Week 3 Discussion

Test Development Process
Draft a memo in which you outline each of the stages in the development process that the assessment would have to undergo. End your memo with a list of potential problems or issues that you believe would have to be addressed and resolved if the dissociative identity disorder measure were ever to become a widely accepted measure of the disorder.
Demonstrate your knowledge of the test development process by serving as an advisor to the would-be-test developer of an assessment that addresses dissociative identity disorder.
Make sure that you address the issues of reliability and validity, ethical dilemmas that might emerge, proper test administration and scoring concerns in your memo. Provide strong evidence for your assertions throughout your memo.
Post your response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Respond to at least two posts by the end of the week.
Use an APA style reference list with in-text citations in your initial response.
Use an APA style reference list with in-text citations in at least one of your two responses to classmates.
psychologymental health
Responsible Test Administration.html

Responsible Test Administration
Administering a test brings with it many responsibilities. Whether it is being given in an individual or group setting, several duties need to be fulfilled in order for a test to be given in a completely ethical manner.
The test administrator needs to ensure that all procedures and protocol are being followed both by the individuals taking the test as well as the administrator. It is critical to follow the allotted testing time and to make sure that the environment in which the test is being given suits all test-takers and is quiet and comfortable. After collecting all tests, answer sheets and test materials must all be stored securely and individuals’ confidentiality honored.

Analysis & Scoring.html

Analysis & Scoring
Open-ended responses can be difficult and time-consuming to assess because the depth of the information attained can be very great, and oftentimes does not fit neatly into one category for analysis.
Closed-ended questions require participants’ responses to fit into a category decided upon by the creator of the test, and allow for analysis to be a much more straightforward process. A benefit of using closed-ended items is that they can easily be scored and statistically analyzed in order to draw conclusions from the data.
Frequency distributions, chi-square statistics, cross-tabulations and other statistical analyses are used to display and interpret information collected from the item responses.
Continuous responses are a way to avoid the dichotomous testing items, which limit individuals to two primary options. Summated-rating scales, likert scales, and visual scales are often used in order to give individuals more options, and, ideally, to obtain the responses that most accurately express an individual’s actual opinions and feelings.
When scoring tests, it is important to keep in mind the different types of scoring that will be used depending on whether the format is open-ended or closed-ended. Also, considering whether the assessment would be most effective if attitudinal vs. behavioral will allow for accurate interpretation of results. Deciding which scale will allow for the most accurate responses is another vital aspect of scoring.
Finally, reviewing the types of issues and errors that are commonly made when using the measures you have chosen is an important step in finalizing a test.

Hi Gang,

In developing a psychological assessment there are a number of concepts that must be taken into consideration. There is a rigorous system that an assessment must go through from start to finish in order for the instrument to meet the criteria for reliability and validity that we discussed last week. For a brief overview of the steps involved see this chapter by Hamstra (n.d.) https://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/Hamstra_Royal_College_PD_Handbook_Chapter_12.pdf

The process of developing a strong assessment tool also facilitates the ethical integrity of the measurement.Follow the instructions above in outlining the development process and your application of process in relation to dissociative identity disorder.


Hamstra, S.J. (n.d.). Designing and selecting assessment instruments: focusing on competencies. Retrieved from https://www.acgme.org/Portals/0/Hamstra_Royal_College_PD_Handbook_Chapter_12.pdf
Creating Test Items.html

Creating Test Items
Before beginning to design any assessment tool, it is critical to have clearly defined the construct in measurable detail. After operationalizing this construct, the next step is to actually create the items to be included in the test.
There are three broad approaches to designing items:
Empirically generated items are chosen because they have been found to accurately demonstrate or measure the construct, even if the test maker does not understand why they work.
Theory-driven approaches require a thorough review of literature surrounding the construct to be measured. Items are specifically developed to match with the prevailing theory about the construct.
A combination of the two previous approaches is the rationally developed approach. Although this approach often begins with an idea for a construct which is deeply rooted in a theory, the research done to gain empirical support renders it neither purely empirically- or theoretically-driven.
One way to measure attitudes is to use paired comparisons. Individuals are presented pairs that they must choose from. It is often a forced-choice, meaning that they have to choose one or the other, even if they want to choose both or neither.
Ranking items along some dimension is another way to measure individuals’ attitudes. The person is asked to place items in order based on their preference or judgment.
Using items in interval-level categories, a successive intervals approach allows us to see the true interval level of each item as well as the interval-level boundaries of the response categories.
A slightly different approach is the behavioral assessment technique. A common type of scale used in the behavioral approach is the behavioral observation scale, which is commonly seen in the workplace to evaluate employees.

