Unit 9 Assignment

Running Head: Unit 9 Assignment

Unit 9 Assignment

Jordan Paltani

Purdue Global University

HS410: Organization and Management for Health Care

R. Todd Kane

09/05/2018

Unit 9 Assignment

Health care providers, managers, and administrators are faced with a variety of ethical issues. These issues range from right to life and abortion to right to die and physician assisted suicide. Common ethical issues found in health care can include legalizing the market for human organs, end of life issues, and respecting religious beliefs.

Should we Legalize the Market for Human Organs?

“Nearly 7,000 people in the United States alone die each year while waiting on the list for an organ transplant (Social and Ethical Issues – A Market for Human Organs.). The demand for solid organs far beats the number of organs available from deceased donors, also known as cadavers. Organ donation by living donors (altruistic) clearly saves lives, improves transplantation, and decreases recipients’ waiting times (Read “Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action” at NAP.edu.). An ethical concern about living unrelated donation that arises is that the organ is actually being sold or that financial incentives partially motivate the donation. UNOS policy maintains that donors may not receive compensation for their donation, and cannot even receive payment for follow-up treatments, or even transportation and lodging during the period of surgery (Social and Ethical Issues – A Market for Human Organs.). Compensating living donors’ opens up the possibility of “using” poor and underprivileged people while also increasing the risk that potential donors will withhold important medical information (Read “Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action” at NAP.edu.). If legalizing the sale of human organ we often wonder how can we be sure that the organs people are donating for monetary compensation are not infected, or these donors are not lying about their medical history? It can also be argued that misuse would increase if legalization of an organ market were to occur. While the legalization of organ markets may eliminate a black market for organs, it may also create a market for crime and violence. In the end, the goal is to save lives. People can, and currently will do, what they need to get an organ. Whether this is paying someone under the table or going to the black market, this always going to be an issue up for debate.

End of Life Issues

End-of-life care decision making carries vital importance due to the advancements in medical sciences (Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. 2016, June). Advancements in medical technology are changing the means of natural death. “Decision-making” for end-of-life care has earned vital importance as it has capability to prolong human life with the support of medical technologies or can let the natural death process continue by foregoing the treatment option (Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. 2016, June). “Decision making” is a very complex process of thoughts and sets-up various challenges for patients and their families to make up an end-of-life care decision. Autonomy gives patients’ a right to control their treatment according to their preferences, though many a times their autonomy is not respected (Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. 2016, June). Healthcare professionals can play an important role by providing detailed information about an advanced medical treatment which can be used during end-of-life care . Physicians have to reach a mutual agreement with the patient about withholding or withdrawing a futile treatment and explain the drawbacks of unrealistic expectations from the treatment (Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. 2016, June). An “advance directive” enables competent individuals to design and document their health care decision plan in advance in case of future disability or terminal illness (Ethical Debates: End of Life Issues – Who Chooses and When and Why? 2013, June 09). In the case of incapacitated individuals, families play a central role as proxies or primary care givers. Families playing the crucial role of proxy are emotionally attached to the incapacitated patient and due to their moral interest may be diversified in opting for a treatment or declining them ((Ethical Debates: End of Life Issues – Who Chooses and When and Why? 2013, June 09). The technological advancements and innovations are reshaping the decisions and treatment preferences surrounding end-of-life care. People should understand that they are humans and consider getting information and making plans for end-of-life care preferences.

Ethical Debates: End of Life Issues – Who Chooses and When and Why? (2013, June 09). Retrieved from https://www.chuckgallagher.com/2013/06/09/ethical-debates-end-of-life-issues-who-chooses-and-when-and-why/

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2016, June). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934577/

Read “Organ Donation: Opportunities for Action” at NAP.edu. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/read/11643/chapter/11#273

Social and Ethical Issues – A Market for Human Organs. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/amarketforhumanorgans/social

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