It is a project, and we are using RStudio’s






Song unique ID



Song Name



Song Artist



Song Popularity (0-100) where higher is better



Album unique ID



Song album name



Date when album released



Name of playlist



Playlist ID



Playlist genre



Playlist subgenre



Danceability describes how suitable a track is for dancing based on a combination of musical elements including tempo, rhythm stability, beat strength, and overall regularity. A value of 0.0 is least danceable and 1.0 is most danceable.



Energy is a measure from 0.0 to 1.0 and represents a perceptual measure of intensity and activity. Typically, energetic tracks feel fast, loud, and noisy. For example, death metal has high energy, while a Bach prelude scores low on the scale. Perceptual features contributing to this attribute include dynamic range, perceived loudness, timbre, onset rate, and general entropy.



The estimated overall key of the track. Integers map to pitches using standard Pitch Class notation . E.g. 0 = C, 1 = C♯/D♭, 2 = D, and so on. If no key was detected, the value is -1.



The overall loudness of a track in decibels (dB). Loudness values are averaged across the entire track and are useful for comparing relative loudness of tracks. Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical strength (amplitude). Values typical range between -60 and 0 db.



Mode indicates the modality (major or minor) of a track, the type of scale from which its melodic content is derived. Major is represented by 1 and minor is 0.



Speechiness detects the presence of spoken words in a track. The more exclusively speech-like the recording (e.g. talk show, audio book, poetry), the closer to 1.0 the attribute value. Values above 0.66 describe tracks that are probably made entirely of spoken words. Values between 0.33 and 0.66 describe tracks that may contain both music and speech, either in sections or layered, including such cases as rap music. Values below 0.33 most likely represent music and other non-speech-like tracks.



A confidence measure from 0.0 to 1.0 of whether the track is acoustic. 1.0 represents high confidence the track is acoustic.



Predicts whether a track contains no vocals. “Ooh” and “aah” sounds are treated as instrumental in this context. Rap or spoken word tracks are clearly “vocal”. The closer the instrumentalness value is to 1.0, the greater likelihood the track contains no vocal content. Values above 0.5 are intended to represent instrumental tracks, but confidence is higher as the value approaches 1.0.



Detects the presence of an audience in the recording. Higher liveness values represent an increased probability that the track was performed live. A value above 0.8 provides strong likelihood that the track is live.



A measure from 0.0 to 1.0 describing the musical positiveness conveyed by a track. Tracks with high valence sound more positive (e.g. happy, cheerful, euphoric), while tracks with low valence sound more negative (e.g. sad, depressed, angry).



The overall estimated tempo of a track in beats per minute (BPM). In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece and derives directly from the average beat duration.



Duration of song in milliseconds

In-class Coding Exercise 2

Go to the Final Projects pdf file of the Canvas website. Peruse the different data sources for
your upcoming midterm/final project and perform some initial exploration. After today, you
should decide which dataset you’d like to use.

Getting Started
Once you’ve selected your preferred dataset (or maybe you can use this exploration to
decide), practice what you’ve learned by:

1. Importing the data
2. Identifying and reviewing the codebook (if available) or website of origin
3. Learn about the data by:
• Assessing dimensions
• Viewing the head and tail of the data
• Identifying the data types of each variable
• Identifying missing data
• Computing summary statistics for the variables
• Check for duplicate rows or columns (You may need to google this! We haven’t
discussed duplicate rows/columns yet.)
4. Learn about the data visually by plotting:
• Histograms
• Bar charts
• Box plots
• Scatter plots

Where To Go From Here
By the end of class, identify which dataset you will use for you midterm/final project. Starting
thinking about what type of questions you would want to ask and answer of these datasets
with your final project. Come to class next week prepared with the data you plan to use and
the research questions you want to use to guide your data analysis. As you develop questions
think about storyboarding in order to build a cohesive story that will use data to create
insights which will lead to action.
In-class Coding Exercises
Start exploring your final project data! Within your group, discuss your final project
data and the 10 specific questions you wanted to ask of your data. Discuss what kind
of transformations would best answer these questions.

