PSY 260

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Project Three Prep
Psychological and social topics are relevant to broad and diverse audiences. Not all individuals who use, or benefit from the use of, statistical information related to psychological and social issues are scientists. Given this, there is a need to communicate statistical evidence from the analysis of data pertaining to psychological and social issues in a way that is comprehensible to many stakeholders.
ThePublication Manual of the American Psychological Associationis a universally recognized guide that offers insight into best practices for writing effectively and reducing bias. We have included some specific excerpts in Appendix B of the webtext that will help you use best practices when you communicate statistical evidence in Project Three.
Data briefs are a great example of taking large amounts of data and potentially complex statistical analyses and summarizing and presenting them in comprehensible and concise ways to reach a broad and diverse readership. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics has several great examples of data briefs that seek to fill this need in the communication of statistics related to public health issues. These can serve as examples as you construct a data brief for psychological and social issues.
Click Link: Products – Data Briefs – Homepage (cdc.gov)
Take the time to peruse a few of these data briefs to get a sense of how the information is conveyed. Notice how they are organized, often including the following:
· an introductory summary of key findings
· sections highlighting a few major findings with some additional discussion
· a summary to conclude the report
Also, notice the use of visuals to enhance the verbal and statistical messages. Paying attention to these details and getting a sense of the purpose and form of data briefs by reviewing some of these professional examples will help prepare you to complete Project Three successfully.
Competencies
In this project, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following competencies:
· Interpret psychological data using quantitative and qualitative methods.
· Present psychological findings to academic and nonacademic audiences.
Scenario
For this project, you will be creating a data brief. Developing the data brief will challenge you to not only interpret data correctly, but then communicate your findings to a mixed audience made up of members of the scientific community and the general public. Telling a persuasive and accurate story from statistical findings is an important skill to add to your data literacy toolbox.
Note: You do not need to perform any additional analyses or calculations. You only need to interpret and report the analyses that have been completed and create graphics as visual supplements for your data brief.
Imagine you work as a research assistant in Washington, DC, at the Department of Justice. The Department of Justice is interested in issues related to race, discrimination, and policing. Your team has been given data and output from chi-square tests, and you are tasked with communicating the findings and possible implications directly to police departments. However, all the work you do is public and thus available to the media and community members, as well as to nonprofit organizations. As you weave together the story of this data, keep in mind that it will need to be written for multiple audiences and tell an accurate and persuasive story.
Directions
For this project, you will submit a data brief as a Word file. You will complete your brief using the writing templates on this page and the topic you selected in your Project Three Milestone assignment. Use the data set provided and the relevant contingency table to complete your interpretation of the chi-square test.
Note: You will find contingency tables that relate to each topic in the Excel file (provided as individual tabs).
Use the following template to complete Project Three.
WRITING TEMPLATE
Here’s the topic you chose in Project Three Milestone:
I choose racial discrimination. I selected this subject because we are seeing so an awful lot of this type of aspect in the news today.
Q1-Describe thekey findingsfrom your interpretation of the data for a general audience. Your response should be about 2 to 4 sentences. Include the following in your response:
• Easy-to-understand statistical values (e.g., percentages)
A1
Q2-Summarize thebackgroundinformation for the scientific community. Your response should be about 3 to 5 sentences. Include the following in your response:
• Introduction to the research topic
• Credible background sources to support the introduction to the topic
Note: In Project Three Milestone, you reviewed credible sources to create your annotated bibliography. Use those credible sources in this section or additional credible sources if needed.
A2
Q3- Describe themajor statistical findingsfor the scientific community. Your response should be about 3 to 7 sentences. Include the following in your response:
• An explanation of at least two major findings
• An explanation contextualizing the graphs you will include in the next item to ensure that the reader understands their purpose in the brief
A3
Q4-Represent the major statistical findings for the scientific community withgraphs. Your response should include a graph for each finding to support your description. (Explain each step of how to do the graph)
A4
Q5- Provide a concisesummaryappropriate for a general audience. Include the following in your response:
• A restatement of why this research was completed and reminder of the key findings
• The application of the findings
A5
Add Your References
Citing sources is an important part of research, and using the established patterns makes citations much easier to read. Cite the articles you chose, and any other resources you referenced, in proper APA format below. Your reference list will be automatically formatted using a hanging indent when you download your assignment.
