforqualityinfieldexperiencesisveryimportantforaspiringteachers.Candidatesconsistentlyreportthatthemostimportantpartoftheirpreparationprogramwasstudentteaching.Thisisthecapstoneexperiencewhereeverythingthathasbeenintroduced,studied,anddissectedthroughoutyourprofessionaleducationcoursesisbroughttogetherinthe“real”world.Thisisthetimewhenyougettoteach.Naturallyyourfirstconcernswillbeaboutpreparingeachlesson(Taskconcerns).However,donotlosesightofwhyyouarethereandpresentingthelesson:Itistohelpeachandeverystudentlearn.Besuretoincorporateformativeassessmentquestionsandtasks,andobtainevidenceoftheextenttowhichyourstudentsarelearning.
Table16.2CoreActivitiesforaSignificantUnitofInstructionThatLeadstoPreK–12StudentLearning

SettingappropriateexpectationsforevidencethatPreK–12studentlearninghasoccurred,constructedaroundacoreofactivitiesinwhichthecandidatetakesresponsibilityforasignificantunitofinstruction,and

JUDGESPRIORLEARNING

Undertakesasystematicassessment(basedinstandardsandbenchmarks)tounderstandthepriorPreK–12studentlearningintheareaheorshewillteach;

PLANSINSTRUCTION

PlansanappropriatesequenceofinstructiontoadvancePreK–12studentlearning,basedonthepriorassessment;

TEACHES

TeachesPreK–12studentstoacquireandusecontentknowledgeinmeaningfulways,engagingthosewhobringdifferingbackgroundknowledgeandlearningneeds,andprovidingstudentsopportunitiestodemonstratetheuseofcriticalandcreativethinkingskills;

ASSESSES

Conductsaconcludingobjectivetestoralternativeassessment(s);

ANALYSES

Analyzestheresultsoftheconcludingassessment(s),documentingthestudentlearningthatoccurredatindividualandgrouplevels,includingexplanationsofresultsfromstudentswholearnedmoreorlessthanexpected,andresultsfromeachsubgroupofstudents;and

REFLECTS

Reflectsonchangeinteachingthatcouldimproveresults.
Source:Elliott,E.(2005).StudentlearninginNCATEaccreditation.Washington,DC:NationalCouncilfortheAccreditationofTeacherEducation.
Asimportantandsignificantasstudentteachingis,donotunderestimatetheimportantlearningopportunitiesthatcomewitheveryotherclinicalactivityandfieldexperience.Whetheritisobservingalesson,ormonitoringstudentbehaviorontheplaygroundorinthecafeteria,thereareopportunitiestolearn.Yourlearningwillnotalwaysbeaboutteaching;itmightbeaboutcharacteristicsofstudents,orclassroomorschoolprocedures.TheImpact-concernedcandidatealwaystakesadvantageofeveryactivityasanopportunitytolearnsomethingnew.Onewaytodothisistosetapersonalobjective:IneveryexperienceIwillseektolearnatleastonenewthing.Whenyouengageeachexperiencewiththeexpressedintentionoflearningsomethingnew,youwill!
Besuretoexpressyourappreciationtotheteacher(s)whopermittedyoutobethere.Theydidnothavetoopenthedoor.Teachersareundertremendouspressuretomakeeveryminutecount.Manyareself-conscious(Selfconcerns?)aboutlettinganyoneobservethem.WithouttheiropennessyouwouldhavetolearnthebasicsofteachingOJT(onthejob).Sobesuretosay“thankyou.”
UnderstandingandUsingEvidence
AnalyzingTeachers’ConcernsAboutTeaching
Inmostofthechaptersinthistext,theUnderstandingandUsingEvidenceboxhasrequiredyoutoworkwithquantitativedata.Thetaskrequiredworkingwithnumbersorgraphicrepresentationsanddevelopinganinterpretation.Inaddition,eachoftheseactivitieswasbasedindataaboutstudentsorschools.Thetaskforthischapterisdifferentintwoways.Firstofall,thesubjectisteachersandaspiringteacherslikeyou.Second,thedataarequalitativeinsteadofquantitative.
Open-EndedConcernsStatementsFromThreeStudentTeachers
Thefollowingparagraphswerewrittenbystudentteachers.
JoAnne
Yesterday,rightinthemiddleofmylesson,oneofmystudentsraisedhishandandaskedmewhoIwentoutwithSaturdaynight!Isaidthatwewereinthemidstofthelessonnow.Ijustwentonwiththelesson.Itreallyshookme.Idon’treallymindsayingwhateverIwasdoing,becausetheyreallydidseemeSaturdaynight.ShouldIhavehadhimstayafterschoolforasking?Ifeltlikeignoringit—itwastheonlythingIcoulddo.ButI’mnotsureifIwaslosingcontrol.Willtheydisrespectmeforit?Idon’tknowhowtoreacttoit.
Greg
Now,Iamlessconcernedabouttheirlearningthefactsandmoreinterestedintheirseeingthegeneralpatternsandunderstandingtheconcepts.Ifthereisawordorconcepttheydon’tunderstand,westopandgooverit.Irealizemoreclearlynowhowlittletheyknowandhowlackingtheirbackgroundis.WhenIcanhelpthemmaketheconnections,theyreallygetit.
Sue
Myfatherwantsmetogetateachingcertificate.RightnowIammostconcernedaboutgettingmarried.Wehavebookedthehotelandhavethephotographertoo.Butthereissomuchtodointhenexttwomonths!
YourTask
Analyzingconcernsstatements:UsethedescriptionsofthefourareasofconcernpresentedinTable16.1toassesseachoftheconcernsstatements.WhatareasandStagesofConcernarerepresentedineachstatement?Firstrereadeachconcernsstatementanddetermineitsoverallflavor.DoesitsoundmostlikeUnconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact?ThenreadeachsentenceandassignaspecificStageofConcerntoit.Howcouldyousummarizeyouranalysis?
AnalyzingandSummarizingTeacherConcernsStatements
Thethreeopen-endedconcernsstatementsreflectverydifferentStagesofConcern.Onewaytosummarizeeachteacher’sconcernswouldbetoconstructatable.

StudentTeacher

OverallAreaofConcern

Stage(s)ofConcern

JoAnne

Self

Stage2Personal

Greg

Impact

Stage4Consequence

Sue

Unconcerned(aboutteaching)

