Nutrition Analysis 2

Need guidance for the paper. All the points are given in the paper which should be included. Please make sure to have all the information. All the description is given briefly on the assignment pdf
Nutrition Fitness
ATTACHED FILE(S)
5/11/22, 12:24 AM Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition Groups 1-4)
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/assignments/6126200 1/5
Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition
Groups 1-4)
DueWednesday by 11:59pmPoints50Submittinga file upload (Turnitin enabled)
Availableuntil May 11 at 11:59pm
Start Assignment
Purpose of the Assignment
The purpose of this assignment is to learn how to critically read and analyze research articles.
When analyzing the article, be sure to consider feedback from your 1st Analysis as well as the
suggestions from class lectures and discussion.
Instructions
Each student is required to review one original research article (primary reference, peer-
reviewed), from the list of topics in the Assignment Packet
(https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/66832848/download?download_frd=1) .You will
need to find your own peer-reviewed paper that relates to whichever topic your group selected from
the list of suggested topics. The article you select will be the same one that you present for your
group oral presentation.
Make sure to find an original research study, not a REVIEW or a META ANALYSIS (this is
critical for your grade, if you end up analyzing a review article, you won’t be able to get a passing
grade from this assignment).
See the rubric for the point breakdown for this assignment.
You can also use textbooks for additional background and support
Use your own words to discuss the article. DO NOT use direct quotes or copied material from
the article. Instead, paraphrase the source material using YOUR OWN WORDS and cite
appropriately in APA format(https://owl.excelsior.edu/citation-and-documentation/apa-style/) .
Do not include the questions you see below.
Assignment Details & Format
For more detailed instructions please refer to the Assignment Packet
(https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/67046619/download?download_frd=1) .
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/66832848?wrap=1
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/66832848/download?download_frd=1

APA Style


https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/67046619?wrap=1
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/files/67046619/download?download_frd=1
5/11/22, 12:24 AM Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition Groups 1-4)
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/assignments/6126200 2/5
Use your own words to discuss the answers using information from the article. DO NOT use direct
quotes or copied material from the article. Instead, paraphrase the source material using YOUR
OWN WORDS and cite appropriately in APA format. (https://owl.excelsior.edu/citation-and-
documentation/apa-style/) Do not include the questions. Your paper should be written in paragraph
form; it should NOT be a list of the questions and your responses.
In a 3 to 4-page essay, briefly describe and then critically analyze all of the following components
of the study:
1. What is the research problem? Another way to think about this is: Why was this study
conducted?
2. What is/are the hypothesis/hypotheses stated by the author(s)? If not stated directly, what does
the hypothesis appear to be?
3. A. Who were the study participants? How many were there and how were they recruited?B.
What were the inclusion/exclusion criteria for selecting the participants?
4. What was the study design?
5. What were the main study results?
6. Did the results support the authors’ hypothesis/hypotheses?Why or why not?
7. What was/were the limitation(s) and strength(s) discussed by the author(s)? These are usually in
the Discussion/Conclusion section of the article.Were there any additional strengths and
weaknesses not discussed by the author(s)?If so, discuss with a professional critique and do
not use overly personal opinion-based judgements. A. What conclusion(s) did the author(s)
make? B. How can the research findings be applied? If no applications were suggested by the
authors, provide ideas for how the findings could be applied. C. Based on this study and past
research discussed in the Introduction, what directions should researchers take for future study
of this topic?
Form and Style Guidelines
Your paper should:
be written in narrative, paragraph format, no numbering or bullets;
be written in formal style-3person only (do not use 1or 2person, such as “we”, “I” or “you”);
be a professional critique and NOT contain overly personal opinion-based judgements;
cite a professional reference for any nutrition or fitness guidelines or recommendations
suggested in text (see resource page in Syllabus);
NOT use direct quotes or copied material from a source. Instead, paraphrase the source
material using YOUR OWN WORDS and cite appropriately in APA format;
use past tense when describing the research;
be typed, double spaced, and 3-4 pages in length;
be in a font size that is Times New Roman 12 point or similar size (easy to read);
be left justified (do not right justify/align, which centers text) and have 1-inch margins;
be turned in on Canvas.
rd st nd