Project 3 Data
id year race sex age educ racdif1 polhitok natcrimy
4 2018 1 2 63 16 1 1 1
10 2018 1 1 55 12 1 1 2
48 2018 1 2 53 18 1 1 2
89 2018 1 1 55 18 1 1 3
105 2018 1 1 56 18 1 1 3
107 2018 1 1 23 12 1 1 1
115 2018 1 1 70 16 1 1 3
139 2018 1 2 38 12 1 1 1
142 2018 1 1 34 17 1 1 1
150 2018 1 2 59 19 1 1 2
252 2018 1 1 37 16 1 1 3
253 2018 1 2 61 14 1 1 1
276 2018 1 1 53 16 1 1 2
304 2018 1 2 52 20 1 1 2
337 2018 1 2 26 16 1 1 1
340 2018 1 2 56 16 1 1 1
392 2018 1 1 28 18 1 1 2
434 2018 3 2 32 16 1 1 2
468 2018 1 1 76 15 1 1 2
476 2018 1 1 70 15 1 1 1
488 2018 1 2 85 12 1 1 1
523 2018 1 1 63 12 1 1 1
542 2018 1 1 71 16 1 1 3
573 2018 1 1 37 20 1 1 2
586 2018 3 2 27 7 1 1 1
727 2018 2 1 48 13 1 1 1
747 2018 1 2 65 16 1 1 1
795 2018 2 1 62 20 1 1 3
804 2018 1 1 40 16 1 1 1
810 2018 1 1 60 13 1 1 1
821 2018 1 2 40 18 1 1 3
840 2018 1 1 78 10 1 1 2
861 2018 2 1 35 16 1 1 2
872 2018 1 2 89 12 1 1 1
941 2018 2 2 54 14 1 1 1
973 2018 1 1 27 12 1 1 2
1090 2018 1 1 30 16 1 1 1
1129 2018 1 1 25 17 1 1 2
1141 2018 1 1 84 16 1 1 2
1145 2018 3 1 28 19 1 1 2
1150 2018 1 1 85 17 1 1 1
1233 2018 1 1 27 14 1 1 2
1260 2018 1 2 37 16 1 1 3
1298 2018 1 2 63 12 1 1 2
1335 2018 1 1 69 18 1 1 2
1500 2018 2 1 63 13 1 1 1
1564 2018 1 2 61 19 1 1 2
1586 2018 1 2 36 12 1 1 1
1657 2018 1 1 47 12 1 1 1
1677 2018 1 2 34 12 1 1 1
1680 2018 1 1 34 15 1 1 1
1703 2018 2 1 57 12 1 1 3
1718 2018 2 1 24 17 1 1 2
1723 2018 1 1 55 15 1 1 1
1735 2018 1 1 74 14 1 1 1
1747 2018 2 1 63 11 1 1 1
1806 2018 1 2 70 17 1 1 1
1898 2018 1 2 54 14 1 1 1
2000 2018 3 2 51 12 1 1 1
2021 2018 1 1 68 14 1 1 2
2080 2018 2 1 26 12 1 1 2
2087 2018 1 1 64 12 1 1 1
2106 2018 1 1 51 14 1 1 1
2116 2018 1 1 68 12 1 1 2
2118 2018 1 2 66 14 1 1 1
2121 2018 2 2 48 14 1 1 1
2132 2018 1 2 22 12 1 1 1
2142 2018 1 2 50 12 1 1 1
2147 2018 1 1 71 12 1 1 2
2266 2018 2 1 84 4 1 1 2
2328 2018 1 1 66 16 1 1 2
2331 2018 1 1 50 14 1 1 1
17 2018 1 2 55 16 0 1 2
31 2018 1 2 74 12 0 1 1
71 2018 1 1 35 15 0 1 2
91 2018 1 1 42 16 0 1 1
117 2018 2 1 65 8 0 1 2
145 2018 3 1 56 12 0 1 2
195 2018 1 1 57 11 0 1 1
208 2018 1 1 57 12 0 1 1
212 2018 1 1 46 14 0 1 1
229 2018 1 2 48 12 0 1 1
239 2018 1 1 65 18 0 1 2
