1. What quality does Lawrence see in the sturdy, rugged crucifix carved by the Bavarian peasant?


Victory and the triumph of life


“Disillusionment” and the triumph of death


“Stubborn” endurance of pain, misery, and death, as well as delight in “all sensuous experience”


Powerlessness, or “static” patience and “wistful” endurance

16 points


  1. How does the Bavarian crucifix resemble its context?


The crucifix resembles the Bavarian peasant’s optimism and cheerful anticipation of the future.


The crucifix resembles the Bavarian peasant’s sensual delight in beauty and rugged endurance of the fact of death: although the peasants are surrounded by seemingly-eternal beauty, their lives are hard and short.


The crucifix resembles the Bavarian peasant’s disillusionment with the world and its pleasures: although they are surrounded by the beauty of the mountains and the ice, they disregard it and take no pleasure in it.


The crucifix has no relation to the Bavarian peasant.

16 points


  1. What quality does Lawrence see in the crucifix that “stands deep in the Klamm”?


Victory and the triumph of life


“Disillusionment” and the triumph of death


“Stubborn” endurance of pain, misery, and death, as well as delight in “all sensuous experience”


Powerlessness, or “static” patience and “wistful” endurance

16 points


  1. What quality of its context (the Tyrolian region) does the Klamm crucifix display?


Given that the Tyrolian people are surrounded by the pristine beauty of the mountains, they consequently consider themselves a happy and blessed people.


Given that the Tyrolian peasants are surrounded by beauty and death at once, they have come to view death itself as beautiful and are consequently unafraid of it.


Given that the Tyrolian peasants are oppressed by the Austrian governement, they feel powerless and unable to help themselves.


Given the dangers and frequently fatal accidents of mountain life, the life of the Tyrolian peasant is grounded on the fear of physical pain and, ultimately, death.

16 points


  1. Think about the way Lawrence treats Christianity throughout his essay. In other words, enter into Lawrence’s perspective or mindset, and determine his perception of Christianity and faith. With which of the following would Lawrence agree? (Select TWO).


Faith does not alter one’s life. If one’s life is fortunate, one’s faith will be an ornament for an already happy life. If, on the other hand, one’s life is unhappy, the best faith can do is to help one cope with grief. Faith is powerless to transform.


Christianity is universally uplifting and triumphant. The lives of those who partake of the Christian faith should be characterized by hope and joy.


A religion has no fixed character. Christianity is not always hopeful, joyous, or triumphant. Rather, religion reflects the lives of the people who practise it. If the lives of the people are bleak and harsh, their religion will be as well.


None of the above.

18 points


  1. Now think objectively. In other words, exit Lawrence’s perspective and think on your own. If you look at page 7 and 8 where Lawrence describes his “shock” at seeing the St. Jakob crucifix in such pleasant surroundings, which of the following may be true? There may be more than one correct answer — select all that apply.


The chapel containing the crucifix is cheerful — “a handsome, baroque, pink-washed shrine in one of those Alpine valleys which to our thinking are all flowers and romance.”


A well-known painting — “Spring in the Austrian Tyrol” — likewise depicts both the St. Jakob crucifix and the Alpine Valley containing it. This painting presents the crucifix and the valley as “a vision of pristine loveliness.”


The crucifix and the chapel are well loved by the Tyrolian Christians, who apparently see no incongruity between the crucifix and the beautiful surrounding space.


Given that Lawrence is the only one who is “[shocked]” by the crucifix’s happy and pleasant surroundings, perhaps Lawrence’s interpretation of it is overly pessimistic. In other words, the “cynicism” and “vulgarity” that Lawrence speaks of may be his own.


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