APA Style


5/11/22, 12:24 AM Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition Groups 1-4)
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/assignments/6126200 3/5
Analysis of Scientific Literature #1 and #2 (1)
5/11/22, 12:24 AM Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition Groups 1-4)
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/assignments/6126200 4/5
Criteria Ratings Pts
5 pts
10 pts
4 pts
5 pts
3 pts
6 pts
6 pts
Followed directions, formatted correctly,
Turnitin report confirms originality
5 to >4.0 pts
Excellent
format, followed
directions and
original writing
4 to >2.0 pts
Some directions
not followed or
errors in fomatting
or originality
2 to >0 pts
Major flaws in
formatting,
following
directions and
originality
Writing, Syntax, Spelling, Grammar 10 to >9.0 pts
Excellent
writing, showed
clear
understanding
9 to >5.0 pts
Major flaws in
writing, syntax,
spelling and
grammar
5 to >0 pts
Some errors in
writing, syntax,
spelling and
grammar.
Question 1 – State the research problem
clearly
4 to >3.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
3 to >2.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
2 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack of
understanding, or
not included
Question 2 – Describe the author’s
hypothesis and research goals clearly
5 to >4.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
4 to >2.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
2 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
Question 3 – Describe the participant
inclusion and exclusion criteria
3 to >2.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
2 to >1.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
1 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
Question 4 – Describe the study design 6 to >5.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
5 to >3.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
3 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack of
understanding, or
not included
Question 5 – Describe the study results
clearly in one’s own words
6 to >5.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
5 to >3.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
3 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
5/11/22, 12:24 AM Nutrition Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 (Nutrition Groups 1-4)
https://sjsu.instructure.com/courses/1477261/assignments/6126200 5/5
Total Points: 50
Criteria Ratings Pts
2 pts
3 pts
6 pts
Question 6 – Did the results support the
researcher’s hypothesis?
2 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
1 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
Question 7 – Describe the limitations and
strengths of the research study
3 to >2.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
2 to >1.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
1 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
Question 8 – What were the conclusions
of the study and how can they be appled
to real life? What ideas for future
research did this study spark?
6 to >5.0 pts
Excellent,
showed clear
understanding
5 to >3.0 pts
Good, showed
basic level of
understanding
3 to >0 pts
Poor, showed lack
of understanding or
not included
NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

Revised 012422

1
ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE #1 & #2
Directions
You will write two (2) Analyses of Scientific Literature papers. Each will be a 3 to 4 page critique of an
empirical research study that has been published in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The specific paper to be
critiqued for the 1st Analysis will be given to you by your instructor.For the second Analysis of Scientific
Literature you will need to find your own peer-reviewed paper that relates to whichever topic your group
selected from the list of suggested topics further down in this packet. The research study you select needs to be
recent, published within the last 10 years. The article you select will be the same one that you present for your
group oral presentation. The article must be referenced in your written assignment. Your instructor will provide
you with specific information on how to select a topic, how to find a worthwhile study to analyze, and how to
turn in your Analyses of Scientific Literature. Contact your instructor if you would like confirmation on the
paper you selected.
After the first Analysis of Scientific Literature, you will receive feedback on your critical evaluation skills.
Please use this feedback when preparing the second Analysis of Scientific Literature.
Please see the syllabus for the due dates for the two different analyses.Late papers will be docked 2.5 points
for each day or partial day late, so please be sure to turn your paper in on time.
Each student must do his/her own work. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and will result in a failing grade on the
assignment and the student being reported to the Office of Student Conduct and Ethical Development. Turnitin
will be enabled within Canvas and reports will reviewed by instructors prior to grading.
Form and Style Guidelines
Your paper should:
• be written in narrative, paragraph format, no numbering or bullets;
• be written in formal style-3rd person only (do not use 1st or 2nd person, such as “we”, “I” or “you”);
• be a professional critique and NOT contain overly personal opinion-based judgements;
• cite a professional reference for any nutrition or fitness guidelines or recommendations suggested in text
(see resource page in Syllabus);
• NOT use direct quotes or copied material from a source. Instead, paraphrase the source material using
YOUR OWN WORDS and cite appropriately in APA format;
• use past tense when describing the research;
• be typed, double spaced, and 3-4 pages in length;
• be in a font size that is Times New Roman 12 point or similar size (easy to read);
• be left justified (do not right justify/align, which centers text) and have 1-inch margins;
• be turned in on Canvas.
Guidelines for Analyzing Research:
Be sure to consider the suggestions from lecture and the handout “How to Understand and Interpret Food and
Health-Related Scientific Studies” when analyzing the articles. Use the questions below as a guide to critically
evaluate each section of the paper. Each one of these questions should be addressed within the paper.
NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

Revised 012422

2
Analyses of Scientific Literature #1 & #2
Purpose: To understand how to critically read and analyze research articles.
For #1, your instructor will provide you with an article on Canvas. You can access the link to the article in the
assignment description. For #2, you will select your own study.Make sure to select either an experimental or
observational study so that all components of the assignment can be addressed, a review paper or meta-
analysis is not acceptable. The study you select needs to be recent, published within the last 10 years.
Directions
In a 3 to 4-page essay, briefly describe and then critically analyze all of the following components of the
study:
1. What is the research problem? Another way to think about this is: Why was this study conducted?
2. What is/are the hypothesis/hypotheses stated by the author(s)? If not stated directly, what does the
hypothesis appear to be?
3. A. Who were the study participants? How many were there and how were they recruited?
B. What were the inclusion/exclusion criteria for selecting the participants?
4. What was the study design?
5. What were the main study results? (Briefly reference numerical data when appropriate.)
6. Did the results support the authors’ hypothesis/hypotheses?Why or why not?
7. What was/were the limitation(s) and strength(s) discussed by the author(s)? These are usually in the
Discussion/Conclusion section of the article.Were there any additional strengths and weaknesses not
discussed by the author(s)?If so, discuss with a professional critique and do not use overly personal
opinion-based judgements.
A. What conclusion(s) did the author(s) make?
B. How can the research findings be applied?If no applications were suggested by the authors, provide
ideas for how the findings could be applied.
C. Based on this study and past research discussed in the Introduction, what directions should
researchers take for future study of this topic?