Stage0Unconcerned
AddressingTheirConcerns
Givenhowdifferenteachstudentteacher’sconcernsare,probablyeachpersonshouldbesupportedindividually.
JoAnne’sconcernscouldbeaddressedthroughatalkwithhercooperatingteacherorstudentteachersupervisor.Therewilldefinitelybetimeswhenstudentsaskinappropriatequestionsoraskthematthewrongtime.JoAnne’snotlettingthequestiondisrupttheflowofthelessoncertainlymadesense.Inthisparticularcase,JoAnnemightalsoconsidernotgoingtothecertainplacesontheweekendwhereherstudentswillseeher.
GregclearlyhasImpactconcernsatStage4,Consequence.Heisfocusedonhowwellhisstudentsarelearning.Healsoisdiscoveringhowimportantitistobeknowledgeableaboutthelearningbackgroundandexperienceseachstudentbringstohisclasses.Nowhischallengeisinhelpingstudentsbuildabridge/scaffoldfromwheretheyaretounderstandingtheconceptsthatGregisteaching.Hemightwanttoreadmoreaboutinformalwaystoassessstudentunderstanding,andlearnmoreabouthisstudents’backgroundofout-of-schoolexperiencesthatcouldbeusedtohelpthemunderstandin-classcontent.
Suedoesn’tseemtohaveteaching-relatedconcerns.Althougheachofuswillhavepersonalthingsgoingoninourlives,whenitcomestobeingasuccessfulteacherthenonteachingconcernsneedtobesetaside.SomeoneneedstohelpSuefocusonherresponsibilitiesasateacher.Shealsoshouldseriouslyconsiderthisquestion:Doyoureallywanttobeateacher?
ChallengingAssumptions
Shouldstudentteachingbedoneinthemostdifficultandhard-to-staffsettings?
Manysuggestthatstudentteachingassignmentsshouldbeinthemostchallengingschools—schoolswithmorelow-performingstudentsandmoreteacherturnover—therationalebeingthattheseschoolsarethemostlikelysettingsforthefirstassignmentsofbeginningteachersandthatmorecanbelearnedfromhavingintensiveexperiencesinthesesettings.Thecounterrationalisthatstudentteacherscanlearnmoreinschoolsthatareeasiertostaffandofferdesirableteachingconditions.
Moststudiesoflearningoutcomesfocusonwhattheschoolstudentslearn.InthestudyreportedbyMatthewRonfeldt(2012),thefocuswasonexaminingtheoutcomesoftheschoolplacementsofstudentteachers.Twoofthestudyquestionswere(1)Wereteacherswhohadstudenttaughtinadifficult-to-staffschoolmoreorlesslikelytoleaveteachinginthefirst5years?and(2)Didteacherswhohadstudenttaughtinadifficult-to-staffschoolhavehigherorlowerstudentgainswhencomparedwithteacherswhohadstudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschools?
StudyDesignandMethod
Administrativeandsurveydatafromnearly3,000NewYorkCityteachers,theirstudents,andtheirschoolswereanalyzed.Theteachersinthestudysamplewere,onaverage,30yearsold,65%white,andthree-fourthsfemale.Forty-sevenpercentofthesamplecamethroughanearlyentryteachereducationprogram,eitherTeachforAmericaorTeachingFellows.
StudyFindings
Thestudyfoundthat:(1)teacherswhostudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschoolshadhigherretentionrates,(2)teacherswhostudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschoolsweremoreeffectiveatraisingtestscores,and(3)teacherswhodidtheirstudentteachingineasier-to-staffschoolshadbetterretentionandachievementgainseveniftheyhadtheirfull-timeteachingassignmentsinthehardest-to-staffschoolswiththemostunderservedstudentpopulations.
Implications
Thefindingsfromthisstudysuggestthatfutureteacherslearnmoreaboutteachingwhentheirstudentplacementisinschoolsthatarefunctioningmoreeffectively.Inthesesettingstheycanexperiencemoreeffectiveinstruction,bementoredbymoreeffectivefunctioningteachers,andexperiencewhatitisliketobeinaschoolthatoverallisdoingwell.ThefindingsfromtheRonfeldtstudysuggestthatwhatislearnedinthesesettingsiscarriedintotheirsucceedingyearsasfull-timeteachers.
Asyourtimeforstudentteachingnears,youwillwanttothinkaboutthealternativebeliefsaboutwheretobeplacedforstudentteachingandtoconsidercarefullythefindingsfromthisstudy.
Source:Ronfeldt,M.(2012,March).Whereshouldstudentteacherslearntoteach?Effectsoffieldplacementschoolcharacteristicsonteacherretentionandeffectiveness.EducationalEvaluationandPolicyAnalysis,34(1),3–26.
WHATARETHEKEYSTOBEINGHIREDASABEGINNINGTEACHER?
IamRoundRockbredandhavemadethefullcircle.Iwenttoschoolhere,graduatedfromhere,Ididmystudentteachinghere,andnowIteachhere.Also,Ialwayshavebeenamentortochildren,eveninhighschool.ItissomethingIenjoydoing.Ifeelsostronglyaboutdoingsomethinginmyowncommunity.Iwanttohelptheupcominggeneration.ThisismywayofstayingintunewithwhatIliketodo.—Ms.Velasquez
VideoLink
Learnmoreaboutteachertraining.
BackinChapter1weintroducedyoutothebigpictureofwhatisentailedinbecomingateacher.Ineachofthesucceedingchaptersanothermajoraspectofteachingwasintroduced.Itisnottooearlyforyoutonowbeginthinkingaboutwhatwillbeneededandwhatitwillbeliketoseekandgetyourfirstteachingposition.Therewillbeanumberofapplicantscompetingformostpositions.Thisisespeciallytrueforlow-needareassuchaselementary,socialstudies,andphysicaleducation.AswasintroducedinChapter1,thereareanumberofstepsandrequirementsthatmustbecompletedtobecomeafullyqualifiedteacher.Nowisthetimetobeginanticipatingandpreparingwhatyouwillneedtohaveaccomplishedandbeabletodemonstratesothatyouaretheonethatwillbehiredfortheteachingpositionyouwouldmostliketohave.
RequirementsforObtainingaTeacherLicense
Thelicensingrequirementsforpublicschoolteachersaresetbyeachstate.Inaddition,federallegislation,suchaswhathappenedunderNCLB,canmandatethateachstatehastoestablishcertainrequirementsforteachersthatare“highlyqualified.”Forexample,overthelastseveralyearseachstatehashadtodevelopateacherevaluationmodelthatisatleastinpartbasedinstudenttestscores.
DeeperLook
Readaboutteachercertificationrequirements.
Thefollowingaretypicalbasicrequirementsforobtainingateachinglicense:
· Successfulcompletionofastate-approvedpreparationprogram.Programsmaybeofferedbyahighereducationinstitution,aschooldistrict,oranotheragency.
·
Criminalbackgroundcheck
,includingfingerprinting.Noonewithacriminalrecordmayteach.
· Passingstate-requiredtests,typicallyofcontentandpedagogicalknowledge.Insomestatesexamplesofteachingperformance,suchasaportfolioorteacherworksample,mayberequired.
· Havingamajorandperhapsadvancedstudyinthesubject(s)youplantoteach.
Inajobinterviewitislikelythatteacherapplicantswillbeaskedtoprovideevidenceofhowtheyhaveaffectedstudentlearning.
Inadditiontostaterequirements,eachschooldistrictmayhaveadditionalrequirements.Ifyouhavenotdoneso,checkbothyourstateandyourpreferredschooldistrictwebsitesforthespecificrequirementsyoumustmeetinordertobeeligibletoapplyforateachingposition.
GettingYourFirstTeachingPosition
Alloftheeffortthatyouareputtingintobecomingateacherwillbefornaughtifyouarenotsuccessfulinobtainingateachingposition.Untilrecentlytherewasademandforteachersinallareas,especiallytheSouthwest.Nowwithbudgetcutsthereisheavycompetitionforeachandeveryopening.Thefollowingareafewsuggestionsforbeingsuccessfulinthesearch.
WheretoLookforTeachingPositions
Allpublicschoolopeningswillbepublishedandopentoallqualifiedapplicants.Theplacetobegin,ifthereisaparticularschooldistrictwhereyouwouldliketoteach,isbycheckingitswebsite.Thedistricthomepagewillincludealinktothehumanresourcesdepartmentormaydirectlylinktopositionsthatarecurrentlyopen.Evenifyouwillnotbeteachingforseveralyears,nowwouldbeagoodtimetocheckadistrict’swebsiteandstudythepositionrequirements.Takecarefulnotesaboutwhatisentailedinmakinganapplication.
AnotherusefulresourceforfindingoutaboutopeningsisEducationWeek.ThisisthenationalnewspaperfortheK–12educationprofession.Itispublishedweeklyduringtheschoolyearandreportsonnational,state,andlocaleducationtopics.Atthebackwillbemanypagesofclassifiedadvertisements,whereschooldistrictspublishtheirpositionopenings.
Don’tforgettocheckoutstateeducationdepartmentwebsites,manyofwhichlistjobopenings.Ifyouareinterestedinteachingoverseas,itispossible:
DepartmentofDefenseEducationActivity(DoDEA)
ToservethefamiliesofU.S.militarypersonnelstationedoverseas,theDepartmentofDefense(http://www.dodea.edu)operatesschoolsanddistrictsinmanylocationsinEurope,Japan,Korea,andtheMiddleEast.DoDEAalsooperatesschoolsonsomemilitarybasesintheUnitedStates.
OverseasSchools
TheU.S.DepartmentofState(http://www.state.gov)andmanyothergovernmentagencieshavepersonnelworkinginothercountries.Manyofthesefamiliessupporttheoperationofindependentlocalschools.TheseschoolsarenotfundeddirectlybytheU.S.government,buttheyaresupportedbythemthroughteacherprofessionaldevelopmentandwebsitelinks.Althougheachschooldoesitsownhiring,schooladministratorsandteacherrecruitersregularlyvisitassociationmeetingsintheUnitedStates.
PrivateSchools
TherearemanyprivateschoolsinothercountriesthatemployAmericanteachers.Forexample,childrenofoilcompanyemployeesbasedintheMiddleEastcanattendcompany-supportedschools,whichuseAmericancurriculumandteachers(e.g.,AramcoinSaudiArabia,http://jobs.saudiaramco.com).Variouschurchgroupssupportschoolsinothercountriestoo.Probablythebestapproachtofindingoutaboutopeningsforteachersistomakedirectcontactwithaparticularschool’soffice.
TeachingEnglishAbroad
AnotherstrategyforgainingateachingpositionoverseasistoteachEnglishtostudentsofthehostcountry.AnumberofcountriessuchasJapan,SouthKorea,andChinaareveryactiveinrecruitingteachersofEnglish.Apotentialdownsidetothisstrategyisthatmanyofthepositionsprovidelittleifanysalary.Manyoftheopportunitiesareinveryruralareas,whichmeansoneneedstobemoreadventuresomeandreadytolive,andteach,withfeweroftheaccustomedamenities.
IdeasforYourProfessionalResume
Animportantdocument,thatyoucanbeginpreparingnow,isaprofessionalresume(seeFigure16.1).Thisisaone-(ornomorethantwo-)pagesummaryofyourqualificationsandrelatedexperiences.Althoughmostofthecategoriesseemobvious,preparingastrongresumewilltakesometimeandthought.Yourportfoliotasksandartifactswillbeausefulresource.Keepinmindthatemployersarelookingnotonlyforteacherswhohavegoodgrades,butalsoforoneswhocandocumentthattheycanmakeamajordifferenceinstudentlearning.Theyalsowillbelookingforteacherswhowillbearesourcetotheschoolandcontributetothecommunity.(WhatdidMs.Velasquezhavetosayaboutthis?)Theywillbeinterestedinyourpastworkexperiences,eveniftheywerenotineducation.Yourresumeprovidestheopportunitytodocumentnotonlythatyoumeetthebasicrequirementsforthepositionbutalsothatyoubringadditionalrelatedexpertiseandvaluableexperience.
Figure16.1ProfessionalResume:SuggestionsforTopicsandElements

NAME

ADDRESS

PHONENUMBER

E-MAIL(DON’TUSEASILLYE-MAILADDRESS.)

Philosophy/BioParagraph:Inoneparagraph,describewhoyouareandwhyyouwanttobeateacher.Whatdoyoubelieveaboutteachingandstudents?Whyareschoolsimportant?

