WEEK 12

WEEK 12

Building and leading teams (part 1)

 Leadership in practice

12.1 Aims this week

The focus this week is on: ‘Building and Leading Teams’  This is outlined below:

· Develop an understanding of the practice of leadership in early childhood settings/centres

· Consider leadership of self and others within the team

· Reflect on the specific aspects of leadership likely to be most effective in supporting learning and personal development within teams

· Engage with relevant theory and reflect on leadership practice

We begin the week by considering the following quote in relation to building and leading teams:

‘Effective leadership and teamwork are considered to be factors which contribute to increased self-esteem, high job satisfaction and staff morale, reduced stress and a decreased likelihood of staff burnout’ (Schiller, 1987 cited in Rodd 2006:p.147).

In order to achieve effective leadership and team work it is important to consider how we lead, guide and support individuals as well as teams.

12.2 Follow my leader

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. A fairly standard definition of leadership is one such as behaviour that enables and assists others to achieve personal and organisational ambitions and goals.

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This suggests that leadership might have as much to do with making helpful suggestions as issuing strategic directives (to the team), as much about listening to other people’s ideas as expounding your own, and as much about gentleness as about toughness.

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Effective leadership is about helping people and teams to be as effective as they have the potential to be. Leadership which flows from this idea, has some important features:

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· Leadership needs to be seen as a function of a group rather than the role of an individual

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· Leadership can be behaviour which gives power away

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· The aims of leadership should be the increase of self-directedness and the release of energy, imagination and creativity in all those who form the organisation

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· Leadership behaviour also needs to be designed by the followers. Leaders need to seek information from their colleagues about the sort of leadership that suits them best as a team

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· One of the key functions of leadership is to help in the creating of conditions in which people feel motivated to work to the optimum levels of their capacity, energy, interest and commitment

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In striving for more life enhancing forms of leadership, we need to question our very assumptions about people and personal power. This new concept of leadership adopts an approach, which recognises that, the potential and power to work effectively lies within the person as well as the team rather than the leader. We still cling on to assumptions that people cannot be trusted to direct their own work and that they must be instructed, guided, monitored, controlled, rewarded and punished – the theory X position discussed in week 3. Life centred leaders believe in the basic dignity and worth of people and in their capacity for commitment, self-direction and achievement. The effectiveness of a leader is not always in what they give to us but what they refuse to take away: our self-respect, our integrity and our potential to make a significant contribution.

12.3 Reflective task

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Think about leaders you have worked with. What have been the similarities and differences between them in terms of leading the team effectively?

What was it they did that gained the teams respect and loyalty?

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Use your journals to reflect and record your responses.  

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12.4   Communicating within the team

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Human communication is a hazardous business and the capacity for misunderstanding between people is enormous. It is a tribute to our natural and intuitive capacities that we manage communication without even more disagreements and conflicts.  .

In the process of observing others – listening to what they say and watching what they do – we can begin to sense the nature of their experience. But we all have the capacity to dissemble – to say things and do things, which are not congruent with what we are experiencing and feeling. This can lead to confusion, ambiguity, mixed messages and misunderstanding. To be more effective in our team relationships, we need to be aware of and sensitive to the complex nature of the interpersonal landscape between others and ourselves. It is important to note the range of intra-personal factors that combine to make us what we are and how we behave in different communications situations.

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We have all been shaped and moulded by our experience. In any early childhood setting each person has:

· Grown up with family members who have provided powerful influences and presented models of behaviour

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· Acquired a personal history of communications and developed a unique profile of relationships

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· Developed a repertoire of strategies for interacting within our complex social world

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· Evolved a code of conduct to guide our actions in the world

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· Established a personal and distinctive set of habits and patterns

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Early childhood settings are complex organisations in which a rich network of differentiated experience and belief is in a state of constant interaction. As well as the purely individual and personal elements, communication behaviour in an organisation is affected by a variety of social and institutional structures:

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· Status

· Authority

· Power

· Age

· Race

· Gender

· Disability

Each factor will further affect the ways in which individuals within teams experience organisational life and how pecking orders, chains of command, informal networks and strategic alliances are established.

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Over the past twenty years there have been concerted efforts to change oppressive communication cultures particularly those built on prejudices about age, race, class, gender and ability. Many organisations are careful to develop policies, which protect individual groups from exploitation and oppression. Central to these policies are issues of interpersonal communication: the assumptions we make and the language we use.

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In most settings communication is conducted in a climate of increasing challenge and complexity, as old assumptions are rejected and new ones developed. It is important not to set standards so high that people are discouraged from communicating through a fear of making mistakes. An effective communication culture encourages development and expects a certain clumsiness as people struggle to find new patterns and processes.

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Building and developing relationships within teams is a process of matching the elements of our own unique world with that of others. The greater the similarities, the greater the likelihood of an open and satisfying relationship. Most of the time our behaviour is purposeful, designed to meet needs and satisfy aspirations. In comfortable relationships and teams where we feel a positive sense of connection within the interpersonal landscape, we tend to strive for harmony between our inner world and our behavior. We become more open and trusting to the other person.

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In difficult and uncomfortable relationships we experience a sense of tension and dissonance in the interpersonal landscape. This can create feelings of anxiety which can result in behaviour designed to protect our inner world from attack and judgment. We become more closed and defensive.

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Clearly the process of communicating within teams is immensely complex and there is a great deal to try and do in such a short time. We cannot plan every communication incident in advance since we do not know when the majority of them are likely to arise or exactly how individuals will react and respond. But with those that we know we are going to initiate, we can try and take some of these important factors into consideration.

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Communication is the key vehicle for management and leadership work. Without this encounter there is no management. Interpersonal communication is the main curriculum for management development. Sadly it is the one that is most neglected.  

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12.5    Reading Task

To begin, read: Basic Needs, Conflict, and Dynamics in Groups by Karen John. This is available as a journal article from the Library. Clickhere to access the Library now and look for: The Journal of individual Psychology, Vol56, No.4, Winter 2000.  Please read the article then in your learning journal reflect and evaluate your thoughts, ideas and responses. The journal looks at the following:

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· Conflict

· The group mind

· Fundamental Psychological Needs

· Group Dynamics and the Crucial C’s

· Group as Container

· Constructive Potential of Within-Group Conflict

· Sources and Modifiers of Intergroup Conflict

· Work, Work Groups, and Power Relations

· Contradictions in New Management

· Cooperation in the Workplace

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12.6 Reflective task

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What do leaders/managers need to do to create a working environment in which communication within the team flows freely and everyone feels informed?

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What strategies have you found effective in your centre/setting?

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Use your journals to reflect and record your responses.

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12.7 Leadership as giving

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The old maxim that it is more blessed to give than to receive is seldom quoted in the literature of leadership and management yet it is one of the most profound ideas behind transformative leadership.

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Toxic and tyrannical leadership is all about trying to force things out of people and teams – better performances, more time and increased effort – through behaviours that are cajoling, demanding, critical and impatient. Since such behaviours do not seem to produce more effectiveness and commitment in our colleagues, we might assume that it is because we are not doing it well enough. It may not occur to us that the idea is bad, not the implementation of it.

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A key question for all those involved in early years leadership is: ‘what do I have to give?’ As well as a range of technical and professional offerings, there are some fundamental human attributes, which can make the world of difference to our colleagues in building and leading teams more effectively:  

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· Presence – being there for them

· Attentiveness – listening to their experience

· Understanding – sharing their concerns

· Interest – in what they do, hope for and worry about

· Concern – showing that we care about them and the work they do

· Sensitivity – recognising vulnerabilities and handling them with respect

· Responsiveness – telling them how we think and feel

Sadly such an approach to leadership has not featured in much of leadership and management training. There are many who do practise their leadership in a giving way but some have been led to see it as a soft option and feel that they should be tougher, more demanding and requiring, and less understanding and concerned.

As well as considering leadership from the leaders own perspective, it is important to have regard for the needs that we have of our leaders. Good leaders seem to have an infinite capacity not only to satisfy vital needs but also to anticipate them. Such capacity grows out of four key qualities:

· Genuine interpersonal behaviour

· Warmth, care and respect

· Empathy

· Belief in the potential of others to grow and develop

All of us are needy. Failure to get some very specific needs satisfied – particularly those that contribute to our pattern of motivation – can result in loss of confidence and enthusiasm, a sense of not being involved, a feeling of being unappreciated and undervalued, and a reduction of job commitment and energy. These are expensive losses, which few organisations can afford. Good leadership is the delicate process of anticipating these needs in others and striving to satisfy them. This is as true for learners in classrooms as it is for practitioners. 

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Effective carers and practitioners are those whose who are able to reach out to children, to appreciate and understand their needs and seek specific and individual ways of satisfying them. Diana Whitmore (1886: p.78) asserts that,

‘If children were to experience adults as welcoming, guiding and supportive, they would discover the wonder of life, the joy of exploring, the beauty of understanding’.

So too as leaders and managers we can help to create these felt experiences in our colleagues and teams if we seize opportunities to respond to some basic needs:

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· Feeling trusted: conveying to colleagues a belief in their abilities; resisting temptation to increase control when things are difficult; expressing delight at successes and achievements

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· Feeling heard and listened to: constantly seeking opportunities to listen to colleagues experiences, asking questions, seeking information, eliciting opinions, delving into details and showing genuine interest and concern

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· Feeling noticed and appreciated: taking note of contributions and providing regular positive feedback on successes and achievements

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· Feeling encouraged: empathising with the demands and challenges of the work colleagues do, providing support for problem solving and action planning

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· Feeling appropriately challenged: building a climate of systematic and continuous improvement, constantly helping others to seek new angles, new possibilities and new ideas

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· Feeling valued: providing detailed and specific feedback so that all colleagues feel a deep sense that their contributions and efforts are valued

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· Feeling informed: keeping information flowing freely through the centre, checking that colleagues know what is going on

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· Feeling supported: offering practical help as well as moral support, getting alongside colleagues as often as possible, providing a helping hand and a listening ear

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12.8 Reflective task

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Where do you stand on this issue of leadership as giving?

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In your experience do teams tend to work more effectively when they are supported and trusted rather than directed and controlled?

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Use your journals to reflect and record your responses.  

12.9   Eyeball to eyeball

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It is how we behave in the many face to face situations of setting/centre life that determines whether we influence and support children, families and colleagues effectively. David Howe (1993) also suggests that much depends on our capacity to be more aware of and respond to the basic needs of individuals and teams. He singles out three particular needs:

· Feeling accepted: Leaders can help us to feel part of the past, present and future of the centre. They can help us to believe that we have an important part to play in the scheme of things and that our contribution is significant and special

· Feeling acknowledged: leaders can notice us. They can draw attention to those parts of our work, which interest and delight them. They can provide encouraging feedback and also draw our achievements to the attention of others

· Feeling entitled: leaders can help us feel ok to be who we are, to have the feelings we experience, and to hold the beliefs that are important to us

The effect of these leadership behaviours is to affirm our self-esteem and to help us feel worthwhile both about ourselves and about our contribution to the development of the centre/setting. Central to this is the capacity of leaders to understand their teams (and individuals) to engage with them in the struggle to achieve what is important to them in their lives. Perhaps it is the very process of having an interest taken in what is important to us that has such a powerful effect on our professional energy and commitment.

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Leaders can really make an impact by doing the following:

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· Helping others to figure out what they would be proudest of doing in their role and then helping them to do it

· Helping others to satisfy important personal goals through their professional role

· Helping others to search for and discover, meaning in the daily grind

· Helping others to activate and honour the small voice deep inside them which seeks expression and understanding

· Helping others to become who they really want to be

We are discovering more and more about those behaviours which seem to make a significant difference in enabling others to release and express more of their potential. The more we do this, the more we see leadership as a process of human nourishment and less a matter of keeping people to their contracts. Development also involves the process of unfolding: encouraging others to allow what is deep within themselves to come to the surface of their being rather than to lay hidden and concealed.  

The influential psychologist Abraham Maslow (1978) observed that at every moment in our lives we have a choice between the joys of safety and the joys of growth. Far too often in the troubled and conflictual cultures of many settings/centres we choose the safety option, thereby denying ourselves the possibility of development and growth but also preventing our skills and qualities from having a greater impact on the centre/setting itself. Perhaps the very heart of leadership is helping people do justice to their own potential.  

12.10    Reflective task

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Consider the three basic needs referred to above: feeling accepted, feeling acknowledged and feeling entitled.

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What ways have leaders/managers you have worked with helped you and the team to satisfy these needs?

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What happens when leaders/managers ignore them?