243 2018 1 2 61 13 0 1 1
264 2018 1 2 54 16 0 1 1
283 2018 1 1 58 14 0 1 2
334 2018 1 2 37 12 0 1 1
344 2018 1 1 55 18 0 1 2
361 2018 1 1 60 12 0 1 1
397 2018 1 1 89 12 0 1 1
467 2018 3 2 48 14 0 1 1
507 2018 1 1 66 17 0 1 1
520 2018 1 1 72 12 0 1 2
533 2018 2 1 55 12 0 1 1
559 2018 1 1 66 17 0 1 2
569 2018 1 1 67 16 0 1 2
596 2018 1 1 64 14 0 1 1
603 2018 1 1 56 13 0 1 1
620 2018 1 2 80 12 0 1 1
640 2018 1 2 38 12 0 1 1
643 2018 1 1 57 15 0 1 2
667 2018 1 1 34 14 0 1 1
718 2018 1 1 45 18 0 1 1
761 2018 1 1 64 16 0 1 1
834 2018 1 1 61 12 0 1 2
851 2018 3 2 42 16 0 1 1
881 2018 1 2 31 17 0 1 2
887 2018 1 1 57 18 0 1 2
890 2018 1 2 68 16 0 1 1
899 2018 1 1 68 12 0 1 2
902 2018 1 1 39 12 0 1 3
915 2018 1 1 35 10 0 1 1
923 2018 1 2 43 12 0 1 1
926 2018 1 1 38 12 0 1 2
965 2018 1 1 22 13 0 1 1
994 2018 1 1 65 13 0 1 1
1009 2018 1 1 39 16 0 1 1
1026 2018 1 1 58 14 0 1 1
1038 2018 1 1 54 16 0 1 2
1058 2018 1 1 65 12 0 1 1
1076 2018 1 1 50 16 0 1 1
1086 2018 1 2 46 16 0 1 1
1116 2018 1 2 69 18 0 1 1
1121 2018 3 2 59 15 0 1 3
1134 2018 1 1 55 16 0 1 2
1168 2018 1 1 63 12 0 1 2
1175 2018 3 1 31 16 0 1 3
1187 2018 1 2 70 17 0 1 1
1195 2018 1 1 74 18 0 1 1
1202 2018 1 2 43 16 0 1 2
1266 2018 1 1 32 16 0 1 2
1282 2018 1 1 69 16 0 1 1
1284 2018 1 1 53 11 0 1 1
1304 2018 1 2 61 16 0 1 2
1334 2018 1 1 31 14 0 1 1
1337 2018 1 1 80 16 0 1 2
1339 2018 1 1 42 12 0 1 1
1348 2018 1 1 57 10 0 1 1
1358 2018 1 1 24 16 0 1 1
1371 2018 1 1 60 12 0 1 1
1384 2018 1 1 57 19 0 1 1
1400 2018 2 1 40 16 0 1 1
1426 2018 1 2 21 15 0 1 2
1431 2018 1 2 72 14 0 1 2
1436 2018 1 2 84 17 0 1 1
1446 2018 1 1 46 18 0 1 1
1471 2018 1 2 71 17 0 1 1
1479 2018 2 1 33 16 0 1 3
1490 2018 1 1 34 17 0 1 1
1492 2018 1 2 58 18 0 1 2
1532 2018 1 2 44 12 0 1 1
1560 2018 2 2 32 14 0 1 1
1567 2018 2 1 51 16 0 1 1
1620 2018 1 1 59 17 0 1 2
1642 2018 1 1 61 16 0 1 1
1666 2018 1 2 81 12 0 1 1
1675 2018 1 1 74 19 0 1 1
1708 2018 1 1 43 15 0 1 2
1733 2018 1 1 69 12 0 1 1
1755 2018 1 2 64 12 0 1 1
1758 2018 1 2 61 17 0 1 1
1763 2018 1 1 63 16 0 1 1
1771 2018 1 1 54 12 0 1 2
1797 2018 1 2 64 18 0 1 2
1827 2018 1 2 45 16 0 1 3
1839 2018 1 1 58 14 0 1 1
1949 2018 1 1 36 14 0 1 1
