Political Science

– Please use Citations from the book. No outside sources
– All instructions from the the DOC
book link: https://u1lib.org/book/11043760/16ebe5
Due May 15th
political government
Book Link: https://u1lib.org/book/11043760/16ebe5
Paper Review Sheet
The essay will not be cumulative; it will only cover material from after Midterm 2.
The final exam will cover the following 4 topics:
1. The Presidency
2. Congress
3. Public Opinion
4. Political Participation
There will be 3 parts of the essay (60 points total):
1. Part A: Identification Questions (Choose 4 out of 6; 5 points each; 20 points total)
Word Limit: 100 words max for Each ID Question (about 5 sentences max)
-Define the term, concept, or case and provide its significance.Same format as the midterm exams.
2. Part B: Short Answer Question (20 points)
Word Limit: 400 words max (about 3/4th page to 1 page max single spaced)
3. Part C: Short Answer Question (20 points)
Word Limit: 400 words max (about 3/4th page to 1 page max double spaced)
Please read questions carefully and answer every part of the prompt
Detailed Outline
Topics Covered Since Midterm 2:
1. The Presidency
2. Congress
3. Public Opinion
4. Political Participation
I. The Presidency
A. Important Powers
1. Commander in Chief
2. Appoint federal judges (including Supreme Court Justices)
-Confirmed by Senate
3. Veto legislation of Congress
4. Treaties
-Ratified by two-thirds of Senate
5. Pardon
B. The Electoral College
C. The Three Major Roles of the President
1. The President as Commander in Chief and Head of State
2. The President as Chief Executive
3. The President as Legislator
D. The President as Commander in Chief and Head of State
1. Commander in Chief
a. War Powers Resolution
2. Head of State
1. The President’s Explicit Foreign Relations Powers
a. Commander in Chief
b. Appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls
c. Treaties
2. The President’s Implicit Foreign Relations Powers

case: The “President alone” is the “sole organ” in foreign affairs.
3. Senate’s Power over Treaty Ratification
-Executive Agreements
E. The President as Chief Executive
1. Authority through Delegation
a. Two Requirements for Delegation to Be Constitutional
1) Congress should lay out “clear standards” for how the law should be applied.
2) The President or executive agency should not have “unfettered discretion.”
2. Executive Orders
-Problems with executive orders
F. The President as Legislator
1. Veto
2. Line-Item Vetoes Unconstitutional
3. Signing Statements Constitutional
4. Veto Threat
II. Congress
A. Congress’s Structure (Bicameralism)
1. House of Representatives
-435 members; elected every two years; based on population of State.
2. Senate
-100 Senators; 2 Senators per State regardless of population.
-Elected every 6 years; elections staggered: only one-third of Senators reelected every 2 years
B. Key Enumerated Powers
1. Commerce Clause
2. Tax and Spend
3. Coin money
4. Declare War
5. Immigration
6. Elastic Clause (Necessary and proper clause)
C. Congress’s Foreign Affairs Power
1. Power to Declare War
2. Conflict with President’s Power as Commander in Chief
3. War Powers Resolution
D. Special Powers of the Senate
1. Treaties
-Requires ratification by two-thirds of the Senate
2. President’s appointment of Cabinet officials, ambassadors, and other public Ministers and
-Requires Senate confirmation
3. Federal judges (including Supreme Court Justices)
-Requires Senate confirmation
E. Origination Clause
-All tax bills must start in the House of Representatives.
F. Gerrymandering
1. Definition
2. Packing and Cracking
3. Reynolds v. Sims: “One person, one vote.”
4. Supreme Court’s current Rule of Law on gerrymandering: partisan gerrymandering is
constitutional; however, racial gerrymandering is unconstitutional.
5. Effects of Gerrymandering
a. Increased Partisanship
b. Incumbency Advantage

