One of the most common and important argument forms is the appeal to authority. For this assignment

One of the most common and important argument forms is the appeal to authority. For this assignment you will read all three post below and respond, you will discuss this argument form, as well as how to use it to improve your reasoning and your life.word count min 75words.

1. Three appeals to authority:

1. My primary care physician found a lump on my throat during today’s visit and told me I have cancer.

Evaluation: The argument, in this case, is given by an overall medical physician who will have some knowledge of the diagnosis. He does not have the ability to tell if a lump is cancerous without further testing.

2. The coffee barista said a large coffee would help me wake up.

Evaluation: The coffee shop wants to make more money. Therefore, I will feel more awake after drinking it. Which it did wake me up but had way too much caffeine. 

3. Smacking children is wrong and should be banned. The biologist professor Alice Bloggs has stated so.

Evaluation: Professor Bloggs is a biologist and not a child psychologist or relevant expert in the field. The fact that she is highly qualified in one area does not mean that she’s therefore an expert in all areas.

Appeals to Authority in General:

You must ensure that your source is credible. This can be achieved by either showing the reputation and reviews of your source or even simply through research. You may want to build up the credibility over time, but without hard proof of facts such as a review from a consumer and research, you will not know if the person/company is truly reputable or reliable.

How do we know which sources are reliable and trustworthy? The only way to find out if its reliable is to find other resources that talk about the same thing. We all use google and look things up so by finding something google usually pops up about 6-20 different articles about the same thing yet they can word it different but mean the same. 

Do you find that there are some types of sources of which people are too trusting? Appeal to authority is a great place to start from, without having some kind of trust people would not be able to believe anything that a person or even a book states. Sources that are reliable will have documentation to support their expertise. Professors and doctors for example, have received years of training making them a reliable source. The type that can be trusting is actors or athletes. Most people will go off every word a famous actor or athlete says. 

How might we learn to display the proper amount of skepticism and trust in relation to sources? 

The way to learn to display skepticism and trust would be to use it as a starting point. A person would need make sure that the information provided was from reliable source. Social media has become a major part of how people receive information. People tend to believe everything that is on the internet and especially social media. The way to overcome is like everything else, just use it as a starting point and then do your own research on the matter. RUIZ

2. Give three examples of appeals to authority (they can be from real source or experiences, or you can make them up). One should be very strong, one very weak, and one in the middle. Evaluate the quality of each.

1. Buzz Aldrin says there is no gravity in space

Evaluation: Buzz Aldrin went to space and therefore would have experienced zero gravity.

2. CNN Says President Trump is going to be the next president in 2016

Evaluation: CNN takes in pole numbers from all parts of the U.S. and therefore can accurately assume who won the presidency.

3. Matthew McConaughey says that every hour spent on mars will be seven years back on earth

Evaluation: Matthew McConaughey played an astronaut who went to a planet. He has no credibility as to time relevance on a particular planet.

Provide an example of a time in which you or someone you know was fooled by trusting a source that turned out to be unreliable.

Most recently it is the amount of ‘Fake News’ that we all see on our social media accounts from supposedly credible news stations, and this goes for both democrat and republican. For democrats it is CNN. President Trump will do or say something and it is completely warped into something else. For the conservatives it is FOX News. Trump says or does the smallest thing but FOX reports it as the next major milestone in American History, so they make it seem. If someone were to only follow one of those news sources their point-of-view on our political system would be drastically swayed one way or the other.

How do we know which sources are reliable and trustworthy?

In today’s world where anyone can publish anything with a chance that millions of people can see the publication in a second’s notice, it is often difficult. One way to verify the validity of the source is to check whether or not the source is an authority on the subject (Hardy, Foster & Postigo, 2015).

Do you find that there are some types of sources of which people are too trusting?

I do think that people are too trusting of particular sources. One source is social media in general. Most people have several dozen, at least, friends on facebook with multiple posts per day so it is easy for someone to see an article and believe it since it was from their Mom, Dad, or Aunt or Uncle. One example I can think of is one of my friends on social media shared a parody article about the military. This source is just for humor but he actually believed it since he saw it on Facebook.

How might we learn to display the proper amount of skepticisms and trust in relation to sources?

I think we need to do more research on the person presenting the publication or statement. We cannot just assume just because an article is from a prominent news station, book or magazine that it is 100% credible. We need to do our own research in the author to better understand their credentials. If we know the person, say a close family friend, that states a fact that he or she is an expert in their field then we can generally take that as fact, but just because we read an article on social media that your Aunt Kathy posted doesn’t make it credible. Research the outlet and author to better understand them.BAILEY

3. Give three examples of appeals to authority (they can be from real source or experiences, or you can make them up). One should be very strong, one very weak, and one in the middle. Evaluate the quality of each.

1.  The Police Officer said that I was going to get a traffic ticket for speeding.

Evaluation: The Police Officer has the authority to issue traffic tickets to anyone who is in violation of any traffic laws.

2.  Steven A. Smith says the Golden States Warriors are favored to win the NBA Finals this year.

Evaluation: Steven A. Smith is a renowned sports journalist who has been covering sports for over 20 years. The Golden State Warriors have won the NBA championship the last two years and currently owns the best record in the league. There is no guarantee that they will win but the probability is high that they will.

3.  My friend says her grandmother told her that the reason why she suffers from pain in her knee is due to the weather outside.

Evaluations: My friend’s grandmother is not a medical expert but she trusts everything that her grandmother tells her.

Provide an example of a time in which you or someone you know was fooled by trusting a source that turned out to be unreliable.

Social Media has turned into a huge source for information, whether it is wrong or right. One day I was going through my timeline and a friend of mine had posted an article with the comments RIP Sinbad. Sinbad is a comedian/actor who was very popular in the 90s. I immediately open the article to see that it stated that the Comedian had passed away in his home the night before. I initially was sad about it because I grew up watching him on television and he was one of my favorite comedians. I then decide to do more research on how he passed away, so I Google information on his death. It turns out that it was a death hoax.

How do we know which sources are reliable and trustworthy?

It is hard to tell whether or not a source is reliable and trustworthy because people cater to the base that they support. However, you will have to find the truth out for yourself by verifying the information from multiple sources.

Do you find that there are some types of sources of which people are too trusting?

Yes, there are plenty of sources of which people are too trusting. Facebook, CNN, FOX News are a few that comes to mind. I get so agitated when I see people re-post information that they see on Facebook just because it caters to their beliefs. The same happens with certain news outlets. Depending on what the political affiliation you have, usually determines what news outlet is watched. Republicans watch FOX News and Democrats watch CNN and although they might report the same news, the rhetoric is totally different to the point that if you want to know the truth, you would have to do further research.

How might we learn to display the proper amount of skepticism and trust in relation to sources?

To display the proper about of skepticism and trust in relation to sources, one would have to become objective and not fall for the first thing that you see or hear just because it is something that you agree with. Do more research and find more experts who state the same factual information.

Are people too trusting of media sources, and is there a way to overcome these tendencies? How can we make sure those are the best sources and not be deceived by deceptive ones?

Yes, I think people are too trusting of media sources but we are taught to trust them because it is their job to tell us the truth. The way to overcome those tendencies is to stay objective and look to other sources on the matter. Deceptive sources are known for being just that. It’s a lot of trial and error involved but as long as you’re able to verify information from multIple sources, you are likely to find the truth.JOHNSON

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