12.11      Interruptions

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Most leadership and management interactions in settings/centres are very brief, the majority lasting less than a minute. Most of these interactions are activated by interruptions by someone who has a need or someone who may be able to satisfy it. This means that a great deal of our leadership work is incidental arising out of the moment. While it is clearly not possible to plan for what is unpredictable, it is possible to be prepared for interruptions when they occur.

This preparedness is mostly to do with our communication capability and the sorts of signals and messages we convey to our children, families and colleagues when they interrupt us and when we interrupt them.  

Our impact on those we interact with is directly related to the look on our face, the words we choose, the tone of voice we use to utter them and the quality of attentiveness we provide when the colleague replies.

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Below are some of the crucial elements that are present in any leadership encounter:

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· The messages we convey before we utter the first word

· The opening gambit, and its impact on the other person

· Showing our feelings about the other person

· Disclosing our own thoughts and feelings about the business we are discussing

· Encouraging the other to disclose their own thoughts and feelings

· Getting to the point clearly

· Asking for what we want

· Responding to the other’s concerns, worries, enthusiasms and needs

· Conveying understanding of their position

· Clarifying the details of agreements made

It is our capacity to keep aware of these factors that is vital in leadership encounters where the success of the communication is much more dependent on the leader than it is on the other.  

Leadership by interruptions is at the heart of what we do. Every interruption offers us a specific and unique opportunity to make a positive difference. It is through interruptions that we are given the chance to do some of our very best work.

12.12 Reflective task

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How do interruptions feature in your work and that of your leader/manager?

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Do you experience interruptions as an irritant or use them as an opportunity?

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Use your journals to record your responses.  

12.13  Summary of session

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This week’s session began by looking at how leadership behaviour can enable and assist individuals and teams to achieve their personal and organizational ambitions and goals. We also began to explore communication within teams. You then engaged in reading an article by Karen John (Basic Needs, Conflict and Dynamics in Groups). The idea of leadership as giving was discussed and the possibility of using interruptions as a way of making a positive difference to individuals and the team.

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12.14 Weekly task

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Read the Journal of Workplace Learning Emerald Article: The two faces of leadership: considering the dark side of

leader-follower dynamicsbyChristine Clements and John B. Washbush. Click  here  to access now.

 Abstract

. A number of years ago, David McClelland, in his studies of managerial motivation, identified two types of power: egoistic (using others for personal gain) and social (facilitating group cooperation and effort for the achievement of the general good). Clearly, the power motive is intimately related to the concept of leadership. However, over the last several decades, a school of thought has arisen which equates leadership with “doing the right thing”. Defining leadership in such an ethical light is both misleading and dangerous. At the same time, little has been done to address the role of followers in the influence process, and transformational models of leadership have exacerbated this problem. Failure to acknowledge the role of followers and to examine the “dark side” of leader-follower dynamics can distort effort to understand influence processes in an authentic way. This paper provides balance to this discussion and identifies a number of critical implications for leadership education.

Use your journals to reflect on the article and record your responses.  

References

Clements, C. and Washbush, J. (1999) The two faces of leadership: considering the dark side of leader-follower dynamics”, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 11 Iss: 5 pp. 170 – 176

Howe, D. (1993) On Being a Client: Understanding the Process of Counselling and Psychotherapy London: Sage

Karen, J. (2000) Basic Needs, Conflict, and Dynamics in Groups: The Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, NO. 4, Winter 2000

University of Texas Press

Maslow, A. (1978) The Farther Reaches of Human Nature London: Penguin Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press Whitmore, D. (1986) Psychosynthesis in Education

Wellingborough: Turnstone Press  

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This week’s session began by looking at how leadership behaviour can enable and assist individuals and teams to achieve their personal and organizational ambitions and goals. We also began to explore communication within teams. You then engaged in reading an article by Karen John (Basic Needs, Conflict and Dynamics in Groups). The idea of leadership as giving was discussed and the possibility of using interruptions as a way of making a positive difference to individuals and the team.

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Week 13: Building and Leading teams (part 2)

13.1 Aims this week

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Last week we began to:   .

· Develop an understanding of the practice of leadership in early childhood settings/centres

· Consider leadership of self and others within the team

· Reflect on the specific aspects of leadership likely to be most effective in supporting learning and personal within teams

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The focus this week continues with: ‘Building and Leading Teams’ This is outlined below:

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· Further develop an understanding of effective leadership in practice

· Be aware of nutrients and toxins and the impact they can have on individuals as well as the team

· Explore effective leadership and team building

· Consider group dynamics and team development

· Look at building and leading multi-disciplinary teams

· Continue to reflect on practice

13.2 Valuing staff prior experiences

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The importance of individual’s life histories and biographies Each of us brings to our work in the early years a unique life history. Your own life history may have some features that are similar to those of colleagues but no one will have experienced life events in the same way or drawn from them the same insights and understanding that have given meaning to your life. Our progress through life will have been helped or hindered by the impact that various people have had on us.

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In the struggle to understand the complexities of leadership work in a multi-professional setting, we believe it is vital that the leader allows and facilitates the to staff team to share and explore the life events that have shaped their lives and from which their core professional values, visions, and beliefs have come from.

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In her study of women leaders, Valerie Hall (1996) writes about what she calls ‘leadership antecedents’ and how these have combined to develop leaders with powerful visions and effective skills.   .

Margy Whalley (1999) in her study of successful early years leaders, demonstrated how leadership awareness is significantly increased when, as part of a leadership learning community, leaders are invited to depict in graphic form the life incidents and events they believe helped them to develop their leadership attributes.

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In any staff team, it is important for colleagues to identify and recognise different professional perspectives and practices and to understand how and why these have developed. In an integrated centre, staff will have come from different professional traditions such as early education and children’s social work, community services, health or adult educators. The diverse traditions espouse different bodies of knowledge, professional practice and sometimes significantly different value positions. The members of a multi-professional team may have followed circuitous career routes and all will have influenced the role that different team members assume within the centre.

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Often we can know a colleague for years and not discover some of the skills and expertise they have gathered in their lives.   .

13.3 Reflective task

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 . Rodd (2006:p.145) believes that, ‘Good leaders build teams by making everyone feel that their contribution matters’.

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Do you feel that your contribution matters in your setting/centre? If yes, how? If not, why not? Journal your response.

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13.4 Effective leadership and team building

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In the early childhood field a high importance is put on effective leadership. Sylva and Siraj-Blatchford (2003) affirms that high quality provision is achieved through the quality and qualifications of the leader (Rodd, 2006), as this supports the raising of standards and sets the standard for other staff to follow. One of the basic principles of effective leadership is to enable the rest of the team to be as effective as them (NPQICL booklet 9). This can be achieved by supporting staff encouraging positive attitudes and behaviours.

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Rodd (2006:p.61) states that, an effective leader:

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· Uses personality to lead by example, thereby stimulating a particular team culture

· Is innovative and is perceived to be making things better by improving team morale and productivity

· Ensures that constructive relationships are established and maintained with the staff and peers (particularly multi-agency teams).

· Focuses attention on behaviour or the situation, not on the person

· Fosters the self-esteem and confidence of team members

· Coaches team members (including multi-professional staff) to improve their performance

The following attributes can support the demands of team leadership:

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· Adaptable (the capacity to be responsive and innovative)

· Energetic (action-oriented and committed to work)

· People-orientated (values people and communicates openly)

· Quality-conscious (pays attention to standards of excellence and consumer needs and expectations)

· Uniting (clarifies the common purpose and promotes the value of cooperation)

· Entrepreneurial (autonomous and able to articulate the uniqueness of the service)

· Focused (self-disciplined and predictable)

· Informal (a relaxed, straightforward approach to people and situations)

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When building and leading teams it is vital that the leader is aware of the positive contribution or impact that they bring to that team.

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Neugebauer and Neugebauer (1998) cited in Rodd (2006:p.163/164) highlights a five-step framework for team building:

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1.     Set achievable goalswhich have been mutually agreed by members of the team. Ensure that the more assertive staff members do not dominate the process, especially during discussion at team meetings

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2.     Clarify roles.Team members work most effectively when their roles are clear to all and free of conflict. Each staff member should be aware of who is responsible for what. While it will be easier to clarify the formal roles that need to be fulfilled, the informal roles that relate to the internal functioning of the group should not be forgotten (Johnson and Johnson, 2003). The leader needs to analyse the group to make sure that someone is taking responsibility for the team task roles (initiating, information-gathering, opinion-seeking and giving, clarifying, elaborating, energising, summarising and consensus-testing) and team maintenance roles (encouraging, harmonising, compromising, gatekeeping, observing and standard setting)

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3.     Build supportive relationships.Build in opportunities for feedback, develop trust and provide resources to stimulate a cooperative team spirit. Teams where members feel supported are more likely to deal (rather than ignore) common team difficulties such as role ambiguity, role conflict and group conflict

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4.     Encourage active participation in order to capitalise on the knowledge and skills of individual team members. In an atmosphere of acceptance, team members will be encouraged to contribute their ideas, opinions and energies. Being part of a cooperative venture can be extremely motivating for team members, and this will increase productivity.

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5.     Monitoring team effectiveness. There is little point in putting time and energy into team leadership and the team-building process if the team is not achieving the goals effectively or if the team is unhappy with the process. Regular opportunities need to be provided by the leader to assess the extent of goal achievement and how well members are working together as a team. This review process can help identify any problems and establish their cause, as well as assisting with future planning.

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13.5 Reflective task

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 .. Reflect on your current team in relation to the five-step framework and teambuilding.

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In your journal make a list of the positive ways in which your leader builds and leads the team. Them make a list of the areas that you believe could be developed further and why.

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13.6 Leadership nutrients and toxins

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Leadership nutrients work to build and develop, a positive, friendly, enriching and ambitious organisational culture and is one way of creating job satisfaction this can be achieved in the following ways, through:

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· Commitment

· Energy

· Enthusiasm

· Enterprise

· Responsibility

· Collaboration

· Initiative

· Confidence

Not all leaders will achieve consistency of success in this, but many will be able to create conditions for positive growth and development and work constantly to avoid the consequences of a downward spiral.

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Our capacity to work effectively towards centre goals is determined by a variety of factors:

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· We want to feel a sense of satisfaction, both about the work we do and about its contribution to the organisation itself

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· We want to feel able to exercise preferences, both about the conduct of our own roles and responsibilities, but also in decisions about organisational direction and practice

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· We want to feel interested in, and concerned about, our work so that our efforts and contributions are in tune with our purposes in life

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· We want to feel challenged to use our best abilities to achieve worthwhile goals

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· We want to enjoy the process of work and to experience pleasure in being part of the organisational enterprise

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Leadership toxins can inhibit our potential and are those verbal and non-verbal behaviours that trigger certain emotions such as fear, anger, resentment and jealousy. These are often painful feelings that are activated when we are on the receiving end of particular types of communication behaviour:

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· Having our ideas rejected or stolen

· Being over directed

· Facing constant, criticism

· Not being listened to

· Being ignored

· Being misunderstood

· Being judged

Effective leadership is about helping individuals and the team to be as effective as them. This involves supporting the team to use their talents, skills and abilities free from restriction and encouraging them through positive attitudes and behaviours.

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If the above behaviours (toxins) are employed consistently and systematically they can undermine self-esteem, confidence, commitment and professional ambition, (Whitaker, 1998). They can also create an environment of:   .

· Compliance

· Apathy

· Lethargy

· Caution

· Cynicism

· Mistrust

· Fear

13.7 Group dynamics and team development

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Iceberg Theory

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https://bblearn.londonmet.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-531883-dt-content-rid-1358163_1/xid-1358163_1

.This theory has been around for over 60 years. Sigumnd Freud (original 1938; republished by Penguin in 2004) said ‘The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water’. In the leadership context the theory liken the staff of an organisation to icebergs ina. Above the water line we can observe individuals behaviour, however below the waterline which is unobservable lay people’s hopes, interests, intentions, feelings, fears, needs, assumptions, psychological wounds, expectations, experiences, belief.

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Freud (1938) believes that just as seven-tenths of an iceberg is below the surface of the water, so it is suggested, is seven-tenths of each person. Only the heads stick out above the water line, however, the icebergs collide and bump into each other, sometimes with quite damaging consequences. For many of the staff in most organisations, the real business of relationships is below the surface. Dislikes, fear, resentment, mistrust, envy, jealousy and anger and frustration remain submerged. What is needed for the water level to be lowered so that these interpersonal issues can be exposed, explored and resolved. The superficial veneer of niceness, which characterises the human culture in many organisations, is counterproductive and damaging to effective teamwork, inhibiting to the development of staff and counter to the purposes that most organisations are intent on pursuing.