G. Important Positions in the House of Representatives
1. Speaker of the House
2. House Minority Leader
3. Majority Whip
4. Minority Whip
H. Important Positions in the Senate
1. Senate Majority Leader
2. Senate Minority Leader
3. Whips
I. Congressional Committees
1. Standing Committees
2. Select or Special Committees
3. Joint Committees
-Conference Committee
J. How a Bill Becomes a Law
III. Public Opinion
A. Basic Definitions
1. Definition of Public Opinion
2. Margin of Error
3. Attitudes
4. Political Ideologies
B. Two Groups with Consistent Opinions
1. Ideologues
2. High Political Knowledge
C. Five Main Political Cues
1. Political Socialization
2. Partisanship
3. Group Membership
4. Retrospective Voting
5. Elites
D. Political Socialization
1. Definition
2. Main Source
3. Other important sources
E. Group Membership
1. Definition of Group-centric opinion formation
2. Group membership examples
F. Retrospective Voting
1. Definition
2. Main basis: Based on performance of incumbent president’s last 6 to 9 months before election.
-Usually based on economic performance (i.e. unemployment rate; inflation), but can also be
based on other important measures of performance (i.e. Coronavirus; wartime).
G. Elite Cues
1. Two types of elites
a. Media
b. Political leaders
2. Two primary mechanisms that elites use to affect public opinion
a. Priming
b. Framing
H. Two Reasons for Stability of Public Opinion
1. Measurement error
2. Opinion leaders
I. Measurement Error
1. Definition
2. How it contributes to stability of public opinion
J. Opinion leaders
1. Definition
2. How they contribute to stability of public opinion
V. Political Participation
A. Political Participation
1. Definition
2. Modes of Political Participation
B. Civic Voluntarism Model
1. Definition
2. 3 Reasons that People Politically Participate
a. Resources
b. Engagement
c. Recruitment
3. Resources: Main Resources Relevant to Political Participation
a. Time
b. Money
c. Civic Skills
i. Definition of civic skills
ii. 3 venues where people can develop civic skills
1) Religious organizations
2) Voluntary associations (i.e. unions, book clubs, etc.)
3) Workplace
iii. Acquirable civic skills
iv. How civic skills transfer to political participation
4. Engagement
a. Definition
b. Factors that affect political engagement
5. Recruitment
a. Definition
b. Example
PLS Essay
Part I: ID’s
Answer 4 ID Questions only
, 5 points each, 20 points total)
Instructions: Identify
Explain the significance of
4 of the following 6
terms, concepts, or cases.The “identification” should take the form of a definition and/or explanation of the term, concept, or case.The “significance” can take the form of its significance to American government, an example, or an application to current events.
Word Limit: 100 words max (about 5 sentences max) for Each of the 4 ID Questions chosen
1. Signing Statements
Answer Here:
2. Gerrymandering
Answer Here:
3. U.S. v. Curtiss-Wright
Answer Here:
4. Civic skills
Answer Here:
5. Speaker of the House
Answer Here:
6. Engagement (political engagement in the context of political participation)
Answer Here:
Part II: Short Answer Question – Congress and the President
(20 points total)
Word Limit: 400-500 words max for Questions 1 and 2 combined (about 1 page max single spaced)
Instructions: Answer Both Questions 1 and 2
Fact Pattern: President Smith has declared war on England.The President claims that England might attack the United States, but he provides no evidence to support his claim.The President sends troops to invade England without consulting Congress first.Upon hearing of the President’s invasion a week later, members of Congress are furious.
: There may be multiple arguments that the President can make in Question 1 and that Congress can make in Question 2 below.List and explain as many arguments as you think are relevant (not just one).Also, include important facts from the fact pattern above in your answers to support your arguments.
1. What are the President’s strongest arguments that he has the power to invade England without
getting authorization from Congress first?
Answer Here:
2. What are Congress’s strongest arguments that the President acted improperly?
Answer Here:

Part III: Short Answer Question – Public Opinion
(20 points total)
Word Limit: 400-500 words max for Political Cue 1 and Political Cue 2 combined (about 1 page max single spaced)
Fact Pattern: It is September 7, 2020, two months before the 2020 presidential election, and Jenny Anderson is a voter in Ohio.She is deciding on whether to support President Trump, the Republican candidate, or Vice President Joe Biden, the Democratic candidate, in the election.She is not an ideologue and she does not have high political knowledge.Her parents are Republicans and growing up, they regularly discussed politics at the dinner table.However, in the 2016 election, she registered as a Democrat and regularly watches MSNBC, a more liberal news network.However, she is currently an independent swing voter who voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016 but for Mitt Romney in 2012.She also reads the New York Times daily and on the morning of September 7th, she read an article that said: “Although the unemployment rate has been at historic lows throughout President Trump’s first three years in office, the unemployment rate skyrocketed from 4.4% to 14.7% this past month due to the Coronavirus pandemic.This is the highest unemployment rate since the Great Depression and there are no signs of an improving economy in the near future.”
political cues that Jenny can use in deciding which candidate to support in the 2020 presidential election.
Hint: Your answers should not only include the political science concepts requested below, but also should include the relevant facts from the fact pattern above to support your answers.
Instructions: Answer All 3 Questions for BOTH Political Cue 1 AND Political Cue 2
In explaining the political cues, provide the following information:
Political Cue 1:
1. Define the political cue.
Answer Here:
2. Explain how the political cue generally contributes to a person’s opinion formation.
Answer Here:
3. Explain what facts about that political cue from the fact pattern above would make it more
likely for Jenny to support either President Trump or Vice President Biden in the election.
Answer Here:
Political Cue 2:
1. Define the political cue.
Answer Here:
2. Explain how the political cue generally contributes to a person’s opinion formation.
Answer Here:
3. Explain what facts about that political cue from the fact pattern above would make it more
likely for Jenny to support either President Trump or Vice President Biden in the election.
Answer Here:

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