response

Please answer one of the following two topics: Then response to 2 student below I included 3 student but you only need to response to 2

A. Chapter 4 covers human perception, which helps explain how we make attributions about others’ behaviors. Why is this important for managers to study? How can a working knowledge of attribution, correspondent inferences, and perceptual biases help managers or leaders deal with challenges that organizations are facing today?

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B. Given the overall view of motivation and specific frameworks/theories of motivation from Chapters 5 and 6, what determines the extent to which an employee is motivated?  Examine employee motivation using some specific theories in your book.  If a manager notices a lack of employee motivation and wants to improve it, what are some strategies they could employ?

Discussion Board Posting Grading Rubric

CriteriaExcellent 20Good 19 to 11Average 10Poor 9 to 0
Frequency of PostsMakes at least 1 main posting and 2 detailed and thoughtful responses to others’ postings.Makes at least 1 main posting and detailed and thoughtful response or 2 responses with limited detail and thought to others’ postings.Makes at least 1 main posting and 1 or more limited responses to others’ postings.Makes no or only 1 main posting.
Evidence of having read the threadMakes reference to others’ responses.Logic of response includes other responses.Little evidence of having read thread.No evidence of having read thread.
Demonstration of Understanding of Course MaterialAnswer demonstrates mastery of the material. Thoughts are well integrated.Answer demonstrates understanding of material, some lack of integration of ideas.Answer demonstrates some gaps in understanding of the material, ideas are not well integrated.Answer demonstrates considerable lack of understanding, no integration of ideas.
Application of Course MaterialMakes applications of course material to real-world content in a manner that demonstrates mastery of the concept and situation.Makes applications of course material to real-world content in a manner that demonstrates knowledge of the concept and situation.Makes applications of course material to real-world content in a manner that demonstrates limited knowledge of the concept and situation.Does not apply course material to real-world situations.
Evidence of having read the text or done applicable researchMakes reference to the text and other resources in their main posting.Makes reference to the text or other resources in their main posting.Little evidence of reference to the text or other resources in their main posting.No evidence of reference to text or other resources in their main posting.
Expounding on new ideas to the threadIdeas presented add considerably to the thread.Ideas presented add somewhat to the thread.Ideas presented add little to the thread.Adds nothing to the thread.

Discussion Board Posting Grading Rubric

Response to 2 students

Amy Hughes 

Employee Motivation

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Motivation plays a big factor in how employees behave and conduct work in organizations. “Motivation is a process by which behavior is energized meaning we are willing to work hard; directed, meaning we’ve chosen what to work at; and maintained, meaning we intend to work for some period of time to achieve objectives” (Neck 2017; page 114). The reasons and factors that become motivators have been researched for decades. Many theories have evolved such as the four main content theories: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s need theory, and Herzberg’s two-factor behavior (Neck 2017; page 116). Each content theory explores why people, or in this case employees, have different needs at different times, and how such needs motivate behavior. 

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs depicts a pyramid of five levels of needs. Thinking in terms of employee motivation, the hierarchy of needs theory suggests employees are motivated by their desire to move up through the pyramid, eventually to self-actualization. Alderfer’s ERG theory proposes employees are motivated by different categories of needs like existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs (Neck 2017; page 118). McClelland’s needs theory suggests an employee’s needs are developed over time and created by experiences and cultural background (Neck 2017; page 120). Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivational influence of job stratification is explored. Herberg discovers two factors influencing employees which are hygiene and motivators. “Hygiene factors are sources of job satisfaction such as salary, status, and security” (Neck 2017; page 118). Motivators are used to increase employee’s hygiene factors in this theory. Each theory creates reasoning behind what can create an employee’s motivation, however, I believe motivators can be very situational and can be created by different situations that may follow different theories.

If a manager notices a lack of employee motivation, there are several strategies that could produce positive results. Extrinsic rewards such as bonuses or paid vacations are a popular option for employee motivation. Performance-based pay, employee stock ownership plans, and profit sharing are all extrinsic rewards that could boost employee motivation (Neck 2017; page 148). There are also ways management could boost their employee’s motivation through job design. Creating job enlargement programs where employees receive tasks that make their position more challenging and varied can keep an employee motivated (Neck 2017; page 149). A job enrichment program that increases the scope of a position to make it more satisfying for the employees can also create a continuous motivator for the employee (Neck 2017; page 149).