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The iceberg theory can be useful particularly for practitioners who work in children centres as they often find it difficult to challenge and they avoid conflict. There is this veneer of ‘niceness’ amongst staff. However there is often an underlying current of resentment between individuals and teams. Using the iceberg theory in supervision for example can help to break down barriers and encourage challenge and development in a respectful way.

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Understanding something about group dynamics – or collective interactions and behaviour patterns that can be observed in groups – as well as the individual needs of group members, can help leaders limit their potential destructiveness in the workplace.

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Our fundamental social need to feel we belong or connect is extensively studied in research underpinned by attachment theory. When we feel disconnected from the team, we become overly dependent on others and seek undue attention from the leader and team members. Our need to feel capable is the subject of research on competence motivation or its absence among school-aged children.  When we feel we do not count, are insignificant or overlooked by others, we feel hurt and apply ourselves to hurting back.

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The most effective leaders are those who appreciate and devote time to addressing group dynamics and team development and do what they can to help each team member meet their individual needs to belong, to feel competent and significant and to feel able to feel able to handle difficult situations.

(NPQICL booklet 9:p.12-24)

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13.8 Reflective task

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Think of your setting, an organisation you know well or have worked in. Use the iceberg theory to generate descriptions and explanations of how the cultures of these organisations operate/operated?

 . In your journal record your responses.

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13.9 Building and leading a multi-disciplinary team

 . Experience tells us that one of the best ways of establishing a strong multi-agency team is to give practitioners and professionals time together. The Co-location of some services, for example health visitors, midwives, family support workers, outreach workers and volunteers sharing office space or a staff room, fosters a better understanding of the aims and priorities for each agency and helps to identify common ground. Leaders have a responsibility to ensure issues of confidentiality need to be addressed specially with information sharing protocols and particular care must be taken if there is any possibility of volunteer workers having access to information about local families.

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A strong, skilled leader with enthusiasm must articulate the settings/centre vision that has been agreed. The vision should then be translated into realistic goals and common targets so that all team members are clear that they share the same goals. These should be simply expressed, written down, understood by all. The roles and responsibilities of each partner agency need to be defined and incorporated into a centre agreement that sets out ground rules.

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Joint training by practitioners and professionals are crucial to the success of building effective teams and multi-professional working. It provides opportunities for staff to get to know one another, cooperate, discuss and make joint decisions.

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It is also particularly important to be clear about the line management structure where this is shared between a line manager in the multi-agency service and a member of the practitioner’s own professional based elsewhere.

 .

In multi-agency teams it is helpful if there is a common line management system that applies to all members of the team, including those who are supervised externally. It is essential that practitioners retain a link with colleagues in their home agency who can give professional support and oversight.

 . 

Regular opportunities for the whole team to meet together to review progress, share experiences and discuss closer working are advisable to really establish a sense of team identity. It sounds simple but with heavy caseloads it can be difficult for everyone to keep in touch. Leaders of settings/centres must ensure that time is made for this important activity.

  .

Appropriate referral systems and procedures should be developed, and mutually agreed, by all agencies involved. Agreement should be reached on the exchange between agencies of information about individual cases. Agreement should be reached on using the Common Assessment Framework to undertake needs assessment.

(DfES 2006:p16 &17)

  .

The features, values and approaches discussed when leading teams are important to any early childhood manager/leader when trying to make things happen and by ensuring that staff are involved and participate in the numerous activities and services at the centre/setting.

 .

13.10 Key reading

 . This week’s reading by Valerie Wilson and Anne Pirrie

Multidisciplinary Teamworking Beyond the Barriers? A Review of Issues

 .

Click here to access it as a PDF file now. Please read in particular chapter 3 What encourages multidisciplinary team working? And chapter 4 What inhibits multidisciplinary team working?

  .

In light of this week’s session and the above reading how can leaders and managers support, build and lead multidisciplinary teams more effectively? Use your journal to reflect and record your responses.

  .

13.10  Summary of session  .

During part 2 of building and leading teams we looked at the importance of valuing staff prior experience, their individual life histories and biographies. You explored what it means to be an effective leader and the importance of supporting and building teams. You also reflected on Neugebauer and Neugebauer (1998) five-step framework for teambuilding in relation to your experience of teambuilding. We briefly discussed leadership nutrients and toxins and the impact on organisational culture. You explored the iceberg theory in terms of group dynamics and team development. Finally we looked at building and leading multi-disciplinary teams.   .

13.13 Weekly task

 .

 . This week’s task is a reading by Bruce Tuckman – Developmental Sequence In Small Groups. Click here to access it as a PDF file now.

What does Tuckman say about the process of team/group development?

.

How do these relate to your current team?

.

Journal your responses

 .

References

 .

DfES, (2006) Sure Start Children’s Centre Practice Guidance

 .

Freud, S (2004) An outline of Psychoanalysis, London, Penguin Books

 .

Hall, V. (1996) Dancing on the Ceiling: A study of women managers in education, London, Paul Chapman

 .

Johnson, D. W and Johnson, F. P (2003) Joining Together: Group Theory and Process, international edn, Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights

 .

Neugebauer, B and Neugebauer. Eds (1998) The Art of Leadership: Managing Early Childhood Organisations, vol. 2, Child Care Information Exchange, Perth.

 .

NPQICL booklet 9 (2011) Leadership concepts and analytical tools. National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

. Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press

 .

Sylva, K. and Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2003) Effective Provision of Pre-school Education, Department for Education and Skills, London

 .

Tuckman, B (1965) Developmental Sequence In Small Groups Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland

http://aneesha.ceit.uq.edu.au/drupal/sites/default/files/Tuckman%201965.pdf  Accessed 20/1/13

.

Valerie, W. and Anne, P. (2000) Multidisciplinary Teamworking Beyond the Barriers? A Review of Issues The Scottish Council for Research in Education

 .

Whalley, M. (1999) Women Leaders in Early Childhood Settings: A dialogue in the 1990s, PhD thesis, University of Wolverhampton

 .

Whitaker, P. (1998) Managing schools, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann

.

Week 14

Professionalism/professional identity and the role of the leader in supporting continuous professional development

14.1 Aims this week

The focus this week is to consider ‘Professionalism and professional identity’. The session is outlined below:  

· To identify what professionalism means?

· To explore what professional identity is within the changing early childhood field

· Consider the role of the leader in identifying developmental needs and supporting professional development

14.2 What does professionalism mean and who is a professional?

.

Professionalism can mean different things to different people and coming to an agreed definition within the Early Childhood community can be complicated (Stacey 2009). Friedland (2007) describes professionalism in the Early years as a ‘ball of knotted string’. She describes the ‘knots’, which need untying in order to untangle the ball and reach a clear definition.

..

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines professionalism as ‘The competence or skill expected of a professional’. Bolam et al (2005:p.vi) cited in Stacey (2009:p.74) acknowledges the complications in defining professionalism and suggests that all staff members ‘with qualifications or not, are members of professional learning communities. They distinguish between being ‘professional’ and ‘being a professional’. They highlight the difference between how people perform their jobs and the qualifications they hold. In their study on effective professional learning communities they raise the importance of all professionals adopting professional standards, which should be consistent, whatever the nature of their jobs.

 ..

Frost (2005:p.11) cites a definition of professionalism by Simms et al. (1993) as:

..

· A systematic body of knowledge and monopoly of powers over its applications

· A self-regulating code of ethics, emphasizing values such as respect for the confidentiality of the client

· The sanction of the community at large

· Control over the profession’s own qualification and entry procedures

· An altruistic orientation

I believe that professionalism includes and involves the way one conducts themselves, their accountability and integrity, someone that wishes to achieve the highest standards within their profession e.g. as an early years practitioner, health visitor, social worker, teacher. Moyles (2001) believes that a passion for the work they do is a vital attribute of professionalism and that professionals what ever their field must be able to articulate these (what they do) clearly.

 .

In her article ‘The Personal is Professional: professionalism and the birth to three practitioner’ Manning-Morton (2006:p.42) contends that ‘professionalism’ in the early years must also be understood in terms of the day-to-day detail of practitioners’ relationship with children, parents and colleagues; relationships that demand high levels of physical, emotional and personal knowledge and skill’.

 .

Osgood (2006:p.9) suggests that professionalism within the Early Years community can sometimes become denigrated and is not always valued in the wider society where professionalism is still defined through masculinised attributes (such as rationality, competiveness, individualism). It is therefore vital that practitioners justify and promote their work with children and families to increase their professional status. This can be achieved if they reflect on their work with children and families stating what they are doing and why? . 14.3 Key Reading

.This week’s reading Reconstructing Professionalism in ECEC: the case for the ‘critically reflective emotional professional’ is by Jayne Osgood and is a challenging read. To read it now as a pdf file, please click here 

 .

The paper draws on a study with a group of early childhood practitioners and offers a critical reappraisal of the notion of professionalism.

. Once you have read the article use your journal to evaluate your practice, reflect and record your responses.

 .

14.4 Professionalism, multi-professional working, a case study and reflective task..

… The move towards multi-professional collaboration, and approaches such as the Common Core of Skills and Knowledge (HM Government, 2005) for all those working with children and families, will necessitate a much more fluid and broader definition of professionalism (Whalley 2008).

 ..

Case StudyAnne is deputy head of a nursery school and children’s centre. She began as a nursery nurse and has now completed the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL). Her passion for her work comes over when she describes what she does and as she says, the qualifications she has attained have, in some ways enhanced this. She feels confident in her role, but perhaps most important, happy to think outside the box. She uses her position to fight tooth and nail for what she believes is right and with others, can make sure things on offer benefit the children. She is developing her own role as she works across services. Demanding good practice, she is prepared to argue for resources and, having always developed good relationships with others outside, makes demands on them, placing the child at the centre of her actions. For example, she felt perfectly justified in insisting that a social worker, who had wanted a mother and child to come to her office, came to meet them at the centre because there was a possibility that the child would be taken into care. Anne argued that the child needed to be in an environment where she felt secure, not in an unfamiliar office.

.  

What is your definition of professionalism? Do you consider yourself as being a professional? What does it mean to be a professional?

 .

What attributes of professionalism would you look for when colleagues are interacting with:

 .

· Children;

· Parents and carers;

· Other professional colleagues?

Use your journal to reflect and record your thoughts and responses.

 .

14.5 Professional Identity – Who am I?

.

Anning et al (2006:p.7) suggests that professional identity can best be described by  ‘a particular knowledge base set of values, training and standing in the community’. Bligh (in Patrioni 1994) described each profession as behaving like a tribe, with individual members being nurtured in distinctive ways. Professional tribes generally choose their own leaders and establish their own pecking orders. They impose sanctions on any member of the tribe who does not conform. They expel members who begin to demonstrate the characteristics of another tribe.Anning et al (2010:p.71) believes that ‘in demanding that professionals work in multi-professional teams, we are expecting them to confront, articulate and lay to one side the distinctiveness of their long-established ‘tribal’ beliefs and behaviours’.

 .

Gasper (2011:p.74) refers to identity in terms of professional heritage, which he suggests is ‘embedded practices, language and ethos of individual professions which individuals who join become familiar with as they gain experience and progress within the parameters of the profession’. In partnership working it is essential to acknowledge the way that professional heritage affects points of view, language and perceptions of situations.  .

Hudson (2002) argues that there are three potential barriers to multi-professional working: . .

1.   Professional identity: How professionals understand themselves and their roles

.

2.   Professional status: How professional hierarchies and different distribution of powers are generated

 3.   Professional discretion and accountability: How professionals exercise discretion on a day-to-day basis.

.  Below is a case study, which highlights Bertham et al (2002:p.53) view that ‘there can be a tension when ‘child-centred’ and ‘parent-centred’ goals are in competition’.

 .

Case studyJanice, an outreach worker, had a serious fall-out with a practitioner working in the children’s room. They were both committed to good practice and held similar values about what they were offering. But it was their views on working with parents that differed. Janice saw her priority as supporting the parent, visiting her regularly and encouraging her to come to the groups at the children’s centre and to sign up for vocational training. Barbara felt that Janice was spending too much time with the mother and not enough on the child who was attending very irregularly. 

 .

A number of themes about the implications of working with other professionals particularly in multi-professional teams for ‘who I am’ may emerge and are highlighted below:  .