1957 2018 1 2 49 17 0 1 1
1997 2018 1 1 71 14 0 1 1
2004 2018 1 2 55 17 0 1 1
2006 2018 1 2 64 15 0 1 2
2012 2018 1 2 41 16 0 1 1
2016 2018 1 2 53 12 0 1 2
2057 2018 1 2 70 14 0 1 1
2064 2018 1 2 54 18 0 1 1
2070 2018 1 2 53 15 0 1 1
2084 2018 1 1 80 16 0 1 2
2138 2018 1 2 72 16 0 1 1
2162 2018 1 1 33 19 0 1 2
2200 2018 1 2 72 14 0 1 1
2208 2018 1 1 25 12 0 1 1
2216 2018 1 1 41 12 0 1 1
2220 2018 1 1 23 12 0 1 2
2229 2018 3 1 27 13 0 1 1
2239 2018 1 1 79 12 0 1 3
2243 2018 1 1 45 12 0 1 1
2257 2018 1 1 37 12 0 1 1
2280 2018 1 2 30 12 0 1 1
2323 2018 1 2 43 14 0 1 1
2337 2018 1 2 25 16 0 1 2
43 2018 1 2 62 12 1 0 1
46 2018 1 2 46 12 1 0 1
60 2018 2 2 28 9 1 0 1
72 2018 2 1 37 16 1 0 2
113 2018 1 1 58 14 1 0 2
131 2018 1 2 52 12 1 0 2
135 2018 1 1 60 13 1 0 2
172 2018 3 1 65 14 1 0 1
182 2018 1 2 74 16 1 0 1
286 2018 1 2 67 12 1 0 1
358 2018 2 1 39 18 1 0 2
402 2018 3 2 77 12 1 0 1
404 2018 1 2 38 3 1 0 2
429 2018 1 2 46 16 1 0 1
590 2018 2 2 50 14 1 0 1
637 2018 3 2 28 12 1 0 1
651 2018 2 2 60 9 1 0 1
703 2018 2 1 73 12 1 0 1
709 2018 1 2 68 15 1 0 2
722 2018 2 2 48 16 1 0 1
730 2018 2 1 25 12 1 0 3
879 2018 1 2 83 12 1 0 2
895 2018 2 1 29 12 1 0 1
904 2018 2 1 25 12 1 0 1
957 2018 1 2 79 6 1 0 1
1002 2018 1 2 56 15 1 0 3
1072 2018 2 2 56 11 1 0 1
1083 2018 3 1 31 9 1 0 2
1124 2018 1 2 50 16 1 0 1
1180 2018 2 2 59 12 1 0 2
1184 2018 3 1 85 10 1 0 1
1246 2018 1 1 89 11 1 0 2
1276 2018 2 2 56 11 1 0 1
1295 2018 1 2 69 11 1 0 2
1308 2018 1 1 69 12 1 0 1
1417 2018 2 1 49 14 1 0 1
1450 2018 2 1 67 12 1 0 1
1476 2018 2 2 29 14 1 0 1
1522 2018 1 2 30 10 1 0 1
1548 2018 3 1 60 11 1 0 2
1616 2018 1 1 54 12 1 0 1
1630 2018 1 2 71 8 1 0 1
1730 2018 2 1 41 16 1 0 3
1767 2018 2 1 27 12 1 0 1
1842 2018 1 2 72 16 1 0 2
1879 2018 2 2 53 12 1 0 1
1892 2018 3 1 27 10 1 0 2
1900 2018 2 1 54 12 1 0 2
1902 2018 2 2 77 12 1 0 1
1933 2018 1 2 30 9 1 0 2
1981 2018 3 1 60 12 1 0 2
1986 2018 3 2 35 13 1 0 1
2029 2018 1 2 41 14 1 0 1
2048 2018 3 2 80 12 1 0 1
2077 2018 1 1 28 18 1 0 1
2092 2018 1 1 37 16 1 0 3
2155 2018 2 2 32 12 1 0 2
2168 2018 2 2 55 9 1 0 1
2177 2018 1 1 74 12 1 0 1
2203 2018 1 1 82 12 1 0 1
2283 2018 1 2 66 11 1 0 1