QUALIFICATIONS

Education:Listcollegedegreesandanyspecializedcertificates.Don’tforgettonametheinstitution(s),andprobablythedatesforeach.YoumightwanttoincludeGPAorotherindicatorsofstrengthandquality.

Licensure:Namethelicenseandareasofcertification.

SpecialCertifications:Nameanyendorsements,suchasspecialeducationorELL.

Recognitions:Listhonors,awards,andotherformsofrecognition.

SpecialSkills:Doyouhaveareasofexpertiseorspecialskills,suchasspeakingasecondlanguage?Haveyoulivedindifferentplaces,orabroad?Haveyouhadleadershipexperiencesinwork,yourcommunity,oryourchurch?

ExamplesofYourTeaching:Haveavailableartifactsoftheworkandevidenceofthelearningthathastakenplacewhenyouhavebeenteaching.Beabletoprovidephotosofstudentsandtheirwork(don’tforgettohaveparentpermissions)and/orvideosofyourteaching.

WorkExperience:Listpastworkexperiences.Thesemayincludenonschoolwork.Listthosethatdemonstratethatyouarereliable,thatyoucanholdajobovertime,andthatyouwillbringarangeofexperiencestotheclassroom.

CommunityService:Describewaysthatyouhavebeen,orare,involvedingivingbackthroughvolunteeractivities,orinotherwaysprovidingservicetooneormorepartsofyourcommunity.

OutsideInterests:Perhapsyouwillwanttolisthobbiesorotheractivitiesthatareanimportantpartofyourlife.Thesecanbeespeciallyusefulforhighschoolteacherswhoareexpectedtoworkwithco-curricularactivities.
TeacherDispositionsAreVeryImportant
Asnecessaryasmeetingtheofficiallicensurerequirementsandcompletingprogramrequirementsare,anunstated,butveryimportantcriterionforbecomingateacheris
dispositions
.Theattitudes,beliefs,andvaluesthatteachersholdaboutstudents,thesubjectstheyteach,theircolleagues,parents,andtheschoolarecritical.Teacherswhoarenotexcitedaboutthesubjectstheyteachcannotdevelopenthusiasmforthesubjectintheirstudents.Teacherswhodonotbelievethatcertainstudents(boys/girls,poor,brown,specialneeds,orELL)canlearncannothelpthosestudentslearn.Teacherswhodonotseevalueintheircolleagues,parents,andtheschoolcannothelptheschoolbesuccessful.ReflectbackontheinterviewquotesfromMs.Velasquez.Thereisnothingnegativeorundercuttingaboutanythingthatshesays.Sheisenthusiastic,andshereflectsabeliefthatallstudentscanlearnandthatshecanbeapositiveinfluenceonstudents,colleagues,andhercommunity.Everythingthatshesaidhadtodowithopportunitiesandpossibilities,notbarriers.High-qualityteachersalwaysthink,teach,andleadwithaviewthattheglassishalffull,nothalfempty.
DeeperLook
Readabouttheimportanceofteacherdispositions.
INWHATWAYSCANCANDIDATESANDTEACHERSBELEADERS?
Ihavecolleagues,specialists,theprincipal,andmanyparentscomingintomyclassroom.Also,IamontheDistrictAdvisoryCouncil.Ateacherfromeveryschoolisonthiscouncil.Wemeetwiththesuperintendentonceamonthtodiscussissuesgoingonwithinthedistrict.Hebouncesideasofftheteacherstoseewhichwayhewantstogo.Iwillcontinuetoworkonmyteachingcraftduringthesummermonths,teachingenrichmentcoursestostudentsforthedistrictandbyattendingprofessionaldevelopmenttrainingsfocusedonmypersonallearninggoals.
Asaleader,Igobacktotheideathatitisbusiness,notpersonal.Ifanythingneedstobeaddresseditisbecauseitisgoingtoaffecttheoverallwellnessofmykids.So,Ijustlayoutexpectations.IfIhaveaproblemwithaparent,Iaddressitwiththem.
Asaleaderyouareresponsibleformaintainingprofessionalismatalltimes.Problemsthatthreatenyourgoaloftheacademicachievementofyourstudentsneedtobeaddressedimmediately.Layingoutexpectationsandnormswiththecolleaguesyouworkwithnotonlypromotescollaboration,butguaranteesrespectforallprofessionals.Concernswithparentsneedtobehandledconfidentiallyandimmediately.Establishapositiverapportwithparentsatthestartoftheyear.Concernscaneasilyberesolvedifyouarebothawarethateachisworkingtowardtheacademicachievementoftheirchild!—Ms.Velasquez
Contrarytowhatyoumayhavethought,leadershipisnotreservedtotheprincipalorthesuperintendent.Allmembersofanorganizationhaveleadershipresponsibilities.Thisistrueforschools,businesses,churchgroups,andfamilies.Unfortunately,toomanyteachereducationcandidatesandteachersassumethattheyhavenoleadershipresponsibilities.Infact,theoppositeistrue—everymemberoftheschoolstaff,includingthosewhorefusetoparticipate,affectspotentialprogressandsuccess.Leadershipskillsandfunctionscanbelearned,andparticipatingindifferentwayscanbeinformative,influential,interesting,andevenfun.Therearemanyunofficialandinformalwaystocontributetoleadership,andthereareformalleaderpositionsandcareerpathsforthosewhoaremotivatedtomakeadifferenceinwhatthewholeschoolordistrictaccomplishes.
VideoLink
Watchavideoaboutteacherleadership.
DifferentWaysTeachersCanLead
Teacherstendtofirstthinkaboutleadershipassomethingthatadministratorsdo.Inthiswayofthinkingtheonlypeoplewhoareleadersarethosewhohaveofficialtitlesandresponsibilitiessuchastheprincipal,departmentchair,viceprincipal,andsuperintendent.However,scholarsmakeacarefuldistinctionbetween
leaders
and
leadership
.Leadersarethosewithformal,andinformal,rolesandresponsibilitiesrelatedtoagrouporthewholeschoolaccomplishingitsobjectives.Leadershipencompassestheactionsofleading.Allmembersoftheschoolstaffhavealeadershipresponsibility.Youcannotescapethisresponsibility;youeitherhelporhindertheattainmentofthedesiredends.Teacherleadershipisaccomplishedthroughanumberofways.
FormalTeacherLeadership
Therearemanyopportunitiesforteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherstohaveformalleaderresponsibilities.Forexample,Ms.Velasquezisprovidingleadershipwithinhersecond-gradeteamofsixteachers.“Ourcampusisverybigoncollaborativeplanning.Wewriteourlessonstogether.Thenthereistheexpectationthatwewilltweakthemtomeetourstudents.”Otherwaysthatabeginningteachercanleadincludechairingschoolcommittees,servingasgrade-levelteamleader,andbeingthecoordinatorofaco-curriculumsuchaspepsquadoryearbook,orbybeinganassistantcoach.
Duringtheremainderofyourteachereducationprogramtherewillbeanumberofopportunitiestobeaformalleader.Theseincludeservingastherepresentativetoorganizecandidatesforanaccreditationvisit,chairingthestudenteducationassociationorhonorsociety,andservingonthestudentadvisoryboard.Duringstudentteachingtheremaybeopportunitiestoassumesomeresponsibilitywithintheschool.Thebasicmessagehereisthatratherthanavoidingleaderassignments,takethemon.Thisisthebestwaytolearnmoreaboutbeingaleader—bydoingit!
Therewillbeopportunitiesthroughouttheschoolyearforbeginningteacherstoshareandlearnfromcolleagues.
WorkingWithParents
Thereisabigdifferencebetween
engagingparents
and
involvingparents
.Itisrelativelysimpletoengageparentsbyhavingoccasionalnotesforstudentstotakehome.Amuchhigherlevelofinvestmentisneededtofullyinvolveparentsintheschoolandteachers’classrooms(seeFigure16.2).Involvingparentsmeansmakingthemanecessarypartofwhatgoeson.Involvingparentsintheschoolisveryimportantformanyreasons.Themoreparentsunderstandaboutwhatisgoingonthemoresupportivetheycanbe.Thestudentsofinvolvedparentsarelikelytohavebetterattendanceandbettergrades.Theyalsoaremorelikelytocompletehomeworkassignments.Anadditionaloutcomeinmostschoolsisadditionalfundingfortheschool.Insomeschoolsparentswillbeadirectsupporttoteachers.Forexample,inMs.Velasquez’sschoolthereisadesignatedroomforparents.Therearethreetosixparentsthereeveryday!
Figure16.2SuggestionsforIncreasingParentInvolvement

1.Giveyourstudents“talkingpoints”totellparentsaboutwhattheyarelearning.

2.Helpparentsdevelopahomeenvironmentthatsupportstheirchildrenlearning(e.g.,“NoTVnights”).

3.Provideparentswithawaytoguideandcheckontheirchild’shomework(e.g.,arubric,oradescriptionofthelearningobjective,oranassignmentthatparentscandowiththeirchild).

4.Establishawaytohavetwo-waycommunication:Teachertoparentsandparentstoteacher,intheirlanguage.

5.Encourageparentstovolunteerinyourclassroom(e.g.,puttingupbulletinboardsand/orguidingsmall-groupwork).

6.Attendeventsandactivitiesinthecommunity.

7.Surveyparentsaboutwhattheirchildrenlikeaboutyourclassroomandaboutanyconcernstheymighthave.

8.Placeyourlessonplansandassignmentsonline.(ThisisastatemandateinAlabama.)