· Professionals need to be confident enough about the professional identity they bring to multi-professional teams to feel safe about transforming it

· In the period of adjusting to their new roles and assuming different identities in multi-professional teamwork, professionals may feel anxious, destabilized and vulnerable

· Those who are peripheral to core team membership, or feel isolated as lone representatives of a profession in a team are likely to feel less well supported in transitions to new identities

· Professionals believed that the labels assumed by or imposed on them had an impact on how they were perceived both within and outside the team

· The perceived status of professions in the world beyond the team did impact on team functions, but these barriers could be broken down over time

· Professionals who struggled through the pain of transformation to the gains of a new professional identity reported an enhanced sense of ‘who I am’.

(Anning et al 2010:p75)

 .

14.6 Reflective task

.

.How would you describe your professional identity?

. Has it changed in recent years?

.

If you work in a multi-disciplinary setting/centre, is there a shared identity? Or do people hold on to their original professional identity? What impact does this have on the way you work?

 .

Use your journal to reflect and record your thoughts and responses.

.

….

Now go to the Discussion Board (left hand menu) and record your ideas and debate your ideas about professionalism with other students.

 .

14.7 Supporting professional development

..

Aubrey (2011:p.139) highlights that ‘the continuing need to update and reinforce specific professional knowledge and skills in a fast-changing world remains clear’.Bertram and Pascal (2002:p.ii) suggest that research carried out internationally supports the idea of investment in professional staff as a preferable strategy for raising quality.

Apart from going on individual external training to develop new skills, knowledge and understanding Siraj-Blatchford and Manni (2006:p.9) found that effective settings used both ‘informal-formal’ approaches to staff development. These include observations, formal meetings, reflection of ones work and individual feedback from managers/leaders and colleagues.  .

The political context in supporting professional development

.

The government’s vision set out in the 2020 Children and Young Peoples Workforce Strategy (DCSF, 2008a:p.6) is that everyone (particular professionals) working with children and young people will be:  .

· Ambitious for every child and young person

· Excellent in their practice

· Committed to partnership and integrated working

· Respected and valued as professionals

The Effective Provision of Preschool Education (EPPE) report (Sylva et al, 2004) concluded that qualifies teachers, specifically pedagogical leaders, had the most impact on the quality of children’s experiences, particularly in relation to outcomes in pre-reading and social development. The EYFS practice guidance, taking note of this, stresses the need for well-qualified and experienced staff who understand and engage in informed reflective practice-both individually and in groups and work collaboratively within the setting to share knowledge, question practice and test new ideas – with high aspirations for every child (DCSF, 2008c:p.9).

 .

Training for practitioners and leaders to meet the changing demands of recent childcare and education agendas, linked with social change, has been a significant focus in government policy, under the remit of the Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC). The National College for School Leadership are responsible for the form, content and delivery of the training programme for leaders and managers in Early Years Childcare and Education. The National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL) is a qualification that provides an experimental, developmental programme centred on reflective practice, which aims to encourage leaders/managers to explore value, based practice and extends their knowledge and understanding of leadership and multi-agency working. This qualification aims to raise quality and standards.

 .

The role of the leader in identifying need and supporting professional development

.

Commitment to support of staff and continuous professional development (CPD) is considered a key factor to effective leadership (Aubrey, 2011).

.

It is the responsibility of the leader particularly in Children’s Centres to encourage and support staff development and multi-professional working.

.

Studies on multi-professional working have found that some professionals feel that they lack the knowledge and skills needed for integrated working. Davis and Smith (2012:p.9) believe that there are ‘benefits to be gained from working with a range of people with different types of experience …it suggests professionals that hide their feelings, errors or uncertainties (in an effort to keep up an apparently professional appearance) are actually unprofessional’.

.

They suggest it is important for professional to examine their preconceptions and those of their colleagues in order to create collaborative and interrelational approached to learning and professional development.

 .

Regular supervision is primarily the responsibility of the centre leader/manager. During supervision the leader/manager helps staff to use their knowledge and skills effectively in carrying out their daily duties and to enhance and deepen their understanding of professional values. Whalley (2001) believes that the ranges of supervisory responsibilities are complex for managers/leaders to address. It is therefore important to consider, personal and self-development as well as team-building issues.

 .

Rodd (2006:166) suggests that the ‘professional support provided through effective supervision helps staff to listen to and accept constructive feedback and learn to reflect upon and critically evaluate their own performance’. Whalley (2001:p.139) observes that supervision ‘becomes a mechanism of quality control because it involves target-setting, goals and reviews’. When carried out effectively supervision allows for a forum where difficult issues can be discussed openly and in confidence – for example underperformance, sickness level. These days supervision is viewed as a form of continuous staff development where staff competence is the main objective. It is also seen as a way of communicating to staff that they are important to the organisation and that their contribution is valued (Rodd 2006).

 .

Capability learning cycle – A tool for supporting development (Michael Schartz and Rob Walker (1995:p.106) The value of using the Capability learning cycle lies in the distinction that it makes between our conscious operations and our unconscious ones – in other words, between the actions we take with full self-awareness and those we take without consciously having to think about them. This model refers to ideas of continuous growth ad development and all round achievement.

.

The theory suggests that in learning, particularly in relation to the application of skills and knowledge, we move through a series of stages as discussed below:

 .

Unconscious incapability

I am not aware of what I do not know or cannot do until I become aware of a need or a deficiency; then I move to: Conscious incapability

I am now aware of something I do not know or cannot do. I can now choose whether I want to gain new knowledge or develop a new skill, or not.

If I do, then as I undertake new learning I am aware of being in a state of:  

Conscious capability

I need to concentrate and think in order to understand new knowledge or to perform the new skill. As I absorb new knowledge and I become skilful I move into a state of:

Unconscious capability

New knowledge takes place alongside other acquired knowledge and I am able to apply the new skill without deliberate attention to the techniques involved. Some capabilities I can undertake on automatic pilot. (NPQICL Booklet 9, 2011:p.6)

 .

The above model is particularly useful to leaders/managers in relation to professional development work.  Development and growth requires individuals to move through the stages. This can be achieved more successfully when learning is supported and encouraged. The key for leaders is being able to intervene to activate capability awakening, rather than incompetence panic, with the damage associated with feelings of anger, guilt, shame and a sense of not being good enough.

 ..

It is the conscious capability stage that sensitive encouragement and support are most crucial. Developing new professional capability involves taking risks, and when those tentative first steps are judged negatively, then development is jeopardised and growth inhibited.

 ..

14.8 Reflective task

.

..

Think of a recent time when you decided to learn something new – skill, or taking up a new interest. Use the learning capability model to identify your experiences at each of the stages.  

 .

14.9  Summary of session

..

During this session you looked at the definition of professionalism and professional identity. You explored the role of the leader in identifying and supporting professional development. You briefly considered the political context around supporting professional development, particularly for the leader/manager. Finally you looked at the Capability Learning Cycle which is a tool leaders can use to support development and learning.  ..

14.10 Weekly task

..

The second key reading is by Malcolm Knowles – The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy Revised and updated. Click here to access it as a pdf file now.

… Malcolm Knowles’ attempts to develop a distinctive conceptual basis for adult education and learning via the notion of andragogy became very widely discussed and used. He also wrote popular works on self-direction and on group work (with his wife Hulda). His work was a significant factor in reorienting adult educators from ‘educating people’ to ‘helping them learn’ (Knowles 1950: 6).

 …

Use your journal to reflect on your own learning and development and record your thoughts and responses.

 …

 References and further reading

Anning, A. Cottrell, D. Frost, N. Green, J. Robinson, M. (2006) Developing Multi-Professional Teamwork For Integrated Children’s Services: research policy and practice Maidenhead. Open University Press.

 …

Anning, A. Cottrell, D. Frost, N. Green, J. Robinson, M. (2010) Developing Multi-Professional Teamwork For Integrated Children’s Services,Open University Press McGraw Hill Education

 …

Aubrey, C. (2011) Leading and Managing in Early Years (Second Addition)

SAGE Publications Ltd

 …

Bertram, T. Pascal, C. Bokhari, S. Gasper, M. Holtermann, S (2002) Early excellence centre pilot programme. Second evaluation report 2000-2001. Research report 361. Nottingham: DfES.

 …

Bertram, T. Pascal, C. (2002) Early Years Education: an international perspective. London: Qualifications and Curriculum Authority.

www.inca.org.uk(Accessed 1/2/13)

 …

Bolam, R., McMahon, A. Stoll, L et al (2005) Creating and sustaining effective professional learning communities. Research report 637 Bristol: University of Bristol

Davis, M. and Smith, M. (2012) Working in Multi-professional Contexts

A Practical Guide for Professionals in Children’s Services

 …

DCSF (2008a) 2020 Children and Young People’s workforce strategy. Nottingham: DCSF.

 …

Friedland, R. (2007) Professionalism in the early years. In Wild, M. and Mitchell, H. (eds) Early Childhood Studies: Reflective Reader, Exeter: Learning Matters

 …

Frost, N. (2005) Professionalism, Partnership and joined Up Thinking. Dartington: Research in Practice

 …

Gasper, M. (2011) Multi-agency Working in the Early Years Challenges and Opportunities Sage Publications

 …

HM Government (2005) Common Core of Skills and Knowledge for the Children’s Workforce. Nottingham:DfES

 …

Hudson, B. (2002) Interprofessionality in health and social care: the Achilles’ heel of partnership, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 16(1).  …

Knowles, S. (1970) The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy Revised and Updatedhttp://www.hospitalist.cumc.columbia.edu/downloads/cc4_articles/Education%20Theory/Andragogy.pdf Accessed 2/2/13

 …

Manning-Morton, J. (2006) The Personal is Professional: professionalism and the birth to threes practitioner London Metropolitan University, United Kingdom …

Moyles, J. (2001) Passion, paradox and professionalism in Early Years education. Early Years, 21 (2): 81-95. …

NPQICL booklet 9 (2011) Leadership concepts and analytical tools. National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

 …

Osgood, J. (2006) Deconstructing professionalism in early childhood education: resisting the regulatory gaze. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 7 (1): 5-14.

 …

Petrioni, P. (1994) Inter-professional teamwork: its history and development in hospitals, general practice and community care (UK), in A. Leathard (ed.)

Going Inter-professional: Working together for Health and Welfare. London: Routledge.

 …

Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press

 …

Schratz, M. and Walker, R. (1995) Research as Social Change, London, Routledge

 …

Sylva, K. Melhuish, EC, Sammons, P. Siraj-Blatchford, I. Taggart, B. (2004)The effective provision of pre-school education (EPPE) project: London: DfEE/Institute od Education, University of London.

…  

Siraj-Blatchford, I. Manni, L. (2006) Effective leadership in the early years sector: the ELEYS study. London Institute of Education, University of London

www.gtce.org.uk/shared/contentlibs/126795/93128/120213/eleys_study.pdf

 …

Stacey, M. (2009) Teamwork and collaboration in Early Years Settings, Learning Matters Ltd  …

Trodd, L. and Chivers, L. (2011) Interprofessional Working in Practice

… Whalley, M. (2008) Leading Practice in Early Years Settings, Learning Matters Ltd

 …

Whalley, M. (2001) ‘Working as a team’, in Contemporary Issues in the Early Years. Working collaboratively for Children, 3rdedn, ed. G. Pugh, Paul Chapman, London

 support you at this time?  

.

If you were planning the agenda for your first mentoring session, what three key items would be on the agenda and why? .

How do you believe mentoring sessions could support you in leading a multi-professional team?

.  

Use your journal to reflect and record your responses.   .

.

 WEEK 15

15.8 Journaling as a way of supporting CPD

. During week one I introduced journaling to you as a way of reflecting on your practice, their thoughts and responses for the module. Today we look at journaling in terms of supporting CPD.

  .

Journaling brings together both personal and professional development. The aim is to use your journal to express your thoughts and feelings, to review and learn from them and to record what you think should do next. One way to think about journaling is teaching yourself through your professional practice. You think about your initial learning in order to make improvements for yourself and your setting/centre. Anything that could improve your job for you could also improve your settings/centres outcomes for the children and families using services or activities.

. Journaling is a conscious way of making sure that you help yourself. You have many ways of helping others to solve problems. Being a participant in your own problem-solving strategies and making sure that you move yourself on can be strengthened by journaling.

.

.  

15.9  Summary of session

.

This week’s session continued the theme of professional development and you began by exploring reflective supervision through two journal articles, examining its role in CPD. You also looked at appraisals the appraisal process and its links to identifying and supporting development. We then considered mentoring and the mentoring experience and finally you reflected on the role of journaling as a way of supporting CPD.

  .

.

15.10 Weekly task

.

.

This week’s task involves reading the following article:

.