Contains unread posts
Katelyn Rains posted Jun 16, 2022 1:36 PM
To obtain convergent evidence, it can be provided in one or two ways. As the first way, we would show that a test measures in the same things as most other test used for the same purposes. As the second, we would demonstrate the specific relationship expected to see, if the test is doing the correct job.
The initial setup for planning the test, is to consider the choice in testing on what to develop first. In this test, we will cover dissociative identity disorder and the developmental process. By understanding the testing topic, you can base your test on proven research on dissociative identity disorder. Knowing what and how to test will demonstrate the reliability and validity of the assessments. Painful trauma from the past experienced by an individual is caused to lead to dissociation. Dissociation leaves a person feeling separated from the reality of the traumatic event while using protective strategies of blocking the memory and having a new identity.
In obtaining assessment testing, we must evaluate the knowledgeable records of medical and recording evidence all in correlation to the event that took place and is considered to be relevant. When looking at the records we ask, how were the responses and individuals’ behavior? In cognitive function, we test the brain in testing neurology and psychologically in obtaining that information. There are two primary sources of error in the interview: those pertaining to the validity or meaning of data and those pertaining to its dependability or reliability (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2018).
The assessment should be of the individual to have verbal and in-person communication. Having in-person interviews and questionnaires in relation to the causes and behaviors from the past can be obtained. The duration of the disorder and cognitive measurement can come from this scenario.

Kaplan, Robert M. & Saccuzzo, Dennis P. (2018). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. 9th edition. Cengage. ISBN: 9781337098137

Week 3 Discussion
Monique Dunbar posted Jun 16, 2022 1:41 PM
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Disassociative identity disorder is a mental health condition, people with disassociative identity disorder (DID) have two or more separate personalities. These identities control a person’s Behavior at different times.(DID) can cause gaps in memory and other problems. Various types of psychotherapy can help people manage the symptoms of (DID).
What are the steps to assessing disassociative identity disorder?
Step one: physical exam. Your doctor examines you, accept questions, and reviews your symptoms and personal history.
Step two: Psychiatric exam. Your mental health professional ask questions about your thoughts, feelings, and behavior and discusses your symptoms.
Step three: Diagnostic criteria in the DSM – 5
Potential problems or issues that I believe would have to be addressed and resolved if this disassociative identity disorder measures forever to become a widely accepted measure of the disorder consists of the following:
Unfocused Stem
Negative Stem
Window Dressing
Unequal Option Length
Negative Options
Clues to the Correct Answer
Heterogeneous Options
The first step in developing criterion-referenced test involves clearly specifying the objectives by writing clear and precise statements, about what the learning program is attempting to achieve (Kaplan, Robert M. & Saccuzzo, Dennis P. (2018). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, Issue. 9th Edition).
Psychometric Theory suggests that adding more distractors should increase the reliability of the item. However, in practice, adding destructors may not actually increase the reliability because it is different to find good ones.
The reliability of an item is not enhanced by distractors that no one would ever select.
Psychometric analysis showed that the validity and reliability were about equal for the two types of tests (Kaplan, Robert M. & Saccuzzo, Dennis P. (2018). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, Issue. 9th Edition).
The results suggest that three alternative multiple choice items may be better than five alternative I am is because they retain the psychometric value but take less time to develop and administer (Sidick, Barrett & Doverspike, 1994).
Kaplan, Robert M. & Saccuzzo, Dennis P. (2018). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, Issue. 9th Edition
Disassociative disorder – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic
Monique Dunbar

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