9.KeepinmindthatparentsarelikelytohaveSelfconcernsaboutmeetingyou,sobecalm,supportive,andinformed.

10.Keepyourschooladministratorsinformedaboutthewaysyouareplanningtoinvolveparentsinyourclassroom.
Ourparentsareveryinvolved.Theywillbeoncampuseveryday.Ifteachershavesomethingtheyneeddone,suchasabulletinboard,copies,somethingcutout,aparentwillvolunteertodothat.ThereisaroomcalledtheProCenter.Thatiswheretheparentsareandtheytakeonjobsthatateachermightnothavetimefor.Theyarethereallthetime.Also,theyorganizeeventsandfundraisers.
Ataminimum,teachersmustcommunicatewiththeparentsofthestudentsintheirclassroom.Thisisanotherformofleadership.Insomeschoolsparentswillbeavailabletohelpintheclassroom.Inthosesituations,teachersmustdevelopskillorganizingandguidingwhatparentsdo.InMs.Velasquez’sschoolthereismore:
Inmycaselotsoftheparentshavecollegedegrees.Twoofmyparentsareformersecond-gradeteachers.Sotheyconductsmallreadinggroups.Wealsohaveaprogramcalled“WatchD.O.G.S.”(DadsofGreatStudents;http://fathers.com).Itisprettymuchadads’organization.Thedadstakeofffromworkandcometoourschoolforthewholeday.Theycometotheirchild’sclassroomandgotootherclassrooms,ortheyhelptheteacherwithwhateversheneeds.
InformalTeacherLeadership
Asimportantasformalleaderrolescanbe,theinformalrolesareimportantalso.Oneoftheleastunderstoodisthatof
followership
.Asgoodastheformalleadermaybe,heorshewillaccomplishlittleunlessthemembersofthegroup/team/committee/staffdotheirparts.Beingaconstructivememberofthegroup,offeringtohelp,contributingpositivelytothediscussions,andbeingsuretocompleteassignedtasks,withqualityandontime,areimportantskillsforallfollowers.Eachofushasexperiencedthecolleaguewhositsinmeetingswithfoldedarms,andtheonewhogradespapersratherthancontributingtothediscussion.Wealsohaveexperiencedtheteammemberwhopromisestodoataskandthendoesn’tdeliver.Effectivefollowershipentailsparticipatingandvolunteeringhelp.Ms.Velasquezoffersthesethoughts:
OutsideofschoolIvolunteerfortheNeighborhoodConferenceCommittee(NCC),whichaddressestruancywithintheRoundRockSchoolDistrict.Itdealswithfirst-timetruancyoffenders.Oncetheyhavebeenvisitedbyatruancyofficer,theirlaststepbeforetheyarereferredtothecourtsistocomebeforeNCC.Theymakeapositiveactionplantohelpthiskiddoseethelight,sotospeak.
Arelatedconceptisthatof
distributedleadership
.Theprimaryassumptioninthismodelofleadershipisthatratherthanleadershipbeingthesoleresponsibilityoftheformalleaderatthetopoftheorganization,akatheprincipal,leadershipshouldbedistributedtomanypeopleandbeseenasasharedresponsibility.Distributedleadershipisparticularlyusefulinschoolswhereteachersareseenasprofessionalswhoseworkisnottobecloselysupervised.Asprofessionals,teachersareexpectedtoassumeandshareresponsibilitiesforleadership.
LeadingAdultsIsaBigChallengeforBeginningTeachers
Asgoodasbeingateacherleadermaysound,therewillbechallenges—especiallyforfirst-yearteachers.Basedonherexperience,Ms.Velasquezofferedthefollowinginsights:
Idofinditchallenging.LastyearIfounditmorechallenging,becausenotonlydidIhavethefirst-yearteacherstigma,Ihadmyage.Whatparentwantstobetalkedtoaboutanyproblemwiththeirchildfroma22-year-old?Itwasdifficult.IfoundthatInotonlyhadtohaveinnerconfidence,butthatIalsohadtohaveouterconfidence.ThemoreconfidencethatIshowedthebetterIwasreceived.
Asmuchofaclichéasitsounds,dressingprofessionalhelpedalot.Throughmyactions,showingthemthatIknowwhatIamtalkingabout.Theircomingintomyclassroom,seeinghowIrunmyclassroom,howmyclassroommanagementskillsare,andhowIinteractwiththeirchildreallycalmeddownmyparentswhoknewIwasafirst-yearteacher.Atthebeginningoftheyear,Ihadareallylotofparentinvolvement.ThenaroundDecemberitallwentaway.Soitwaskindofliketheyweretestingmeout,thenonceIbuiltarelationshipwiththem,andtheyknewwhatIwasabout,allmyparentskindofeasedup.
CareerPathOptionsforTeachers
Althoughatthispointyouarethinkingmostlyaboutcompletingyourinitialteachereducationprogram,becominglicensedtoteach,andobtainingyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition,itisnottooearlytolearnaboutthevariouscareeroptionsthatareopentoteachers.Inthepastmostteachersstayedintheclassroomasteachersfor20or30years.(Oneofyourauthorsonceinterviewedateacherwhohadtaughtkindergarteninthesameschoolandinthesameclassroomfor26years!)Today,thecareeroptionsforteachersaremanyincludingchanginggradelevelsandschoolswithinthesamedistrict.
BecomingaSchoolAdministrator
Themostobviouscareerstepisto“moveup”theadministrationladder.Becomingadepartmentchair,anassistantprincipal,andthenprincipalisthecareerpathchosenbysometeachers.Nearlyallschoolanddistrictadministratorswillhavebeenteachersearlierintheircareers;thisincludesthesuperintendent.Therealsoaremanystaffassignmentsopentoteachers.Withinschoolsthereareanumberofspecialistpositionssuchasforliteracyortechnology,aswellascommunityliaisonsandspecialeducationresourceteachers.Manyotherstaffpositionsareavailableinthedistrictoffice,includingcurriculumcoordinators,staffdevelopers,technologydirectors,andtheprofessionalsthatworkwithfederalfundssuchasTitleI,bilingual,compensatoryeducation,andspecialeducation.Inbrief,therearemanycareeroptionswithinschoolsandthedistrictofficeforteacherswhowishtoexpandtheirhorizonsandmoveintoleadershippositions.
GraduateStudies
Pursuingoneormoregraduatedegreesisanotherwaytokeeplearningandtoadvanceyourcareer.Inmostschooldistrictsobtainingacertainnumberofhoursofadvancestudyoragraduatedegreewillbereflectedinincreasesinsalary.Therearemanypossibilitiesintermsofdegreeoptionsandareasofconcentration.Thefirststepformostteachersistotakegraduatecourseworkandobtainamaster’sdegree.Thisdegreecouldbeincurriculumandinstruction,educationaltechnology,orasubjectareasuchasliteracy,history,mathematics,orscienceeducation.Otherteacherswillwanttoreceiveadvancepreparationinspecialeducation,learning,orassessment.Master’sdegreesinspecialeducationoreducationalpsychologywilladdresstheseareas.
Anotherdirectionforgraduatestudyiseducationalleadership.Mostoftheseprogramswillincludemeetingthestatequalificationsforanadministratorlicense.Somefocuslessonlicensepreparationandmoreonleadershipdevelopmentperse.Mostmaster’sdegreeswillentailaround35semesterhoursofcoursework.
Onceamaster’sdegreehasbeencompleted,thereisthepossibilityofpursuingthedoctoraldegree.Dependingontheinstitutionofhighereducation,oneoftwodoctoraldegreeswillbeavailable.TheEdDisadoctoraldegreespecificallydesignedforeducators.Inmostinstitutionsthiswillbeapractitioner-orientedcourseofstudy.ThePhDmaybepractitionerorientedbutmoreoftenismoreresearchfocused.Ineithercase,theprogramwillincludefurthercourseworkandthepenultimatecomponentwillbethedissertationstudy.Thiswillbeanoriginalresearchstudyaddressingsomeaspectofteaching,learning,curriculum,orleadership,orsomeotheraspectofschooling.Mostdoctoralprogramswillinclude30to40hoursofcoursework“beyondthemaster’s,”andapproximately12hoursofcreditforthedissertation.
Teacherswhowishtobecomefacultymembersincollegesoruniversitieswillneedadoctoraldegree.Althoughthispossibilityforyouisanumberofyearsaway,beginningtounderstandnowwhatthestepsandqualificationsareforcareeradvancementintroducessomeofthemanypossibilitiesandprovidesbackgroundinformationforuseinfutureplanning.
Teachers’Lounge
UseWhatYou’veGot!
Terror!ThatwastheonlywayIcandescribemyreactionwhenmymentorforstudent-teachingtoldmehewasbeingmovedfromthemiddleschoolbacktothehighschool,wherehehadtaughtthirteenyearsago.“So,”hesaid,“insteadofteachingIntroductoryFrenchtoseventhandeighth-gradestudents,youwillbeteachingninth-gradeFrenchHonors,andtenth-andeleventh-gradeFrenchRegents.”Honors!HowwasIgoingtobesmartenoughtodothat?Eleventhgrade?Iwasnineteenyearsold,5′2″talland105poundssoakingwet!Whywouldtheylistentome?Hesensedmyconcern.“Look,asteachersweusewhateverwe’vegottoreachthestudents.I’m6′4″withaboomingvoice.Youhaveawarm,exuberantsmileandtremendousenergy.That’swhatyou’lluse.”
Believeme,IpracticedmyFrench(andmysmile)nonstopduringthesummerleadinguptostudent-teaching.Tomyamazement,mymentorteacherwasright.Iwasabletobuildrapportquicklyandeasilyandmakemybehaviorexpectationsclear.Ineverneededabigvoice,notthennorinanyphaseofmyteaching.
Asanewteacher,IwantedtolearnasmuchasIpossiblycould.IembracedeveryprofessionaldevelopmentopportunityIcouldfind.Iwassucharegularparticipantinworkshopsthat,aftertenyearsofteachingchildren,Iwashiredtoteachworkshopstoteachers.