European Early Childhood Education Research Journal

Leading a learning organisation: Australian early years centres as learning networks. Kaye Colmer.

Vol.16, No. 1, March 2008, 107-115

.  

The article discusses the following:   .

· Leading a dynamic learning organisation

· Managing as well as leading change

· Motivating and inspiring staff through shared leadership and reflectivity

· Creating devolved leadership structures and engaging with complexity

· Developing an early years centre as an effective learning networks

· Key strategies in developing early years centres as learning networks

Use your journal to reflect on the article your own setting/centre. Record your thoughts and responses.

References and further reading

Barden, N, 2002, Supervision and the new ethical framework, Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal, 13, 6, 28-29

British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, (2002), Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy, Rugby, BACP

Colmer, K. (2008) Leading a learning organisation: Australian early years centres as learning networks Lady Gowrie Child Centre, Adelaide, Australia

Cullan, S. (2006) What is mentoring? In Robbins, A. (ed) Mentoring in the Early Years. London: Paul Chapman.

NPQICL booklet 2 (2011) Journaling for integrated centre leadership National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

NPQICL booklet 3 (2011) Leadership mentoring support National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

Parsloe, E. (1992) Coaching, Mentoring and Assessing: A Practical Guide to Developing Competence. London Kogan Page.

Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press

Trodd, L. and Chivers, L. (2011) Interprofessional Working in Practice

Learning and working together for children and families

Weigand, R. and Weatherston (2007) The issue and why it matters

Journal of ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families

ZERO TO THREE, November 2007 Volume 28 No.2,

Week 16: Managing Change with multi-professional/disciplinary teams

16.1 Aims this week

This week we look at  ‘Managing Change with multi-professional/disciplinary teams)’. The session is outlined below:  

· To gain an enhanced understanding of the implications of change for staff, management and leadership

· To consider the importance of change in relation to providing quality services and provision

· To look at Kotter’s (1995) change model as an analytical tool in supporting change management in multi-agency environments

· To explore the role of the leader in managing change

· To consider what is involved in the change process

· To examine ways of managing conflict and stress (weekly task)

16.2 Change is everybody’s concern

.

..

‘Change is one of the few certainties in life. It is a phenomenon in all aspects of our lives. Given that human beings experience so much change in their day-to-day lives, it can be difficult to understand why the process of change presents such threat to some people’ (Rodd 2006:p.181). We will explore this further during this week’s session.

. Change is one of the fundamental features of life and work in early years services.  Those who work with children and families are concerned with growth and development and get worried when services, processes, or standards stay the same. One of the main principles of early years work is consistent and continuous change. Duffy (2010:p.1) makes it clear, ‘high quality early education leads to improve outcomes for children, especially those who are disadvantaged’. There is therefore a duty to ensure that standards do not stay the same but develops and improves in order to meet the needs of children and families.

.. The Irony is often that those whose role focuses on change and managing the change process in others or teams are not always as keen to bring about change in their own professional behaviours and working practices.

 ..

Since the working practices of early years practitioners and other professionals are themselves varied, complex and only arrived at through training and experience, it can be a cause of some concern and insecurity to change working practices that have become familiar through experience. Gasper (2011:p.35) highlights that ‘fear of change and resistance to change’ is one of the challenges and barriers to working with multi-professional teams. Leaders and managers of multi-professional teams, are responsible for providing the best quality service that they can. This often requires change and development.

..

Alvarado et al., (1999) cited in Rodd (2006) states that, ‘leadership has been, and will continue to be, defined in terms of improving program quality’.

 ..

In this fast changing world this can involve staff being introduced to new methodologies, extend existing skills and develop new ones. .. ..

One of the responses or impact to an environment characterized by fast and accelerating change is to put settings/centres and their team under more pressure. One way to exert this pressure is to place increased emphasis on the way we plan and evaluate services. By tightening up on the way we plan and evaluate can help us become more efficient.

.. It is not plans, which change and improve outcomes, nor evaluation, which raises standards it is the people who do the work – the team. In the end it is the capacity of leaders to bring about change in how professional practice is conducted that will enable an early years setting/centre to develop and improve. This involves working with individuals as well as teams who will have ideas and suggestions about how things should be managed. It is never going to be easy persuading staff to stop using skills s/he has taken all his/her life to develop and hone nor to ask someone to leave a role they have striven to learn about and become familiar with. ..

It is in the management of change and development that leadership capability is most challenged.  Rodd (2006:p.182) believes that, ‘The role of the leader has become instrumental in managing change’ as well as orchestrating change.

 ..

..

16.3 Reflective task

..

..

. What changes to your professional practice have you experienced in the past few years? ..

..

How were these changes managed? How did the changes affect you?

.. Use your journal to record your responses.

..

..  

16.4 Resistance to change

..

..

Aubrey (2011:p.140) highlights that ‘Anything that threatens a core value is likely to be met with a whole gamut of responses that range from active and passive opposition through to apparent acceptance and support’

.. In her work on how organisations will need to develop in the future, Caroline Palmer (1994) suggested that two assumptions are so deep-rooted in the organisations that they have taken on the strength of incontrovertible truths. The first is the belief that you cannot change human nature; the second that you cannot run organisations by trying to do that. Her emphatic response is ‘Oh yes you can’. If these assumptions were actually true, she argues we would still have slavery in this country. .. Leaders in the early years settings/centres may not be unfamiliar with the cries: ‘if it isn’t broke don’t fix it’ and ‘that wouldn’t work here. Perhaps what such attitudes reveal is a fear of change, of moving out of our comfort zones into the unknown. Goleman (1999:p.98) believes that ‘People who lack adaptability are ruled by fear, anxiety and deep personal discomfort with change’. Until we learn to see change as a journey of discovery rather than as a threat to our wellbeing, these fears will continue. .. Given the inhibiting influences of our upbringing, education and experiences, we should not be surprised that we have developed considerable aptitude in resisting change in various forms and guises. As leaders/managers we should realize that resisting change is very purposeful behavior: it is a strategy to protect ourselves in face of threats to self-esteem and psychological survival. .. In our roles and work we invest a great deal of physical, intellectual, emotional and psychological energy in constructing our role images and comfortably occupying the organizational niches we have created for ourselves. When change is proposed or enforced, the role image upon which we have based our behavior is declared null and void and we have as yet no alternative with which to replace it. We may feel deprived of the psychological props upon which much of our personal and professional credibility is built. So we fight to remain intact by seeking to preserve the status quo. One of the ways of doing this is to attack the proposition and find as much fault as possible. .. The following phrases will have a familiar ring to them and some we will identify as part of our own resistance strategy during some events in our lives:  ..

· ‘We tried that once before and it didn’t work’

· ‘We don’t have the time’

· ‘Let’s get back to reality’

· ‘We don’t have the resources’

· ‘You can’t teach an old dog new trick’s’

· ‘Not that again’

· ‘We’ve managed so far without it’

· ‘Lets form a working party’

· ‘Let’s wait until things settle down’

· ‘We’ve always done it this way; no one has complained’

Away from the personal level, there is a range of reasons for resistance to change (Plant 1987):

 ..

· Fear of the unknown

· Lack of information

· Unwilling to share information

· Misinformation

· Historical factors

· Threat to core skills and competence

· Threat to status

· Threat to power base

· No perceived benefits

· Low trust organisational culture

· Poor relationships

· Fear of failure

· Fear of looking stupid

· Reluctance to experiment

· Custom bound

· Reluctance to let go

· Strong peer group norms

Plant (1987) believes that resistance to change comes in two forms: systemic and behavioural. Systematic resistance tends to occur when there is a lack of knowledge, information, skill and managerial capacity. It is almost as if the organisation is crying out: We can’t do this’! Behavioural resistance is more emotionally centred and derives from the reactions, perceptions and assumptions of individuals and groups in the organisation. Lack of trust, for example, is much more difficult to manage than lack of information or the absence of resources.  ..

The challenge for leaders/managers are often compounded by paranoia – the feeling that the resistance is directed at them personally. Coulson (1985) has provided a valuable insight into the psychology of change, which offers guidance to leaders/managers as they contemplate the way forward. This can be summarised as four key points: ..  

1.   Initiators of the management of change need to be aware that, when change is suggested, those involved in it want to protect what they see themselves to be

..  

2.   The way that individuals and teams operate in their particular work situations has come about through a long process of establishing an identity in relation to the demands and expectations raised. They strive to satisfy their own work needs and the expectations of others with the minimum of uncertainty and anxiety. Pressure to alter this way of being tends to be received as threats to the comfortable continuity of living and working

..  

3.   Suggestions that individuals change their way of doing things and their approaches to the professional tasks for which they have responsibility imply a level of inadequacy in their performance. This threatens the identity they have striven to develop. The natural inclination is to become aroused in the defense of the familiar and established

 ..

4.   Far too often leaders/managers and senior staff experience this defensive tendency as opposition to new ideas and see their task as one of overcoming the perceived resistance.  A battle of wills can ensure which is counter productive to the developments themselves and to the professional relationships which are vital to their success

..  

Much of this polarisation can be avoided if the following six factors are remembered:

 ..

1.   When people resist change they are not usually working in active opposition to it as such but demonstrating that a threat to their personal and professional security has been experienced

..  

2.   Leaders/managers need to accept this response as natural and inevitable

..  

3.   A key task for leaders/managers is to listen to the experience of those involved in change and seek to understand what is felt to be threatened

..  

4.   Leaders/managers need to be deeply caring and concerned about what it is that staff feel they are having to give up and be seen as ally in this process, not as an opponent

..  

5.   Leaders/managers also need to help staff protect what they perceive to be under threat while moving them towards new methods and strategies

..  

6.   In the process of change it is vital to try and avoid undermining individuals’ sense of competence and professional wellbeing by appearing to reject or devalue their established practices.

..  

Much pain and discomfort can be avoided if some of these key ideas are incorporated in the values and assumptions, which underpin approaches to management and leadership. A great deal of stress within settings/centres with staff can often be linked back to insensitive and clumsy handling of innovation and change.

 ..

..

16.5 Reflective task

..

..

.. Recall a time when you were required to make a significant change to the way you did things.

..

How did you feel when the changes were proposed? How did you respond? How do you now view the changes that you then had to make? ..

..

Use your journal to record your responses.  ..

..

16.6 Dynamics of change

.. What the resistance statements quoted above conceal is the considerable confusion, anger and uncertainty that change often stirs up inside organisations. A further insight into the process of change and the individual is supplied by the concept of ‘zones of uncertainty’ (Schon 1971). This suggests that change involves risks in moving from the familiar to the unfamiliar (Whitaker 1998).

Zones of discomfort  

Safe haven Danger zonesUnknown
Where we are nowUncertaintyDifficultDiscomfortFearAwkwardnessConfusionIncompetence Where we want/have to be

.. The table above shows the first step out of the comfort of the familiar can be most hazardous involving a range of risks and difficulties. It is important to be sensitive to three particular clusters of feelings:

 ..

1. Loss 2. Anxiety3. Struggle
Of firmly held beliefs and ideas About required levels of understandingTo survive intact
Of established patterns of behaviours About new skillsTo acquire new competence
Of comfortable habits About what the future will be like To gain respect and recognition
Of confidence and self-esteemAbout being able to cope  
 About being seen as different  

 ..

Among the most valuable of managerial qualities are those that convey an informed and sensitive understanding of the impact of change and of the difficulties that have to be faced to accomplish it. But change must never be regarded as something that has to be feared, resisted and avoided. Change can present us with new opportunities and exciting prospects. It can focus our thinking and concentrate our ambitions. It is through change that we can realise our wilder dreams.

 ..

While it is vital to be sensitive to apparent difficulties, it is also important to recognize the powerful range of human resources that can be activated within each person. People will tend to underperform if expectations of them are too low. Within settings/centres staff will inhibit the full expression of their skills and abilities if they feel oppressed and underestimated. Over recent years organisational development theory has placed increasing emphasis on the importance of assumptions about staff and their work. Successful leaders/managers have been found to be those who are able to activate the inner resources of their team by building a positive and enhanced climate of assumptions.  ..

..

16.7 Reflective task

..

..

Reflect on your own zones off uncertainty.

.. What things have you had to give up in the course of your life in order to move on?

.. How did you feel about these losses?

.. What sorts of anxiety do you experience when you have to do something you haven’t done before?

.. What sorts of struggles have you engaged in as you have developed and changed?

..

Use your journal to reflect and record your responses  ..

..

16.8 Kotter’s (1995) Change Model

.. 

..