Derek Dabish 

Dabish – DB #2 (Option B)

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There are several ways an employee can become motivated and numerous ways in which employees can become demotivated. Chapter six describes various pay structures and incentives that can keep employees motivated and some that can become a demotivator to others.  We see how seniority-based pay can reduce turnover and encourage employees to stay on board, as their pay goes up with experience and tenure. However, it could be discouraging to newer employees looking to move up in pay in a short-term time frame.  Job-content based pay, on the other hand, encourages employees to compete with one another to produce more, however, this can also cause tension between employees. Skill-based pay can be a used to motivate employees while providing them with an opportunity to showcase their new skills and competencies, however, as stated in chapter six “there can be some disadvantages, there is the high cost of additional bonuses and training to consider, as well as the possibility that employees may max out their skill levels, which means they cannot receive any additional pay increases unless they change jobs” (Neck et al, 145).  Another pay that is used is performance based which is my preferred method as I find it to be the most motivating to myself. “Performance-based pay is a financial incentive awarded to employees for meeting specific goals or objectives. Two levels of performance-based pay exist: individual level and team and organization level” ((Neck et al, 145).

Managers can use different techniques to motivate their staff, for instance, getting to know a team member better, going to lunch, monthly, quarterly, and yearly evaluations have been known to help the six-step motivation process could be used to help encourage an individual to achieve more.  My personal opinion, which parallels that of Coach Bono (per video) is that rewards can be very motivating to individuals.   As Bono mentioned, in the Living Case Analysis Video, money is the biggest motivator, but how do you motivate an athlete who makes hundreds of thousands of dollars a year, or even millions?  Coach Bono’s technique of rewarding individuals with trophies, t-shirts, and hats, and other minute tangible items seemed to have a bigger impact on motivation than anything.  I believe the same approach could be used with any team, i.e. rewarding them with lunch, small gift cards, trophies could be a great incentive to help motivate an individual. 

Works Cited

Christopher P Neck; Jeffery D Houghton; Emma L Murray., Organizational behavior a critical-thinking approach.  2017. Print.

Shelby Glefke 

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There will be days where employees are not motivated to get the job done. It is important that managers create an environment that boosts employee morale. Our book defines motivation as, “a process by which behavior is energized, meaning we are willing to work hard; directed, meaning we’ve chosen what to work at; and maintained, meaning we intend to work for some period of time to achieve objectives.” (Neck 2017; page 114). It’s vital to learn what drives employees to achieve these goals. In chapter 5, we learn the theories behind motivation, and what drives us. 

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, “teaches that each need must be satisfied before we can move up the pyramid to satisfy the need above it” (Neck 2017; page 114). This theory demonstrates how employees want to grow in their job. The ERG Theory is broken down into three needs compared to Maslow’s five. These three categories are, “existence needs (E), relatedness needs (R), and growth needs (G) (Neck 2017; page 118).” Fredrick Herzberg’s two-factor theory explains the impact that job satisfaction has on someone. The two factors are hygiene and motivators. These factors are explained as, “Hygiene factors are sources of job satisfaction such as salary, status, and security, while are such as achievement, recognition, and responsibility to build job satisfaction” (Neck 2017, page 118). Last but not least, there is the McClelland acquired needs theory that is explained as, “holds that our needs are shaped over time and formed by our experiences and cultural background” (Neck 2017; page 118). I think that over time our needs change, we change. It’s important that we know our needs and what drives/motivates us. Understanding these theories helps us better understand how we can be satisfied with our jobs, and what continues you drive us. 

In chapter six, we learn ways we can motivate employees to ensure they are working their hardest. Strategies that managers can implement for their employees are extrinsic rewards. These rewards are tangible; they can be bonuses and paid vacations. I think people like working towards a goal and knowing what they could get if they work their hardest. I think that method would work best for me. Another way managers could motivate employees are job enlargement, or job enrichment. It is important that employees enjoy what they are doing. It’s also important they are interested and not bored with their job tasks. This gives employees the option to take on more tasks if wanted. 

Christopher P Neck; Jeffery D Houghton; Emma L Murray., Organizational behavior a critical-thinking approach.  2017. Print.

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