Terroragain!Iwasthirtyyearsoldandgoingtotellveteranteachershowtodotheirjobsbetter?WhatwasIthinking?Idiscussedthiswithmyboss.Hisreply?
“Wehaveaphrasearoundherethatmighthelpyou—Fakeituntilyoumakeit!”IthoughtthatsoundedlikegoodadviceuntilIlookedatthelistofteacherswhowouldattendmyworkshopthenextweek.Myfifth-gradeteacher(whoIhadadored)wasattending!IknewIcouldn’tfakeit.ItwasthenthatIrememberedmystudentteachingmentor’sadvice.“Usewhatyou’vegot”becamemymantraand,stillteachingworkshopstwenty-fouryearslater,thesmileandenergyseemtobeworking!
LauriPepeBousquet
LeMoyneCollege
HOWDOESAMASTERTEACHERTHINKABOUTTHEJOYOFTEACHING?
Oneofthemajorthemesembeddedwithineachchapterofthistextisthejoyofteaching.Theauthorsseethisthemebeingcritical,sincehavingjoyinwhatyoudoasateacherissoimportanttoyouandtothestudentsandadultsyouworkwith.Joyisaboutemotions.Itisseeingsuccessineachstudent,takingdelightintheirlearningandhowtheclassisgrowing.Joyincludesthegreatpleasurethatcomesfrommakingadifferenceineachandeverystudent.Itcomesinthesatisfactionofhavingalessongowell.Italsocomesingrapplingwiththemajorchallengesinteachingandschooling,andknowingthatbeingateacherisimportant.
WhenaskedaboutjoyMs.Velasquezobserved,
KnowingIamgivingbacktomycommunity.That’sahugepartofit.Igetachancetoteachinmyowncommunity.Seeingthechildrengrow.Thereisveryquantitativedata.Youcanseeachildgrowinreading.Youcanseeachildgrowinwriting.Andyoualsocanseethemgrowsociallythroughtheirinteractionseveryday.
VideoCase
KeystoSucceeding
1.Whataretheseteacherssayingarethemostimportantreasonsforbecomingateacher?
2.Howwelldoyourexpectationsalignwiththeviewsoftheseteachers?
Peopleinbusinessgainagreatdealoftheirsatisfactionfromtheamountofmoneytheymakeandthroughtheireffortstogrowabusiness.Teachersmostcertainlyarenotjoyfulwhentheyseethesizeoftheirpaychecks.Forteachersthejoycomesfromthedifferencetheymakeinthelivesoftheirstudents.Thereisjoyinseeingthelightbulbcomeonforastudentwhohasbeenstrugglingtounderstandaconcept.Thereisjoyinseeingthewholeclassworktogethertosharestrategiesforsolvingapuzzlingproblem.Teachershaveenormousresponsibilities.Almostcompletelybythemselves,elementaryteachersareresponsibleforthecareandlearningof30studentsforanentireschoolyear.Secondaryteacherswillberesponsiblefor150studentseachday!Thereissatisfactionandpurposeinthislevelofresponsibilityandinmakingapositivedifference.
JoyandSatisfactioninTeachingCanBeCareerLong
Teachingisaverysignificantandspecialprofessionthatmostpeopledonotgettheopportunitytodo.Mostadultsneverhavetheopportunitytoteach.Yet,nearlyeveryadultcanreadilynameone,two,oreventhreeteachersthatmadeallthedifferencetothemandwhattheyhavebecome.Thisisanotherofthemanywaysthatteachersexperiencejoyinteaching.Whenoneoftheirformerstudentsreturnsanddescribesthedifferencetheteachermadeintheirlivesandhowsuccessfultheyarenow,theirteacherwillbedelighted.
Yourauthorscanreadilypointoutelementsofthisthemewithineachchapter.However,someoftheelementsofthisthemearemoresubtle.Theinclusionoflessobviouselementsofjoyhasbeenintentional.Seeingthejoyinteachingisinlargeparttheresponsibilityoftheobserver.Someteacherscanlisteverythingthatiswrongwithteachingandhavetothinkhardtorememberthegoodparts.Otherteachersonlyseethejoyintheirstudents,themselves,andtheirschool.Thisdifferenceinteachersisnotsimplyamatterofhowoldtheyare,orhowlongtheyhavebeenteaching.Itisapartofone’sspirit.Therearereallyoldteacherswhoarestillenthusiasticandlookingforopportunitiestolearnnewthings.Someteachereducationcandidatesalreadyaregrumps,whileothersarelaughingatthemselvesandoverflowingwithexcitementaboutlearningtoteach.Inmanyways,experiencingthejoyinteachingisyourresponsibility.
Toillustratethejoyofteachingandhowmasterteachersneverlosethisperspective,weendthistextwithaninterviewwithMrs.JoyceSchneider.Sheretiredafter42—yes,42—yearsofteaching!ParentswouldpresstheprincipaltohavetheirchildrenassignedtoMrs.Schneider’sclassroom.Shewasknownacrosstheentireschooldistrictasbeingaphenomenalteacher.Asaresultofherstatusasamasterteachershewasaskedtoserveondistrictandstatecommittees,toleadteacherworkshops,andtoteachteachereducationcourses.Sheworkedwiththelocaluniversity’sstudentteachingsupervisorstodeveloptheirstudentteachinghandbook.Sheisknownbyallasamasterteacherwhoalwaysseesthejoyinteaching.
Weaskedheraboutwhereshefoundjoyinteaching.Asyouwillseeintheinterviewexcerpts,shecontinuestohavehighenthusiasmaboutteachingandcontinuestobeinvolved.Asaresult,ourinterviewwanderedovermanytopicsandexperiences,andconcludedwithoneofthoseunplannedhappeningsthatsoclearlyillustratesthejoyofteaching.
“FirstofAll,ILoveKids”
Ilovekids.That’sthekey.WhenIwalkedintotheclassroom,Iwantedeveryonetofeelvalued.TheyhavetofeelthattheyareaveryimportantpartofthefamilythatIwasworkingwithasmyclassroom.Ineverlookedatmyclassasaclass.Ilookedatthemasindividualsthatcametogether.
EveryyearIgottoknowthemascompletelyasIcouldandthensay,howcanIhelpthatpersonbethebestheorshecanbe?Itwasfun!Iwoulddoalotofactivitiestogetthemtoempowerthemselves.
Forexample,atthestartofeveryyearIwouldwatchthem.Iwouldgreetthematthedoor,welcomethemtomyroom,andsay,“Iamsohappyyouarehere.”Wewouldexchangesmilesandpositivethings.IftheywereworkingonsomethingIwouldmakesurethatIasked,“Howdidyoudoonyourwritinglastnight?”“Didyoufinishthatchapterinthebookthatyouwereenjoying?”Therewasthatpositiveconnection,anditwasindividual.Iwasneveraphony;kidspickuponthatrealquick.
Ididthesamethingwhentheyleft:“OKnow,Iknowthatyouaregoingtoworkonyour5sinmultiplicationtonight.Whichonesareyoustillstrugglingwith,andwhichonesareyougoodat?”Iwouldbespecificandalwaysfocusonthepositives.“Iseeyouimprovinginyoursentencestructureandhere’swhy.”Thosekidswouldskipoutoftheroom.DoyouthinktheywantedtocomebackonMonday?Absolutely!
Iamapositiveperson.Itaughtthewholeclasstofocusonthepositives.Astheysawmedoit,theywouldbegintoseethesamethingsIsaw.Theywouldseethatthiskidimprovedonhiswriting,orreading,orbecameamuchbetterthinker.
RetiredteacherMrs.JoyceSchneidercontinuesgivingandlearning.
“ISawThatIWasMakingaDifference”
IstayedinteachingbecauseIsawthatIwasmakingadifference.Ilovetalkingwithkids.Ilovebuildingandempoweringpeople.Iwasnotalwaysastrongperson.Iwasveryquiet.Ihadtobuildpositivenessinmefirst,andthenIcouldbuilditinothers.Notonlydiditworkintheclassroom;parentswouldcometomeandsay,“Whateveryouaredoingismakingahugedifferenceinourfamily.”It’sthesameinbusinessandelsewhere;ifyouvaluethathumanbeing,theresultsaremagnificentandthejoyisthere.
Howadultsthinkandhowkidsthinkissodifferent.Theyaresoliteral.OnetimeweweresellingsomethingforPTA.Itwaschocolateorsomething.Therealsowasacouponthatthebuyercouldexchangeforsomething.Ipointedouttothekidsthatitdidn’tcostthemthatmuchforthechocolatebecausetheywouldgetthepricebackthroughthefreecoupon.Thekidswentouttosellandonecamebackandsaid,“Thisdidn’twork.Wedidn’tgetitforfree.”Hehadthoughtthatitwasreallyfree,insteadofhavingtobuythechocolate.Theythinkinveryliteralwaysandhavetodevelophigh-levelthinking.
Iknowthatpeoplekeepsayingthat“kidsaredifferenttoday,”butIdidn’tseethatdifference.Ialwaystaughtthechild.Whenyouteachthechildandaddresstheirneeds,itisn’tawholelotdifferent.Youlookatthepersonandsay,“Heneedsorganizationalskills.”Thisotherpersonneeds…Ithinkalotofpeopleusethosestatementsascop-outs.Ineverfeltthatway.Ialwaystaughtindividualkids.Itaughtkidstolovetolearn.
Thereismuchjoytobefoundinteachingandlearning—forstudentsandtheirteachers.
My[students’]parentswouldsaytome,“Ican’tputmyfingeronit,butwhatyoudowithkidsisphenomenal.Youbringincurrentevents.Youbringinhumanintereststoriesandyoutalkaboutthem.Yougetthemtolookatthewholeworldinadifferentway.Thentheycomehomeandteachusthesamethings.”
“ILovedSharingWithOthers”
Ifsomethingworkedforme,Ilovedsharingitwithothers.Ilovedstartingsomethingthatworked,sharingit,andmakingitevenbetter.Or,ifsomebodywouldsay,“Boy,amIhavingastrugglewiththis,”Ilovedsharingideaswiththem.Theywouldgoback,andthenIwouldsaytothem,“Howdidthatwork?”And,ifitdidn’tworkwewouldspendsomemoretimefiguringoutwhattotrynext.
Igotalotofjoyoutofstudentteacherstoo.Ihadatleast25studentteachers.Wewouldevaluatelessons,howtheythoughtitwent,whattheylikedaboutit,andwhattheydidn’t.Forthethingstheydidn’tlike,Iwouldsay,“OK,whatcanwedodifferently?”