Developing a model of leadership in multi-agency environments A key focus of multi-agency leadership is upon the process of change management. Although there are a number of different change management models Kotter’s is one of the most popular (DfES 2005d:p.9).

..

In his work Kotter highlights eight steps to organisation transformation  ..

Kotter’s change model (Kotter, 1995:p.9)

1.   Establishing a sense of urgency  
2.   Forming a powerful guiding coalition  
3.   Creating a vision Creating a climate of change
4.   Communicating the vision  
5.   Empowering others to act on the vision  
6.   Planning and creating short-term winsEngaging and enabling the whole organisation  
7.   Consolidating improvements and producing still more change  
8.   Institutionalising new approachesImplementing and sustaining change  

.. The first three steps are concerned with creating the environment for change to happen, and include increasing the urgency for change, building the right team and establishing the vision. Steps four to six look at increasing buy-in to the change model process and creating the drive for change. This involves achieving commitment to the vision, the belief that people are empowered to act, and securing short-term wins. The final step looks at the importance of ensuring that change becomes institutionalised. The different demands of multi-agency working means that often building leadership capacity and extensive distribution of leadership particularly within children’s centres are important strategies for the long-term viability of collaborative working. (NPQICL Booklet 9:p.33)  ..

..

16.9 The change process ..

.Most of the changes that we are concerned with when leading and managing teams involve us moving away from known positions out to the unknown (such as integrated or multi-agency ways of working). This often means that we have to give up things we are familiar with and adopt practices or ways of working that we have never tried before often with a short lead in time and with insufficient opportunity for reflection and preparation. Mostly we can take the changes in our stride and modify our professional practice to new needs and requirements. Sometimes we do not like what we are expected to do but realise that adjustments have to be made. ..

.Traditional approaches to change management fail to take sufficient account of the impact that change makes on our lives and how it affects our capacity to function effectively. ..

If we are to manage change well, we need to be sensitive to the change process and how it operates in each team member. Below are four particular dimensions of this process, which are significant:

..  

1.   Conceptual change:changes to the way we think about our work, conceive our roles and responsibilities, how we assess our effectiveness, how we see the nature of change in our lives and our attitudes to the specific issue of the change under consideration.

2.   Emotional change:how we feel about the changes proposed, the sorts of challenges and demands it will make on us, the emotions that will be aroused as we begin to struggle with new ideas and fresh expectations, our hopes of success and our fears of failure.

3.   Aspirational change:our hopes and ambitions for our work, our professional journey, our commitment to the early years and its vision for the future, our career aspirations and our hopes for the sort of contribution we want to make.

4.   Practical change:how we stop doing things we have always done and start doing things in a different way or doing other things we have never done before, how we adapt to new practices and approaches, how we acquire new skills and how we adopt new behaviours.

When we consider going on a journey, it is useful to have a map of the route. It is not enough to be told where we should go and that we have a certain amount of time to get there. We need help with three vital questions:

 ..

1.   What is the purpose of the journey?

2.   What will the journey be like?

3.   What will we do when we get there?

Below we will look at another use for the four-link development chain. This can help us to focus on different aspects of a proposed change and help those who will be involved to make the journey in ways which reduce confusion and distress and which provide stepping stones into the future:

 ..

1.   Why is change necessary?

..

2.   What will it involve?

..

3.   The challenges to face?

..

4.   What will it be or look like?

.. In considering these key issues we need to appreciate that change is as much an inner process of adjustment as a practical task. How we feel about what we are expected to do significantly affects how we do it. Leaders/managers need to realise that resistance to do something significantly affects how we do it. They need to realise that resistance to change is one way that individuals and teams register – without actually saying so directly – that they are uncomfortable and perhaps even afraid of what is proposed. Effective leaders/managers never assume that anyone finds change easy or even acceptable. Expressing our concerns about changes, which profoundly affect us, is natural and should be expected. Time needs to be allocated for these concerns so that they can be dealt with sensitively and openly.  ..

Traditionally we have approached change in a somewhat awkward manner defining the tasks that need to be achieved and driving people on. There are more effective ways, ones that respect natural human concerns and misgivings. .. The behaviour of leaders/managers in the change process is crucial. Impatience to get things moving tends to indicate an undue preoccupation with the task and a lack of concern with those who will be responsible for implementing it. Proper attention to the process itself will tend to take their worries and concerns seriously as well as to provide the proper and appropriate levels of support. .. It is the role of leaders/mangers to create the nourishing and conducive conditions for change so that the choices that individuals and the team as a whole makes will be for better outcomes for children and families, growth, challenge, achievement and not a retreat into the familiar and comfortable.

..

We can no longer afford the desperate and somewhat blind drive through the danger zones that we have traditionally taken; we need a diversion, which spends appropriate time in preparation zones where appropriate attention can be given to the conceptual, emotional, aspirational and practical changes involved. We like to have control over our journeys in life and we also like to choose our own method of transport but generally we all get there in the end.

 ..

Effective leadership is the process of helping the team to manage change in in ways that acknowledge the challenges and complexities involved, whilst providing the support required and which do justice to their own potential.  ..

..

16.10 Reflective task

..

When you have to change your professional practice, what sort of support do you need?

.. How do you get this support: do you have to ask for it or is it offered?

.. In what specific ways can leaders/managers support staff effectively through times of change?

..

Use your journal to reflect and record your responses.

..

..  

16.11 Summary of session

..

During this week’s session you looked at the implications of change for staff, management and leadership. You considered the importance of change in relation to providing quality services and provision. You examinedKotter’s (1995) change model as an analytical tool in supporting change management in multi-agency environments. You alsoexplored the role of the leader in managing change and consideredwhat is involved in the change process.

..

The weekly task will allow you to examine ways of managing conflict and stress.

..  

16.12 Weekly task

..

..

 – Reading Managing Staff in Early Years Settings by Adrian Smith and Ann Langston an E-book – Chapter 11

..

Click here to access in the Library now.

.

Often with change comes resistance to change conflict and stress. Read Chapter 11, then write  a couple of paragraphs on the following:

 ..

1.   Causes of conflict

..

2.   Approaches to conflict management

..

3.   Understanding and management of stress in the workplace

..

References and further reading

Aubrey, C. (2011) Leading and Managing in the Early Years (2ndEd)

London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Coulson, A. (1985) The Fear of change Unpublished paper

Gasper, M. (2011) Multi-agency Working in the Early Years Challenges and Opportunities London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Goleman, D. (1999) Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury

Kotter, J. P.  (1995) Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review. March–April, 1995.

NPQICL booklet 9 (2011) Leadership concepts and analytical tools National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

Plant, R. (1987) Managing Change and Making it Stick London: Fontana

Pugh, G. and Duffy, B. (2010) Contemporary Issues In The Early Years (5thEd)SAGE Publishers Ltd  

Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press  

Schon, D. (1971) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action London: Temple Smith.

Smith, A. and Langston, A (1999) Managing Staff in Early Years Settings London: Routledge.

Whitaker, P. (1997) Primary Schools and the Future Buckingham Open University Press

Week 17: Communication and leadership

17.1 Aims this week

This week we look at  ‘Communication and leadership.   

· Identifying what communication is

· Examine the importance of effective communication

· Look at the political context surrounding effective communication and multi-professional working

· Consider communication and the interpersonal world

· Through reflection explore the role of the leader in supporting a culture of effective communication within teams, particularly multi-professional teams

· Explore some of the challenges and barriers to effective communication and group dynamics

17.2 What is communication?

Jorde-Bloom (1997:p.13) defines communication as the ability to ‘synthesise complex information and communicate that information cogently and succinctly to a variety of different audiences’. Steiner (1999) suggests that communication is our ‘link to others’.

 .

Rodd (2006:p.65) believes that management is distinguished by effective communication and states that ‘successful leadership in the early childhood field is a matter of communication more than anything’. Our work with children, parents and professionals revolve around the need to and the ability to communicate effectively.

 .

.

17.3 Reflective task

.

. What is your definition of communication?

.

What does effective communication look like in practice?

When have you experienced effective communication within your setting/centre?

What role does your leader/manager play in communicating effectively?

Journal your reflection and responses

.  .

17.4 The Political Context

.

Anning et al (2010:p.107) sums up the history and political context around effective communication well by highlighting how, ‘Information-sharing lies at the heart of the government view of multi-professional teams. The government is clearly responding to the Laming Report (2003), finding that failure to share information contributed to the death of Victoria Climbie’.  The Children Act 2004 and the Childcare Act 2006 are clear about the importance of working closely with multi-professionals to share information and communicate effectively to improve outcomes for children and families

.

.  

17.5  Communication and the Interpersonal world

.   

.

‘Effective communication skills are the tools that underpin the ability to act in an emotionally intelligent and competent manner’ (Rodd 2006:p.70). Wong and Law (2002) believe that emotional intelligence enhances our job performance and general satisfaction. . Early years work is intensely interactive. Despite grand visions, clear policies and specific plans, the essential business of an early years centre/setting is conducted through an endless sequence of interactions and encounters. Some of these are planned and intentional but perhaps most are incidental. They are created in the spontaneity of the moment out of need, circumstances or location.

 .

Frequently these incidental encounters are interruptions to other interactions or activities and we temporarily disengage to give them attention. It is often in these unexpected encounters that we do our best work – dealing with difficulties, supporting people, making agreements, resolving problems, clarifying action and keeping things moving. We are operating in a process world which straddles on moving through an intricate web of highly charged and dynamic signs, signals, messages, comments, questions, initiatives, demands, requests and responses. . Interpersonal skill is therefore crucial to effective leadership and communication (Rodd 2006, Whalley 2008). Effective communication and interpersonal relationships are key elements to providing successful provision and improving practice.

 .

There is enormous potential in our encounters for disagreements, misunderstandings, disputes, tensions, hurt feelings, misplaced trust, betrayal and conflict. Much will depend upon our skills as communicators and how we behave in these snatched moments that so characterize a typical day at work. With increased turbulence, pressure and stress, the quality of these interactions will become ever more important. Success will very much depend upon how we manage ourselves in the interpersonal world. Some of the key factors, which will determine our capability, are:  .

· Self-awareness:a striving to keep in accurate touch with our own patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and the effects these have on others

.  

· Authenticity:a deep concern to communicate what we are thinking and feeling without deceit, dissembling and concealment

.  

· Care:a genuine desire to reach out to others and to be of help sharing ourselves in a gentle ‘non do-gooding’ way

.  

· Receptivity:being open to approaches from others, however trivial and insignificant they may seem from an objective point of view

.  

· Understanding:seeking first to understand others before we ourselves seek to be understood by them

.  

· Empathy:listening with deep interest and sensitivity to the experiences of others and conveying our acceptance and sensing of that experience back to them

 .

· Trust: striving to build relationships of openness, warmth and mutual trust in which there are no lies and hidden agendas

.  

How can the leader communicate effectively to put their point across?

.

The leader needs to send clear, accurate and unambiguous messages to the whole team (including multi-professionals who are not based or co-located at the centre/setting). Asking yourself the following questions beforehand can be useful:

.  

· Why am I communicating? What is the purpose or objective?

.  

· Who do I need to tell? It is easy to avoid talking to the right people or person if we are fearful of the outcomes

.  

· What do I hope to achieve by this communication?What does the receiver already know? What do they, he or she need to know from me?

.  

· Where is the best place to communicate? The context will make a big difference to how the message is received. Telling someone what you think after a meeting, where it should have been discussed is too late. Talking to someone in front of others so that they are embarrassed is unprofessional, damaging for your ongoing relationships and will not get results

.  

· When is the best time to communicate?It is unlikely that the person/persons that you are communicating with will hear you if they are concentrating on something else. Giving bad news on a Friday evening could be disastrous

.  

· How is the best way of communicating this?Being prepared and knowing what you want to say helps you to be assertive in communication. Even in a meeting, when you may have had limited time to prepare what it is you want to say, thinking about your main points before the words come out of your mouth will be much more effective than talking off the top of your head

. (Stacey 2009:p.48)

.

.

17.6 Reflective task

.

Choose a situation where you have to make a request at work or put your point across either to an individual or a group. Think about the ways you would communicate assertively and how you would prepare yourself for this.

.

Use your journal to record your responses

.  .

17.7 Overcoming existing and potential barriers to effective communication

. When many centres/settings are now open sometimes 52 weeks a year and often from 8 – 6, where staff work 3 or 4 different shifts, both full time and part time and where a range of different professionals come in and out of the setting for what ever reasons, the underuse of IT, availability of part-time professionals and different ways of working are often seen as a challenge to effective communication. It is therefore essential that there are strategies in place to overcome any barriers to effective communication.