2294 2018 2 2 77 9 1 0 2
12 2018 3 2 34 14 0 0 2
20 2018 1 1 30 18 0 0 2
87 2018 3 2 53 13 0 0 1
93 2018 3 1 29 16 0 0 2
108 2018 1 2 67 12 0 0 1
268 2018 1 2 50 14 0 0 1
423 2018 1 1 47 12 0 0 2
453 2018 3 2 83 12 0 0 2
460 2018 1 2 22 14 0 0 1
481 2018 3 2 51 18 0 0 2
537 2018 3 2 75 2 0 0 3
557 2018 1 1 71 16 0 0 1
593 2018 2 2 63 13 0 0 1
600 2018 3 1 28 12 0 0 2
648 2018 1 1 25 11 0 0 2
697 2018 3 2 79 4 0 0 1
707 2018 1 1 71 12 0 0 1
782 2018 1 1 70 14 0 0 1
806 2018 2 1 61 12 0 0 1
836 2018 1 1 74 16 0 0 2
865 2018 2 1 67 12 0 0 1
914 2018 1 1 53 14 0 0 2
946 2018 3 2 47 17 0 0 1
981 2018 1 1 57 17 0 0 2
1021 2018 2 2 46 13 0 0 1
1103 2018 1 1 57 12 0 0 1
1106 2018 2 2 75 12 0 0 2
1192 2018 1 1 66 12 0 0 1
1239 2018 3 1 36 15 0 0 1
1248 2018 3 1 48 12 0 0 1
1256 2018 1 1 47 12 0 0 1
1286 2018 1 2 50 9 0 0 2
1405 2018 2 1 64 15 0 0 2
1453 2018 3 1 44 13 0 0 1
1509 2018 1 2 45 17 0 0 1
1598 2018 1 2 75 12 0 0 1
1634 2018 1 1 47 12 0 0 1
1638 2018 1 1 33 17 0 0 1
1741 2018 2 2 63 11 0 0 2
1792 2018 1 2 52 12 0 0 1
1888 2018 3 2 53 12 0 0 1
1919 2018 1 1 60 12 0 0 1
1964 2018 3 2 42 6 0 0 2
1975 2018 1 2 38 9 0 0 1
1990 2018 3 2 66 12 0 0 1
2067 2018 3 1 59 9 0 0 1
2212 2018 1 1 71 14 0 0 1
2271 2018 1 2 74 8 0 0 1
2320 2018 2 1 68 10 0 0 1
Project 3 Output_RQ1
OBSERVED FREQUENCIES RACE * POLICE STRIKING ADULT
Race
Police Hit OK? White Black Other Total
Yes 163 17 10 190
No 53 32 26 111
Total 216 49 36 301
EXPECTED FREQUENCIES
Race
Police Hit OK? White Black Other Total
Yes 136.3455149502 30.9302325581 22.7242524917 190
No 79.6544850498 18.0697674419 13.2757475083 111
Total 216 49 36 301
CHI-SQUARED TEST
CHI-SQUARED 50.463389925
DF 2
P-VALUE 0
2 X 2 FOLLOW-UPS
OBSERVED FREQUENCIES EXPECTED FREQUENCIES CHI-SQUARE TESTS
Race Race WHITE – BLACK
Police Hit OK? White Black Total Police Hit OK? White Black Total CHI-SQUARE 30.4695620532
Yes 163 17 180 Yes 146.7169811321 33.2830188679 180 DF 1
No 53 32 85 No 69.2830188679 15.7169811321 85 P VALUE 0.0000000339
Total 216 49 265 Total 216 49 265
Race Race WHITE – OTHER
Police Hit OK? White Other Total Police Hit OK? White Other Total CHI-SQUARE 32.6024731104
Yes 163 10 173 Yes 148.2857142857 24.7142857143 173 DF 1