However,someteachersdidn’twanttoshare.Youjustlearnnottoshareiftheydidn’twantto.Youjuststaybeingapositiveteacher.
Principalscanmakeorbreakyouintheclassroom.Iloveditwhenprincipalswouldsayspecificthingstheysaw.Notthatyouwereagoodteacher.Butwhentheywouldsay,“WhenIwalkedintoyourclassroom,Icouldnottellwhichofthestudentswerestruggling.”ThatwasoneofthehighestcomplimentsIwouldget,becauseIwouldalwaysinvolvemykidsindiscussionsandteachthemhowtothink.Whentheprincipalwouldcomeandshewouldsay,“Icannottell.Allofthemareinvolved.Theyhavetheirhandsupandallofthemarecomingupwithgreatideas.”ThatwasoneofthehighestcomplimentsIcouldget.
Iwasveryfortunatetoseekoutthosekindsofprincipals.Italwayswasthesamething.Theysawmyloveforteaching,theysawthesuccessIhad,andtheresultsIgot.Whentheywereassignedtoanewschooltheywouldalwaystakemewiththem.
Ionlyhadoneprincipalthatwasnotthatway.Hewasinsecure.Ialwaystellmystudentteachers,“Itdoesn’tmakeanydifferencewhetheryouworkforamanorwoman,youlookforthatsecurepersonandthenyouwillhaveawonderfultime.”
“IWasAlwaysBringingHumanInterestStoriestoShareWiththeKids”
Mrs.Schneidercontinuallykeptinformedabouttheworldatlarge,notjustwhatwasrequiredtoteach.“IlistenedtotheTodayShow.Ilistenedtoallnews.”Shealsoreadbooksandwouldreadthemtoherclasses.Forexample,atthetimeofourinterviewshehadjustcompletedreadingThomasFreidman’sbookTheWorldIsFlat:ABriefHistoryoftheTwenty-FirstCentury.
Infrontofmyclassroomis“YesIcan.”Yousee,theonlythingthateverstopsusfromdoingsomethingisourselves.Ithinkwecandoanythinginlifeifwebelievewecan.Iwouldconstantlyreinforcethisthroughhumanintereststoriesthatwereappropriatetotheirlevel.Forexample,IreadthemMichaelJordan’sbook,ICan’tAcceptNotTrying:MichaelJordanonthePursuitofExcellence.Whenhewasinhighschoolhetriedoutforbasketballanddidnotmakeit.Hesaidheneverwantedtofeelthatwayagain.Sohepracticedandpracticed.Sowetalkedaboutthatandhowimportantitistopractice.Iwouldalwaysbringbookslikethatandreadthemtokids.Myclassroomswerealwaysliteraturerich.
YouNeedtoHaveaNotionofWhatYouWantYourClassroomtoBeLikeBeforeYouGetThere
OurlastinterviewquestionforMrs.Schneiderwas,“Whatadvicedoyouhaveforteachereducationcandidates?”
Firstofall,theyneedtohaveanotionofwhattheywanttheirclassroomtobelikebeforetheyeverstepinit.Iwouldalwayssay,whatisitthatIwouldwantmychildtoexperienceinmyclassroom?Youhavetohaveaworkingknowledgeinyourheadofwhatyouwantyourclassroomtobelike.Hereismine:Theyhadtogetreadyforlife.ItmadeahugedifferencewhenIdecidedthat,becauseallofthethingsItaughtwerethenrelatedtothisgoal.
Onceyoudecide,youneedtohaveconsistentroutines.Iwasconsistentinmyexpectations.Igreetedthematthedooreverymorning.Myonerulewasrespectforyourself,respectfortheearth,andrespectforeachother.Whywouldyounotputyourhandsonthewall?Becauseyouwouldjustmakemoreworkforthecustodian.Ialwaysfocusedontheiractionsandmadesurethattheydidn’tthinkthatIwasnotsupportingthemasaperson.
Today,Ithinkweareovertesting.WhenIwasintheclassroom,Ineverletitbotherme.ButIknowthatitishugeonteachers’minds.Iwouldjusttest,getitoverwith,andgetbacktoteaching.Ineverworriedabouttestingbecausemykidsalwaysdidwell.Ijusttaughtthecurriculum,andtheyalwaysdidwell.
Themostimportantthingonenteringtheclassroomisthatyouhaveapositiveoutlookonlife.Ineverallowedthingstonotbeajoy.
SerendipityOccursasWeAreConcludingtheInterviewWithMrs.Schneider
OurinterviewwithMrs.Schneidertookplaceinaneighborhoodcoffeeshop.Justaswewereconcludingtheinterview,amiddle-agedwomancameup.Mrs.Schneiderstoodup;theygreetedeachotherwithsmilesandahug.Itturnsoutthatthewoman’ssonhadbeeninMrs.Schneider’sclassroom.Henowwasaseniorincollege.ThemotherproudlyreportedonhowhewasdoingandacknowledgedtheimportantcontributionsMrs.Schneiderhadmade.Mrs.Schneidersmiledandshowedgreatinterestinherformerstudent’ssuccesses.Whatawonderfulanecdotetoillustratethejoyofteaching.
AnEpilogue
WecanreportthatMrs.Schneidercan’tstayawayfromteaching.Oneyearshecalledupaprincipalandvolunteeredtoserveasthementorforallthenewteachersinthatschool.ForthelastsevenyearsshehasbeenthevicechairpersonoftheDiscoveryChildren’sMuseum,whichopeneditsdoorsin2012.“Havingworkedwiththewholechildinmyclassroomformanyyearshashelpedmetocommunicatewiththefabricatorsanddesignersforourexhibitsandtoemphasizehowimportantitistobuildexhibitsthatinspiretheloveforlifelonglearning.”ShealsohasservedonandbeenchairoftheDevelopmentCommitteefortheUNLVCollegeofEducation.WhatmorecanbesaidaboutMrs.Schneider’slifelongengagementwithteachingandlearning?Perhapsherfinalquoteduringourinterviewsaysitbest:
Mygrandchildreninspiremetostayinvolvedandfeedthatgrowingmindwiththebestpracticesweknow.
Becomingateacherisanexciting,intense,andtime-consumingprocess.Teachersarededicatedprofessionalswhohavetolearnalotinordertohelpalloftheirstudentslearnalot.Therearegoingtobemanynewexperiences,challenges,and,yes,concernsalongtheway.Asbusyasyouwillbe,besuretostilltaketimetoreflectandtoenjoythemanyopportunitiesaseachunfolds.
Halfwaythroughhersecondyear,second-gradeteacherMs.Velasquezsummedupherfirstyearofteachingthisway:
Iamveryfamilyoriented.InmyfirstyearofteachingIalsoworkedonmymaster’sdegree.Itwasvery,veryhard,butIamsogladIdidit.IwouldfindmyselfcryinglotsoftimewhenIcouldn’tgoseemyfamilybecauseIhadtocompleteanassignment,orIhadtofinishlessonplans.Somylifewasbalancedoutbetweengraduateschoolandbeingatthisschool.TheninDecember,asmylifetransitionedfromcollegetobeingayoungprofessional,Ibegantohavemorebalance.Istartedtoforcemyselftoleaveat4:30andonlytocomein30minutesaheadoftime.Butitwasaveryhardthingtodo,becauseifyouaresocommittedtosomethingitbothersyouifitisnotperfect.
CONNECTINGTOTHECLASSROOM
Keythemesinthischapterhavebeenrelatedtoyourbeingsuccessfulinyourteachereducationprogramandbeingsuccessfulinyourfirstyearofteaching.Twoimportantadditionalthemesaddressedtheimportanceofteacherleadershipandlookingforthejoyinteaching.Thefollowingsuggestionswillhelpyouapplythesethemesasyouadvancethroughyourteachereducationprogramandanticipateyourfirstyearasateacher.
1.Understandingyourconcernsisasimportantasunderstandingtheconcernsofyourstudents.NoonehasImpactconcernsallofthetime.Forexample,teachereducationcandidateshavemanySelfandTaskconcerns,whichisunderstandablegivenallthattheyhavetolearnandbeabletodo.
2.Eisner’sGenericTeachingModeloutlinesthebasictasksandstepsthatshouldbeapartofplanning,presenting,andevaluatingeachlesson.Keepthesecomponentsinmindwhenobservingotherteachers,andinreflectingonyourteaching.Themodelalsocanbeaguideforreflectingonawholedayorweekofinstruction.
3.Asyoumovethroughyourteacherpreparationprogramcheckcarefullyandmakesurethateachcourseyoutakewillcountintwoways:(1)towardprogramcompletion,and(2)towardobtainingateachinglicensefromthestate.Alltoooftencandidatesgettowhattheythinkistheendoftheirprogramandthendiscoverthatacoursedidnotcountortheyhavenottakenonethatisrequired.
4.Approacheveryfieldandclinicalexperienceasanopportunitytolearn.Makeitapersonalchallengetoidentifyonelearningaboutteachingfromeveryassignment.
5.Makeapersonalcommitmentnotjusttoparticipatebuttoleadsometypeofactivityorefforteachterm.
6.Schedulea15-minuteperiodeachweekwhereyoustopdoingandreflectonthisquestion:WhatwasjoyfulaboutthethingsIdidthisweek?
SUMMARY
Thischapteraddressedachievingsuccessinyourteachereducationprogramandinyourfirstyearofteaching.Thesekeytopicswerediscussed:
· Takeadvantageofeveryexperiencetobesuccessfulinyourteachereducationprogram.
· Understandingyourconcernsandtheconcernsofothersisausefulguideforyourownprofessionallearning.
· Ageneralteachingmodelcanbeaguideforallgradelevelsandsubjectareas.
· Obtainingyourfirstrealteachingpositionrequiresadvancepreparation.
· Continuedevelopingyourleadershipexperiencesandskills.
· Muchcanbelearnedfrommasterteachers.
CLASSDISCUSSIONQUESTIONS
1.Howdoyouthinkthedifferentareasofconcern(Unrelated,Self,Task,andImpact)relatetowhetherateacherexperiencesjoyinteaching?DoyouhavetohaveImpactconcernstoseethejoy?
2.Amajorthemeinthischapteristeacherleadership.Howrealisticdoyouthinkthisthemeis?Whatopportunitiesdoyouhavenowtopracticeleadership?Followership?
3.WhatdidyoulearnfromtheinterviewwithMrs.Schneider?Doyouthinkyouwillbeteachingfor42years?Ifyoudid,howmanystudentswouldyouhavetaught?
4.Whattipshaveyoupickedupaboutstepsyoushouldtakeintheremainderofyourteachereducationprogramthatwillhelpyouobtainyourdesiredteachingjob?
KEYTERMS