1. Start transforming your data to gain new insights. Based on what you learned
this week, some questions you may want to ask are:

• What features could you filter on?
• How could arranging your data in different ways help?
• Can you reduce your data by selecting only certain variables?
• Could creating new variables add new insights?
• Could summary statistics at different categorical levels tell you more?
• How can you incorporate the pipe (%>%) operator to make your code more efficient?

2. Does your final project leverage more than one data set?
• If so, start joining your data sets with the skills you learned.
• If not, try to identify another data set that you can join to your final project data to
make it even more interesting.

3. Your mid-term project eval is due by the end of today’s class. You need to
render this mi term report as an R Markdown PDF file and you need to show
all your code. If you want to incorporate the above tasks into your midterm
you certainly can do so at this time.
data = read.csv(“Global Music/GlobalMusicData.csv”)
Mid-term Expectations
You may work with one or two other persons on the midterm and final projects if you
wish. Once you decide on working solo or as a group, your decision remains for the
rest of the course (i.e., you can’t decide to work alone or join someone after submitting
the midterm.
Please read the final project page before reading any further.
Throughout the term you will progressively create your final project. Your mid-term
project is to submit the work you have completed midway through the course for a
progress evaluation, where you have fully completed standards 1.1-4.4 and 7.1-7.4 as
shown below. This progress check will allow your peers and me to provide you
direction for final completion. This mid-term report will be rendered as an R Markdown
HTML or PDF product.
Mid-term expectations, which are based on the final project standards, are listed below:

Section Standard
Introduction 1.1 Provide an introduction that explains the problem statement you are addressing. Why
should I be interested in this?
1.2 Provide a short explanation of how you plan to address this problem statement (the data
used and the methodology employed)
1.3 Discuss your current proposed approach/analytic technique you think will address (fully or
partially) this problem.
1.4 Explain how your analysis will help the consumer of your analysis.
Packages Required 2.1 All packages used are loaded upfront so the reader knows which are required to replicate
the analysis.
2.2 Messages and warnings resulting from loading the package are suppressed.
2.3 Explanation is provided regarding the purpose of each package (there are over 10,000
packages, don’t assume that I know why you loaded each package).
Data Preparation 3.1 Original source where the data was obtained is cited and, if possible, hyperlinked.
3.2 Source data is thoroughly explained (i.e. what was the original purpose of the data, when
was it collected, how many variables did the original have, explain any peculiarities of the
source data such as how missing values are recorded, or how data was imputed, etc.).
3.3 Data importing and cleaning steps are explained in the text (tell me why you are doing the
data cleaning activities that you perform) and follow a logical process.

Section Standard
3.4 Once your data is clean, show what the final data set looks like. However, do not print off a
data frame with 200+ rows; show me the data in the most condensed form possible.
3.5 Provide summary information about the variables of concern in your cleaned data set. Do
not just print off a bunch of code chunks with str(), summary(), etc. Rather, provide me with a
consolidated explanation, either with a table that provides summary info for each variable or a
nicely written summary paragraph with inline code.
Exploratory Data
4.1 Discuss how you plan to uncover new information in the data that is not self-evident. What
are different ways you could look at this data to answer the questions you want to answer? Do
you plan to slice and dice the data in different ways, create new variables, or join separate data
frames to create new summary information? How could you summarize your data to answer
key questions?
4.2 What types of plots and tables will help you to illustrate the findings to your questions?
4.3 What do you not know how to do right now that you need to learn to answer your
4.4 Do you plan on incorporating any machine learning techniques (i.e. linear regression,
discriminant analysis, cluster analysis) to answer your questions?
Formatting & Other
7.1 All code is visible, proper coding style is followed, and code is well commented (see section
regarding style).
7.2 Coding is systematic – complicated problem broken down into sub-problems that are
individually much simpler. Code is efficient, correct, and minimal. Code uses appropriate data
structure (list, data frame, vector/matrix/array). Code checks for common errors.
7.3 Achievement, mastery, cleverness, creativity: Tools and techniques from the course are
applied very competently and, perhaps,somewhat creatively. Perhaps student has gone beyond
what was expected and required, e.g., extraordinary effort, additional tools not addressed by
this course, unusually sophisticated application of tools from course.
7.4 .Rmd fully executes without any errors and HTML produced matches the HTML report
submitted by student.

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