No 53 26 79 No 67.7142857143 11.2857142857 79 P VALUE 0.0000000113
Total 216 36 252 Total 252
Project 3 Output_RQ2
OBSERVED FREQUENCIES RACE * RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
Race
Racial Dis. White Black Other Total
Yes 85 35 14 134
No 131 14 22 167
Total 216 49 36 301
EXPECTED FREQUENCIES
Race
Racial Dis. White Black Other Total
Yes 96.1594684385 21.8139534884 16.0265780731 134
No 119.8405315615 27.1860465116 19.9734219269 167
Total 216 49 36 301
CHI-SQUARED TEST
CHI-SQUARED 17.1624216327
DF 2
P-VALUE 0.0001875977
2 X 2 FOLLOW-UPS
OBSERVED FREQUENCIES EXPECTED FREQUENCIES CHI-SQUARE TESTS
Race Race BLACK – WHITE
Racial Dis. White Black Total Racial Dis. White Black Total CHI-SQUARE 16.5854153363
Yes 85 35 120 Yes 97.8113207547 22.1886792453 120 DF 1
No 131 14 145 No 118.1886792453 26.8113207547 145 P VALUE 0.0000465073
Total 216 49 265 Total 216 49
Race Race BLACK – OTHER
Racial Dis. Black Other Total Racial Dis. Black Other Total CHI-SQUARE 9.0000629882
Yes 35 14 49 Yes 28.2470588235 20.7529411765 49 DF 1
No 14 22 36 No 20.7529411765 15.2470588235 36 P VALUE 0.002699703
Total 49 36 85 Total 49 36
Project 3 Output_RQ3
OBSERVED FREQUENCIES RACE * POLICE SPENDING
Race
Police Spending White Black Other Total
Too Little 133 30 20 183
About Right 71 14 13 98
Too Much 12 5 3 20
Total 216 49 36 301
EXPECTED FREQUENCIES
Race
Police Spending White Black Other Total
Too Little 131.3222591362 29.7906976744 21.8870431894 183
About Right 70.3255813953 15.9534883721 11.7209302326 98
Too Much 14.3521594684 3.2558139535 2.3920265781 20
Total 216 49 36 301
CHI-SQUARE TEST
CHI-SQUARED 2.0452568884
DF 4
P-VALUE 0.7274350454
GOF FOLLOW-UPS
*Assuming equality under null*
Police Spending White Police Spending Black Police Spending Other
Too Little 133 Too Little 30 Too Little 20
About Right 71 About Right 14 About Right 13
Too Much 12 Too Much 5 Too Much 3
216 49 36
CHI-SQUARE TESTS
CHI-SQUARE 101.6944444444 CHI-SQUARE 19.6326530612 CHI-SQUARE 12.1666666667
DF 1 DF 1 DF 1
P-VALUE 8.26669603105964E-23 P-VALUE 0.0000545536 P-VALUE 0.0022805621

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