Concerns

Engagingparents

Leadership

Criminalbackgroundcheck

Followership

StagesofConcern

Dispositions

Involvingparents

Distributedleadership

Leaders

SELF-ASSESSMENT
WHATISYOURCURRENTLEVELOFUNDERSTANDINGANDTHINKINGABOUTSUCCEEDINGINYOURTEACHEREDUCATIONPROGRAM,ANDBEYOND?
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.Afteryouanswerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan,rateyourknowledgeontheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanapplythelawtoyouasateacherandfutureschoolemployee.
1.Wheredoyouseeyourselfatthistimeintermsofthedifferentareasofteacherconcerns?Whatdoyouplantodonexttoaddresstheseconcerns?
2.WhatarethedifferentelementsofElliott’steachingmodel?Whichoftheseelementscanyounowdowell?Whatwillyoudotolearnmoreaboutthoseelementswhereyoufeellessproficient?
3.Whatitemsareimportanttoincludeinaresume?Fortheitemsyouhavealready,whatdoeseachrepresentaboutyourpotentialtobeahigh-qualityteacher?
4.Whataspectsofleadership/followershipdoyouneedtoworkon?Whenandwherewillyoubeengagingthese?
5.Whatareasofknowledgeandskilldoyouneedtotargetinordertobewellqualifiedforyourfirstteachingposition?Explainwhyyouseetheseasbeingsoimportant.
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.
Answerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan.ThenusetheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanusetheorganizationideaspresentedinthischapter.
Whatisyourcurrentlevelofunderstanding?Rateyourselfusingthisrubric.

ComplexityofThinkingRubric

Parts&Pieces

Unidimensional

Organized

Integrated

Extensions

Indicators

Elements/concepts aretalkedabout asisolatedand independententities.

Oneorafew conceptsare addressed,while othersareunderdeveloped.

Deliberateand structured considerationof allkeyconcepts/ elements.

Allkeyconcepts/ elementsare includedinaview thataddresses interconnections.

Integrationofallelements anddimensions,with extrapolationtonew situations.

Succeedingin yourteacher education program& beyond

Offersonlygeneral orvagueitemstobe learnedabout;does notnamedifferent areasofconcern, orelementsofa genericmodelof instruction.

Identifiesonlyone areaforgrowth, suchasclassroom management; providesno elaborationofwhy thisisimportant.

Namesmajorcategories suchaspartsofa resume,areaswithin theConcernsModel, and/oraspects ofleadershipand describeswhythese arepriorityareasfor growth.

Goesbeyondnaming majorareasand identifiesspecific knowledgeandskill areas,andexplains howeachwillhelp increaseteaching expertise.