 .

Communication, multi-professional working and group dynamicsDiscussion and dialogue are essential in multi-professional working and effective communication.Where there is a culture of reflexivity professionals/practitioners are able to provide activities and services that meet the needs of children and families and provide better outcomes (Davis and Smith 2012).

 .

From her studies, Aubrey (2011:p.116) suggests that, ‘poor communication within and between agencies created problems between those working at different levels within agencies’. But why should this be? Pietroni (1992) believes that some of the challenges between professionals is as a result of the professional language and discourses they use and that jargon is often acknowledged as a barrier to effective communication.

 .

Aubrey’s research reveals how ‘team members felt that formal methods of communications through, meetings, telephone contacts, daily transfer of internal post, information chats and social events’ (Aubrey 2011:p.123) aided good communication.

 .

It is important for professionals to contribute their expertise and feel that their contributions are being acknowledged. However this can be a challenge to inter-professional communication and collaboration. Some of these challenges are outlined below:

 .

· Confusion about parameters of roles and responsibilities – especially in working together whilst acknowledging the importance of specialist expertise

.  

· Disappointment and frustration about slowness or lack of change

.  

· Conflicting priorities and work practices

 .

· Little systematic or effective sharing

.  

· Exclusion of others by the use of jargon

 .

 .

Case Study and Reflective Task

 .

Below are two case studies where Yasmin and Sidney share their very different experiences.

 .

Case Study 1 Yasmin is a family support worker in an urban Sure Start Local Programme ‘ I help run twice weekly parent and children lunchtime groups where a specialist playworker organises a play-based programme for the children, a local catering firm provides a healthy vegetarian snack for all users and one or other of the local team of health visitors tries to pop in. My role is one of outreach into the community to try and encourage those who are otherwise resistant to such groups to make use of the service they offer and then befriend and “actively listen” to parents while their children play. Often I encourage the parents to play with the children or even explore the play resources for themselves. Seema, one of the mums, usually loves the playdough but I am concerned about her at the moment as she is increasingly subdued and one of her children, Mohamed, is much more clingy to her and will not go and play independently as he is used to. Seema won’t talk about anything. I have mentioned it once or twice to the health visitor but got a non-committal response and we don’t have the time to get together more formally to share concerns’.

 .

 .

Case Study 2 Sidney, is a deputy manager of full-day care provision within a children’s centre and room leader of two – three year olds ‘I am three-year old Peter’s key person; he is an only child and lives with dad who is a lone parent. Peter has complex needs, has limited mobility and is not yet using much recognizable language. Since he started at the centre a year ago, I have liaised closely with dad, his (Mencap) family support worker, health visitor and speech and language therapist (SALT). We all meet bi-monthly to review provision for Peter and this has been working well. At the last meeting, the family support worker raised her concerns that dad is increasingly distracted with work demands and is not spending as much time playing with Peter and nurturing his emotional needs as he used to. Dad felt confident enough to share his own concerns here and the health visitor is now in the process of arranging six weekly weekend respite for Peter to give dad a break’. (Whalley 2008:p 136/137) 

 .

 .

Reflective task

Both Yasmin and Sidney are working inter-professionally and in a collaborative manner.  .

What are the factors that are hindering effective communication and multi-agency working in Yasmin’s situation?  .

What are the factors that are promoting successful communication and multi-agency working in Sidney’s setting?  .

Note down your experience of communicating with other professionals, beyond your setting/centre.  .

How can leaders/managers enable others to contribute to the work of multi-professional working and effective communication?  .

Overcoming the psychological barriers and group dynamics

Rodd (2006:p.74) highlights the ‘psychological barriers’ that may exist to challenge effective communication. Particularly when information becomes distorted due to professionals having different value stances, beliefs, or principles. She believes that an effective leader should ‘not underestimate the power of psychological barriers to interpersonal interactions’.

It is important to remember that personality play a crucial role individuals are different in personality, previous experiences, background, age, cultures and in terms of tolerance levels.

Below is case study highlighting such difficulties:

Case Study – Gemma ‘I have been in the setting for a number of months and thought I was building up strong rapport with most of the team. One of the aspects I was particularly concerned about was the way that creative activities were planned and organised for the children – especially the over two’s. Historically, staff would set out a limited amount of resources and have a sample of the “finished product” to show to children. Some of the staff had likewise shared their concerns about this so we worked together to implement a much more child-initiated approach where the children were free to choose their own resources, work at their own pace and produce – or not! – their own “end products”. We shared this at our team meeting. Rita was one of the practitioners in the setting who was still rather wary of me and my role but I was not prepared for her reaction to these changes. She did not come to me directly but spoke to the room leader saying that she would have nothing to do with this approach, the parents wanted to see “proper art work” and this approach was going to create a lot of “unnecessary mess” in the base room’.

Whalley (2008:p 101)

17.8 Reflective task

.

Think about the scenario from the perspectives of both Gemma and Rita.  .

Can you suggest ways that Gemma might work with Rita from this point to address the psychological barrier that exists here?  .

What opportunities for effective communication and leadership does this situation offer? Use your journal to reflect and record your responses.  .

 .

17.9 Key Reading

.

 Managing Staff in Early Years Settings by Adrian Smith and Ann Langston (1999: p.84 -96), which is available as an E-book. Click here to access in the Library now.  .

Chapter 6 explores the way in which communication is often taken for granted or left to chance and highlight the importance to settings/centres of effective communication.

 .

Read the chapter then journal your reflections and responses to the following:

.

· The different approaches to communication in settings/centres

· The barriers to effective communication

· Possible strategies to achieve improved communication

Finally, consider how the information noted could support discussion within your reflective essay.

.

.  

17.10 Summary of session

.

During this session we identified what communication is and looks like in practice. We considered the political context around the importance of communicating effectively between multi-professional teams. We explored communication and the interpersonal world (touching briefly on emotional intelligence).

 .

We examined the different ways leaders/managers can put their points across and communicate more effectively. We also looked at overcoming barriers to effective communication, particularly in multi-professional teams. You reflected on case studies in order to enhance effective communication and multi-professional working.

 .

17.11 Weekly task

.

Your task this week is a reading by the Young Children’s Voices Network Listening as a way of life (Leadership for Listening).

.

Click here to access now.

 .

Active listening is essential to effective communication. This reading aims to inspire and support early years practitioners in developing a culture of listening in their setting/centre through effective leadership.

 .

During the week observe when and where you see effective communication happening. Also consider opportunities where this could be developed further. Use your journal to record your responses.

 .

References and further reading

Anning, A. Cottrell, D. Frost, N. Green, J. Robinson, M. (2010) Developing Multi-Professional Teamwork For Integrated Children’s Services

Open University Press McGraw Hill Education

 .

Aubrey, C. (2011) Leading and Managing in the Early Years (2ndEd) London: SAGE Publications Ltd

 .

Davis, J. and Smith, M. (2012) Working in Multi-professional Contexts  London: SAGE Publications Ltd

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Jorde-Bloom, P. (1982) Avoiding Burnout: Strategies for managing time, space and people in early childhood education, Gryphon House, Mt Rainier

. Laming, H. (2003) The Victoria Climbie Inquiry. London: HMSO

 .

Pietroni, P. C. (1992) ‘Towards reflective practice – languages of health and social care’ Journal of Inter-professional Care, 6(1): 7-16.

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Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press

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Smith, A. and Langston, A (1999) Managing Staff in Early Years Settings London: Routledge.

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Stacey, M. (2009) Teamwork and Collaboration in Early Years Settings: Learning Matters Exeter

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Steiner, C. (1999) Achieving Emotional Literacy, Bloomsbury, London

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Whalley, M. E. (2008) Leading Practice in Early Years Settings Learning Matters Ltd

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Wong, C. S. and Law, K. S. (2002) ‘The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and aptitude’, Leadership Quarterly, vol. 134, pp. 243 -74.

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Young Children’s Voices Network Listening as a way of Life Leadership for Listening:  National Children’s Bureau London

http://www.google.co.uk/#hl=en&output=search&sclient=psy-ab&q=http:%2F%2Fwww.ncb.org.uk%2Fmedia%2F74060%2Fleadership_for_listening.pdf&oq=http:%2F%2Fwww.ncb.org.uk%2Fmedia%2F74060%2Fleadership_for_listening.pdf&gs_l=hp.3…4128.4128.0.5348.1.1.0.0.0.0.115.115.0j1.1.0.les%3B..0.0…1c.2.5.psy-ab.-URUapcZjeI&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_qf.&bvm=bv.43287494,d.d2k&fp=651ff7a61caa450c&biw=1277&bih=641

Accessed 8/3/13

Week 18: Leading and managing a quality provision

18.1 Aims this week

   .

This week we look at  ‘Leading and managing a quality provision’. The session is outlined below:

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· Identifying what quality is

· Looking at the political context and vision for providing a quality provision

· Considering who is responsible for quality in centres/settings (e.g. the leader/manager, local authority, governors, OFSTED)

· Exploring the support leaders/managers and other professionals need to develop and deliver quality provision

· Looking at distributed leadership as a tool in supporting leaders/managers to deliver quality provision

· To examine   A Discussion Paper’ by Dr Jillian Rodd Leadership an essential ingredient or an optional extra for quality early childhood provision.

· Continue to reflect on practice in your leadership journal

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18.2 What is quality?

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 .Defining ‘quality’ in relation to provision is often complex. After all, how do you define quality? What does it mean to you in your daily practice? Quality is a subjective concept. Moss (1994:p.1) points out that’

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‘Definitions of quality reflect the values and beliefs, needs and agendas, influence and empowerment on various ‘stakeholder’ groups having an interest in these services’. He also believes states that, ‘the goals set by stakeholders will reflect their needs, interests, concerns and priorities. These in turn will be influenced by values and beliefs’ (p.4).

. Deming’s philosophy cited in Neave (1990:p.32) asserts that, ‘Quality Begins with Delighting the Customer Customers must get what they want, when they want it, and how they want it. An organization must strive not only to satisfy the customers’ expectations. This is the least one should do. A company should also strive to delight their customers, giving them even more than they imagined possible’.

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The word ‘quality’ has become a mantra, especially when put with ‘good quality’. It is widely used and desired, but problematic to pin down and define. There can be two different interpretations of the word ‘quality’. One is descriptive and used as a tool to analyse the substance and sum of something, whilst the other is evaluative. The latter is the approach used by government when it talks of quality. It uses the term in an evaluative way when it wants to assess whether a service meets its aims and objectives (Moss, 1994).

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Deming’s 14 points (his writings now form much of the basis of the Total Quality Management movement) adapted for centres/settings is a useful tool in pursuing quality. It requires centres/settings to:

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1.    Pursue continuous improvement of curriculum and learning diligently and constantly

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2.    Adopt the system of profound knowledge in the centre/setting as prime management tool

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3.    Build quality into teaching and learning and reduce the inspection of quality into work after the event

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4.    Build a partnership relationship with staff, parents, and other professionals

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5.    Constantly improve the system within which the team and children’s learning takes place

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6.    Take every opportunity to train in new skills and to learn from others (children, parents, colleagues)

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7.    Lead, do not drive or manipulate

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8.    Drive out fear of punishment, create joy in learning

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9.    Collaborate with colleagues from other agencies

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10.  Communicate honestly, not through jargon and slogans

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11.  As far as possible create a climate without grades and rank orders

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12.  Encourage and celebrate to develop your teams pride in their work

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13.  Promote the development of the whole person in children and staff

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14.  Wed your team to learning by negotiation with them of a quality experience

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(Greenwood and Gaunt 1994)    .

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The Political Context

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The government has defined what it considers to be ‘quality outcomes’ for all children. It has set goals for every early years providers in an effort to achieve its objectives. ‘Quality is a crucial aspiration of policy development aspiration of policy development for early childhood. Effective regulation and inspection are seen as a vital aspect of ensuring that leaders/managers meet required standard in delivering services for children and families’ (Pugh and Duffy 2010). The government believes that in order to ensure quality, centres/settings need ‘committed, enthusiastic and reflective practitioners with a breadth and depth of knowledge, skills and understanding’ (DfES, 2005C:P.3).

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The government strategy laid out in the Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda is that provision works in a way that develops and furthers the five ECM outcomes. A vision for the care and education of children was expressed in the Green Paper, ECM (DfES, 2003) that led to the Children Act 2004. The Childcare Act 2006 is a piece of legislation that ‘attempts to bring cohesion to the quality assurance and inspection of early years provision’ (Pugh and Duffy 2010:p.64).

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The government (DfES 2005:p 6-9) wants to see ‘good practice become common practice’ for all settings/centres (particularly children’s centres) by:

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· Reaching the most disadvantaged families and children

Especially those commonly excluded from main stream services

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· Increasing consistency in the level of support services offered

In order to improve children’s life chances

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· Improving multi-agency working

‘The Childcare Act 2006 places a duty on local authorities working with their partners…to improve outcomes for all children and in particular to reduce inequalities’

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· Grounding (specific to children’s centre) practice in evidence

There is now a significant amount of information on specific interventions that help parents support their children’s development (e.g. structured parenting programmes)

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· Raising the quality of early years provision

Centres/settings should provide early years provision that is tailored to the needs and interests of each individual child and family

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· Employing more highly trained and qualified staff

Evidence shows that well qualified staff make the biggest difference to the effectiveness of services for both parents and children.

18.3 Reflective task

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. What is your definition of a quality provision?

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What does quality mean to you in your daily practice?

. Journal your reflection and responses

 .18.4 Who is responsible for ensuring quality in settings/centres and what does good practice look like?

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Jorde-Bloom and Sheerer (1992:p.138) points out that, the leader/manager of a setting/centre is ‘the gatekeeper to quality’. Robins and Callan (2009:p.2) also highlights this stating that, ‘there is a significant relationship between the quality of a setting and its leadership’. Hence the increasing drive for leaders and managers to attend leadership training and development such as the National Professional Qualification in Integrated Centre Leadership (NPQICL).  

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Working in partnership with parents and other professionals is key to providing quality provision. See below an example of developing good practice with parents.

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A Picture of Good Practice The following comments were made by a Children’s Centre leader (Robins and Callen 2009:p.106) The centre has created a learning environment where everyone, including parents, mentor each other by learning together, learning from each other and learning through trial and error. This is something that can be achieved when relationships are trusting and strong. As a centre leader, I am not the expert in everything and it is the team that provides expertise in all areas collectively. The team is strong because of: ·         Quality relationships·         Effective communication·         Drawing on each other’s strengths.As a result, the centre has developed an ‘ethos’ that everyone is equal and able to make a valuable contribution. 

. ‘Research indicates that a number of factors influence parental choice of service, and that quality service is a high priority only for those parents who are aware of quality matters’ (Rodd 2006:p.248).

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The core purpose of leaders (particularly children’s centre leaders) is to ‘ensure that their centre really makes a difference to the children and families it serves. How well are those services managed, how well integrated and how effective are they in reducing the gap between the most disadvantaged children and their peers? Is every child and family better off? Are they safer, healthier, more resilient and better able to enjoy new learning opportunities? (DfES 2007:P.3).

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It is clear that leaders/managers (service providers) will be held responsible for the quality of their services/provision, particularly through OFSTED inspections, governors, parents and local authorities (Pugh and Duffy 2010).

. Below we will explore how.

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Governance and leading a quality centre/setting For clarity I refer to governors or governance but recognise that many different terms are used for these roles, for example, management committees, boards, management groups and trustees.

. ‘Governance is the leadership, direction and control of an organization. The function of governance is to ensure that an organization or partnership fulfills its overall purpose, achieves its intended outcomes for citizens and services users and operates in an effective and ethical manner’ (Independent Commission on Good Governance in Public Services, 2005:p.7)

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Good governance underpins effective services, and effective leadership cannot be divorced from good governance (DfES, 2007)

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The purpose of governance arrangements (particularly in children’s centres) is to support strategic development so that partners can meet local needs, identify priorities, agree objectives and draw up and execute development plans, and monitor progress, quality and standards. Governance arrangements do not replace or take day-to-day responsibility for operational management of the centre as this responsibility has been delegated to the leader/manager. (DfES, 2007).

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Local authorities and the impact on leading quality provision

The Childcare Act 2006 places duties on local authorities (an therefore leaders/managers of settings) under the early years outcomes duty. It requires them to undertake activities to improve well-being for children aged 0-5 years through the delivery of services in a way that is integrated and which recognises the contribution that a wide range of partners play in improving child outcomes. These duties include the following:

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1.    An English local authority must a) Improve the well-being of young children in their area b) Reduce inequalities between young children in their area     in relation to the matters discussed above

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2.    In the Act ‘well-being’, in relation to children, means their well-being so far as relating to: a) Physical and mental health and emotional well-being b) Protection from harm and neglect c) Education, training and recreation d) The contribution made by them to society e) Social and economic well-being

 .

(H M Government, 2006, chapter 21 in NPQICL Booklet 10:p.6)

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The government gives funding to local authorities who intern allocates funding to centers/settings to support outcomes, quality and inclusion and childcare.

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Children centre leaders/managers generally have an ‘annual conversation’ with the local authority. These conversations are an ‘opportunity for centre leaders to add to the authority’s knowledge of what is working well … Some authorities have included others in the annual conversation, asking for parent witnesses to convey their views and feelings about the centre’s performance’ (NPQICL Booklet 10:p.9).

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OFSTED

Ofsted is the Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills. They report directly to Parliament and are an independent and an impartial body. They inspect and regulate services, which care for children and young people, and those providing education and skills for learners of all ages.

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They work with centres/settings, which are not yet good to promote their improvement, monitoring their progress and sharing with them the best practice they find.

..

18.5 Reflective task

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. Reflect on your current centre/setting. Whom do you see as responsible for providing quality and why?

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What impact do parents have in developing quality?

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What are the governance arrangements in your centre? If you are unsure find out.

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How do or can you contribute to developing quality in your centre/setting?

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Get a copy of your last OFSTED inspection. Highlight the really good things that contribute to developing a quality provision. Then highlight the areas for further development.

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If you were the leader/manager of the centre/setting what areas would you see as a priority to improve first and why?

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Journal your reflections and responses.

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18.6 Support leaders/managers and other professionals need to develop and deliver quality provision.

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Robins and Callan (2009:p.92) suggests that, ‘it is easier to motivate a team that is functioning well and achieving because success breeds motivation and motivation secures success’.However Elfer and Wedge (1996:p.53) highlight some of the difficulties of working with others. They are of the view that ‘Agreeing standards at a local level is hard work. If different groups are involved, the process can be painful’, as agreement is needed from all when trying to develop quality and set standards.

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Ensuring that all professionals involved in the delivering of quality provision get the support they need, is not easy and can be a difficult process.

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Pugh and Duffy (2006) point out that improving the quality and level of training and qualifications of practitioners and leaders is identified as the primary way in which higher quality of services will be developed. Hence the reason why training for leaders/managers and practitioners to meet the changing demands of childcare and education agendas, linked with social change, has been a significant focus in government policy, under the remit of the Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC).

(Gasper 2011).

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Quality improvement is a ‘journey towards ever higher quality, involving teamwork, commitment and some thorough self-examination of practice’ (NQIN, 2007:P.7). Hence the development of programmes such as the  NPQICL programme designed to support leaders/managers of children’s centres, The NPQH for Head Teachers and the EYPS for those leading the professional practice  of their colleagues or curriculum across the 0-5 age range.

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The NPQICL programme in particular was designed to address the complexity and turbulence that leaders and staff of integrated centres face. Leaders/managers are expected to challenge themselves and each other, to reflect on and question their own and other’s practice and motivation and to support others to do the same. Rather than ask leaders/managers to compromise their values and principles, they are encouraged to ask questions that begin: ‘How can we…?’ (Trodd and Chivers 2010). The weekly task reading will give you more information about the impact of NPQICL programme on Centres..

.  18.7 Distributed leadership as a tool/model for supporting development and increased responsibility in other when trying to deliver a quality provision.

.Distributed leadership considers leadership as a pluralist rather than individual activity (Southworth, 2004:p.3). Within this, authority to lead comes not from the occupancy of a designated organizational role, but is rather based on one’s knowledge, understanding and ability to lead within a specific context.

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Leadership is therefore a form of behaviour and not a position. As a result, all members of the organisation are likely to perform as leaders and followers at different times (Gastil, 1997:p.158).

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The main advantage of distributed leadership is that it increases the level of skills and expertise available (Harris, 2002). It is particularly desirable in large organisations where scale of activity is so broad it is difficult for any single individual to retain an overarching view of the big picture, and is seen as particularly effective in promoting organisational change (Hay Group, 2004:p.5). Positive effects have also been identified in terms of employee motivation and job satisfaction (Daft, 2002:p.44).

. Despite this emphasis on openness and the ability of all being able to lead, the formally designated leader remains key to the development of this culture of shared authority and responsibility. The formal leader also plays a critical role in ensuring that, as leadership becomes ever more shared, the group stays on-task, all members of the group are able to contribute to its progress, and that the agreed cultural norms are respected (Gastil, 1997:p.162).

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Terms closely related with distributed leadership include: delegated leadership, democratic leadership and dispersed leadership (Bennett et al, 2002:p.4). These alternative models can be differentiated in the extent to which they place different degrees of emphasis on consultation, delegation and empowerment.

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Why is this model so useful?

Where there is such a broad remit (particularly in Children’s Centres) and spectrum of professionals working with children and families across a wide area, it is impossible for leaders/managers alone to have knowledge and expertise in every field. Nor is it possible for one person to have oversight of the many and various activities associated with the centre. This demands that the leader gives considerable attention to creating a culture in which individuals embrace opportunities to lead. Many leaders/managers are reluctant to ask other to take on what they may see as ‘extra work’. However if this is seen in the spirit of developing others as leaders this barrier is soon overcome. (Cited in NPQICL Booklet 9:p.27)

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How does the leadership structure in your centre encourage distributed leadership?

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18.8 Key reading and reflective task

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This key reading is ‘A Discussion Paper’ by Dr Jillian Rodd. Click  here  to read as a pdf file now.

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Leadership an essential ingredient or an optional extra for quality early childhood provision?

. Once you have read the paper reflect on discussions so far and answer the following questions:

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1.    What is the relationship between leadership and quality?

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2.    Why do you believe that it is important for leaders to have appropriate leadership/management training?

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3.    Why is effective communication and interpersonal skills fundamental to leaders/managers

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Use your journal to reflect and record your responses.

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18.9 Summary of session

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During this session we identified what quality was and looked like. Considered the political context surrounding quality in centres/settings. Identified who is responsible for quality issues within centres/settings and explored the support leaders and managers and other professionals need to develop and deliver quality provision. Finally we explored distributed leadership in supporting quality provision.

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18.10 Weekly task

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1.    Click here for a report for you to look at highlighting The Impact of the NPQICL on Children’s Centre Leaders and their Centre.

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2.    Find out what the difference is between quality improvement and quality assurance. Consider the concept of quality improvement in enabling practitioners to ‘make changes to the way they think and feel about their work’ (NQIN, 2007).

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References and further reading

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DfES (2003) The Children’s Workforce Strategy, Consultation Paper. DfES.

DfES (2005C) Key Elements of Effective Practice, London: HMSO DfES (2007) Governance of Sure Start Children’s Centres: Planning and performance management, Nottingham, DfES

Gasper, M. (2010) Multi-agency Working in the Early Years Challenges and Opportunities London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Greenwood, M. and Gaunt, H. (1994) Total Quality Management for Schools, Cassell

Independent Commission on Good Governance on Good Governance in Public Services (the Langlands Commission), (2005) Good Governance Standards for Public Services, London CIPFA, OPM & Joseph Rowntree Foundation

Jorde-Bloom, P. and Sheerer, M. (1992) The effects of leadership training on child care program quality, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol.7. Laming, H. (2003) The Victoria Climbie Inquiry. London: HMSO

Moss, P. (1994) Defining/Quality: Values, Stakeholders and Processes’ in Moss, P. Pence, A. (Eds) Valuing Quality in Early Childhood Services. London: Paul Chapman Publishing

Neave, H. (1990) The Deming Dimension, SPC Press

NQIN (2007) Quality Improvement Principles London: National Children’s Bureau

NPQICL Booklet 9 (2011) Leadership concepts and analytical tools

National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Services.

NPQICL Booklet 10 (2011) Outcomes Matter Most

National College for Leadership of Schools and Children’s Service

Pugh, G. and Duffy, B. (2010) Contemporary Issues In The Early Years, London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Robins, R. and Callan, S. (2009) Managing Early Years Settings

London: SAGE Publications Ltd

Rodd, J. (2006) Leadership in Early Childhood, OpenUniversity Press

Smith, A. and Langston, A (1999) Managing Staff in Early Years Settings London: Rutledge.

Trodd, L. and Chivers, L. (2011) Interprofessional Working in Practice

Learning and working together for children and families

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