Describesmajor areasforgrowth, identifiesknowledge/ skillsthatneedto bedeveloped,and chartsactionstobe takenshorttermand longertermtolearn more.
STUDENTSTUDYSITE
VisittheStudentStudySiteatwww.sagepub.com/halltoaccesslinkstothevideos,audioclips,andDeeperLookreferencematerialsnotedinthischapter,aswellasadditionalstudytoolsincludingeFlashcards,webquizzes,andmore.
FieldGuide
forLearningMoreAboutSucceedinginYourTeacherEducationProgram,andBeyond
InChapter1youwereintroducedtotheconceptofafieldguideforlearningmoreaboutyoursurroundings.Theartifactsandinformationyouhavecollectedforeachoftheearlierchaptersprovidesaricharrayforyoutoconsiderasyoumovewithyourteacherpreparationprogram.Forthischapterthefieldguidetasksandactivitiesneedtobeviewedasacombinationthatisasummaryofthewholeandafoundationforchartingyourprofessionalgrowthfromhere.Remembertokeeptakingfieldnotesasyoucompletetheactivitiessuggestedhere.Thesenotesshouldincludefactsanddescriptionsofyourobservations.Yourfieldnotesshouldalsoincludedate,timeofday,thegradeorgroupyouareobserving,andyourreflectionsandah-hamoments.AsMs.Velasquezpointedoutinherinterview,notingyourreflectionisimportanttoo.Youwillbeabletolookbackatthesenotesatvarioustimesinthefuturetoseehowyourconcernshavechanged,andtoreviewhowparticularteachingsituationswerehandled.Allofthisisaformofjournalingthatwillhelpyouunderstandthestepsyouaretakingtobecomingateacher.Remember,also,tocollectpicturesandsamples.Apicturecanbeworthathousandwords.
AskaTeacherorPrincipal
Askafirst-orsecond-yearteacherwhatknowledgeorskillheorshewishedheorshehadlearnedmoreaboutduringhisorherpreparationprogram.
Askaprincipalwhatsheorhelooksforinhiringabeginningteacher.Comparewhattheprincipalsayswithwhatyounowhaveonyourresume.
MakeYourOwnObservations
Therearemanyindicatorsofjoyinteaching.Walkaroundyourcollegeclassroomsandbuilding,oraschool’sclassroomsandbuilding.Takefieldnotesontheactivitiesandindicatorsofjoy.Whichstudentsandwhichteachersseemtobeenjoyingwhattheyaredoing?Whichseemnottobejoyful?Whatexplainsthedifferences?
UsethetopicspresentedintheinterviewwithMrs.Schneidertointerviewoneortwoveryexperiencedteachers.DevelopacharttocomparetheirviewswiththoseofMrs.Schneider.UseTable16.1toassesstheirconcernsaboutteaching.Whichseemtobetheirbiggestareasofconcern?Inwhichareasdotheyseemtohavelittleornoconcern?
ReflectThroughJournaling
TheConcernsModelprovidesausefulframeworkforyoutochartyourcontinuingdevelopmentasateacher.Reviewyourjournalnotesforeachoftheprecedingchapters.
Howhaveyourconcernschanged?Whatnewareashavepoppedup?Doyouseeanytype
ofpatternintermsofhowtheamountofconcernsateachlevel(Unconcerned,Self,Task,Impact)hasevolved?Howdoyouthinkyourconcernswillchangeoverthenextyear?
Inthischaptertherehavebeenexcerptsfrominterviewswithasecond-yearteacherandaretiredteacher.Asyoureadthesequotesandnowasyouthinkaboutyourselfasafutureteacher,whatareyourthoughts,feelings,andconcerns?Whatareyourprioritytopicsandareaswhereyouknowyoumustlearnmore?Inwhatareashaveyoualreadyexperiencedjoy?Jotdownyourcurrentthoughtsandreflectionsabouthowyouaredevelopingasateacherandwhatyourlearningprioritiesareforthenextpartsofyourteachereducationprogram.
BuildYourPortfolio
Startafolderforstoringeachoftheopen-endedconcernsstatementsthatyouwrite.Bytheendofyourprogramyoushouldhavesixtotenofthese.Developatableorgraphtoillustratehowyourconcernshavechangedovertimeinyourteachereducationprogram.
Aspartofyourreflections,writeashortanalysisofhowyourconcernshaveevolved.
ReviewthelistofsuggesteditemsforaprofessionalresumeoutlinedinTable16.1.Startnowcollectingdocuments,artifacts,andtherecordsthatyouwillneedtohavetoprepareyourresume.Whenthetimecomestoapplyforyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition,youwillfinditveryhelpfultohavecollectedmaterialsandexamplesalongtheway.Also,besuretonotethoseitemareaswhereyoucurrentlyhaveverylittleornothing.
Atvarioustimesasyouhavebeenreadingthistextyouhaveprobablythoughtaboutoneormoreofyourteacherswhomadeasignificantdifferenceinyourlife,andperhapsinyourdecisiontobecomeateacher.Nowisthetimetowritealettertothatteacher.Tellhimorherwhatyouaredoingnowanddescribetheway(s)thatteacherimpactedyou.Thefollowingiswhatoneaspiringteacherwrotetooneofherteachers.Inyourteachingcareerhopefullysomeofyourstudentswilltakethetimetowritesimilarletterstoyou.
ReadaBook
AsthetitleofAlanM.Blankstein’sbookFailureIsNotanOption:6PrinciplesforMakingStudentSuccesstheOnlyOption(2010;ThousandOaks,CA:Sage)makesclear,themissionofeveryteacherandschoolneedstobehavingallstudentslearning.Thisaward-winningbookprovidesapositiveandproactivestanceaboutwhattodoandwhatnottodo.Leadershipbyteachersisessentialtoaschoolhavingtrust,asharedvision,afocusonstudentsuccess,andengagedparents.
Buildingandsustainingpartnershipsbetweenschools,parents,andcommunitiesrequiresongoinginvolvementofteachers.EducationalPartnerships:ConnectingSchools,Families,andtheCommunity,byAmyCox-Peterson(2011;ThousandOaks,CA:Sage)goesbeyondpresentingtheneedandprovidesstepsfordevelopingandsustainingconnectionswithfamiliesandthebroadercommunity.
AnnLiebermanandLynneMiller,theauthorsofTeacherLeadership(2004;SanFrancisco,CA:Jossey-Bass),arenationallyrecognizedprofessionaldevelopmentexpertsandhavechampionedteachersbeingleadersformanyyears.Inthisbooktheydescribewhyteacherleadershipisimportant,summarizetheresearch,andpresentcasestudiesofteacherleaderswhohavemadeadifference.
SearchtheWeb
Surfthewebusingtheterm“teacherleadership.”Youmaybesurprisedatthenumberofresourcesandeffortstosupportteacherleaders,theirprofessionaldevelopment,andwaystonetwork.Forexample,theCenterforTeacherQuality(http://www.teacherleaders.org)hasorganizedtheTeacherLeadersNetwork.Theyofferafreenewsletter,provideinformationaboutteacherleaders,andfacilitateconversationsthroughlistservdiscussions.VirginiaCommonwealthUniversityhasaCenterforTeacherLeadership(http://www.ctl.vcu.edu)thathasbeenestablished“topromoteandsupportteacherleadershipinordertoimproveteachingandlearning.”
Exploreseveralofthesewebsitesandcontactoneortwotolearnmoreaboutthewaysthatteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherscanlearnaboutandserveinleadershiproles.
Asanotheractivity,carefullythinkaboutthecharacteristicsofteacherleadersthatarebeingidentified.Developachecklistofdifferentknowledgeandskillsthatteachersshouldpossess.Addacolumntoassessyourcurrentlevelofleadershipexpertise.Addanothercolumnwhereyoucannameactivitiesyouhavedoneandplantodotofurtherdevelopyourleadershipskills.
Checkoutthewebsitefortheschooldistrictwhereyouwanttoteach.GototheHumanResourcessectionandreviewtheteacherpositiondescription.Makenotesaboutwhatyouwillneedtohaveinordertoqualifyforaposition.Also,whatcanyoudobetweennowandthentomakeyouextrawellqualifiedtobehiredtoteachinthatdistrict?
E-mailFromaFirst-YearTeacher
(toOneofHerTeacherEducationFaculty)
InmypreviouslifeasanAirForceairman,weweretaughtthreecorevalues:(1)IntegrityFirst,(2)ServiceBeforeSelf,and(3)ExcellenceinAllWeDo.Itusuallytakesafewyearsofworkingaspartofateamtotrulyinternalizehowthosevaluestranslateintoconsistentmissionaccomplishment.ButsincethemomentIgotit,I’vefoundthatthosethreeguidelinescanapplytoalmostanyendeavorinlife.
Asafirst-yearteacher,I’vefeltallthenormalpressures.Pressureeveryweektoproduceanorganizedlessonplan.Pressureeveryhourtokeepthestudents’attention.Pressureeveryminutetoavoidmakingmistakesthatthekidscanuseagainstmelater.Pressuretostayconsistentwiththerestofthedepartment.And,ofcourse,pressuretopreparemystudentsfortheproficiencyexams.Afterawhile,IrealizedthatIwantedtospendmoretimeactuallyteachingandlesstimeanalyzingallthevariouspressuresofthejob.
Ilearnedthat,inthecrucibleoftheclassroom,theonlythingIreallycaredaboutwerethekids.Theotherworriesonlycamelater.Theywerelikeirritating,butmeaningful,afterthoughts.IteventuallygotonmynervesthatIwasevenspendingtimethinkingaboutit.Andslowly,asIbecameabetterteacher,IstartedtounderstandwhyIwasbecomingmoreirritatedandlessworried:Irealizedmyheartwasintherightplace,andIwasdoingmybest.
Ibelieveweshouldallstopworryingaboutthe“tensions”ofteachingandsimplyusetheAirForcecorevaluestoguideus.
Integrity:Haveaphilosophyaboutwhatyouwantyourstudentstolearninyourclass.Makesureitincludesoverarchingthemesandspecificlearninggoals.Sticktoyourphilosophy—always.
ServiceBeforeSelf:WhenyousignuptoteachAmerica’syouth,youareintheserviceofourcollectivefuture.Yeah,that’salittlesoap-boxy,butit’strue.UnderstandthateducatingisreasonNo.1whyyougotowork,aboveyourpaycheck,yourbenefits,oryoursummervacation.
ExcellenceinAllWeDo:Thewordisexcellence,notperfection.Doyourbest,anddon’tletmistakesgetinthewayofyourperformance.Keepyoureyesopen.Don’tjustlearnfromyourownmistakesandsuccesses;learnfromothers’,too.Beinvolvedenoughwithotherteachersthatyoucanaccruesecond-andthird-degreeexperience,whichwillmakeyouasexcellentaspossible.
Ibelieveteacherswhocanadoptthosethreeconceptswillbehappierandmoreeffective.Andthey’llrealizethattheother“tension”isjustnoisethatcangetinthewayofthemission.
—ElissaRichmond
Running head: WEEK THREE REFLECTION JOURNAL 1
WEEK THREE REFLECTION JOURNAL2
Week Three Reflection Journal
STUDENT NAME
EDU 100: Issues in Education
Dr. Newton Miller.
DATE
Week Three Reflection Journal
A reflective practitioner is someone who reflects on past works. They reflect on past works regularly to help themselves know how to progress. They are looking for ways to better themselves. Reflective practitioners are constantly learning (Reflective Practitioner, n.d.). Reflective practitioners self-reflect often and review and feedback often looking for ways they can improve themselves.
I plan to review all class feedbacks in the same way a reflective practitioner would. That is one of my goals throughout my degree process. My goal is to work with children during early childhood, more specifically between the ages of three and five. My main goal is to make a difference in the way young children feel about learning/school. I want children to understand and see that learning can be fun and beneficial. Another goal of mine is to make sure that I have a teaching style that all children can learn from. I plan to review all my feedback and become a better student so that I can in return become a better teacher for my students.
I am very pleased with the way class discussions are going in this class. I feel as though discussions are very important because you get to engage with others. By engaging with others, you can learn from them. I admire that discussions are held to such a high standard in this class. All my classmates seem to be posting and replying in a very timely manner. The discussions have had very thoughtful prompts. They have sometimes made me have to dig deep within myself which has made me learn to look deeper for things, not everything is on the surface.
I have personally posted early each discussion and tried to reply to classmates early so that we could have a conversation together. You cannot learn from others if you do not engage with them. I believe displaying good time management is a great characteristic to have for the education field. I have been told that through my discussions I seem level headed and caring. This is great. Just through my discussion’s others can see I am caring. This is wonderful because you must care about your students when working in the education field or they will resent you and hate school.
Given these points, I have increased my desire to become an educator. I have been able to explore options in the education field and collaborate with other educators on their plans and their why’s. this has made me realize I love the job I am currently doing and would love to continue in this career field.
References
Reflective Practitioner. (n.d.). Retrieved from mbaskool: https://www.mbaskool.com/business-concepts/human-resources-hr-terms/16618-reflective-practitioner.html

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