Use your own words to discuss the answers using information from the article. DO NOT use direct quotes or
copied material from the article. Instead, paraphrase the source material using YOUR OWN WORDS and
cite appropriately in APA format. Do not include the questions. Your paper should be written in paragraph
form; it should NOT be a list of the questions and your responses.
Your paper will be submitted to CANVAS with turnitin.com enabled by the instructor to check for plagiarism.
NUFS/KIN 163 – Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University

Revised 012422

3
SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR NUTRITION PRESENTATIONS
Please choose from this list or choose your own topic (if approved by instructor)

LIPIDS/FAT
Possible sub-topics
• Dietary fat recommendations/needs for children (< 2 yr olds), elderly • Dietary fat and risk for various cancers • Omega-3 fatty acid (linolenic acid) and treatment or prevention of diseases • Fat replacements used in the food industry PROTEIN and AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTS Possible sub-topics • Whey protein supplements for weight (muscle) gains • Glutamine and the immune system and/or muscle recovery in athletes • Creatine supplementation: effects on strength performance OR effects on endurance performance • Nitrogen balance studies in determining protein needs for athletes • Branched-chain amino acids and exercise performance DRUGS, SUPPLEMENTS, HERBS & DIETS FOR WEIGHT CONTROL Possible sub-topics: • Evaluate hydroxycitrate supplement for weight loss • Evaluate ketogenic diets for weight loss • Evaluate intermittent fasting for weight loss • Evaluate/review the “Phen-Fen” drugs • Evaluate/review over-the-counter drug phenylpropanolamine, Alli, etc. • Evaluate ephedrine (ephedra), EGCG, ginseng or Hoodia and weight loss DISORDERED EATING ISSUES and OBESITY Possible sub-topics • Eating disorders: case studies, adverse complications, therapies, etc. • Childhood obesity: prevalence, causes, and treatment • Research in the area of obesity and genetics • Adult obesity VITAMINS & MINERALS IN HEALTH Possible sub-topics • Vitamin E’s role in reducing risk of heart disease or cancer • Zinc and the common cold • Folic acid deficiency and birth defects • Folic acid, B6, and/or B12’s role in preventing heart disease • Iron deficiency effects in the young (children) • Vitamin D status and supplementation in the older population VITAMINS, MINERALS & HERBS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE Possible sub-topics • Iron deficiency & anemia in female athletes • Coenzyme Q10 and exercise performance OR Ginseng supplementation and exercise performance • Vanadium and body composition • Antioxidant supplementation (such as vitamin E and vitamin C) and exercise • Medium-chained triglycerides (MCTs) supplementation and exercise performance/body comp NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 4 SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR FITNESS PRESENTATIONS Please choose from this list or choose your own topic (topic must be approved by instructor) EXERCISE AND AGING Possible sub-topics: • Effects of training on muscle strength and/or muscle mass of older adults, including underlying mechanisms • Effects of training on cardiovascular function in older adults, including underlying mechanisms • Effects of exercise and aging on changes in flexibility and mobility • Effects of training on body composition of older adults. • Exercise and the prevention of falls in older adults, as well as other changes in balance and equilibrium EXERCISE AND COGNITION Possible sub-topics: • Effects of exercise on learning and/or learning disorders • Effects of exercise on memory • Exercise and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder • Exercise and prevention/treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and/or dementia EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION FOR DIVERSE POPULATIONS Possible sub-topics • Exercise and prevention or treatment of Type II diabetes • Exercise and prevention or treatment of hypertension • Exercise and prevention or treatment of cancer • Effects of strength training OR aerobic training on metabolic syndrome • Effects of training on women during pregnancy OR effects of training post-pregnancy EXERCISE IN DIVERSE ENVIRONMENTS Possible sub-topics : • Environmental impact on individuals exercising in the heat • Environmental impact on individuals exercising in cold environments • Environmental impact on individuals exercising in water environments TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS Possible sub-topics • Effects of detraining on cardiovascular fitness or muscular fitness • Effects of strength training on cardiovascular function • Effects of overtraining • Effects of strength training on improving fat utilization • Effects of cardio training on body fat location and utilization • Pre or Post exercise supplementation with fat, carbs or protein EMOTIONAL/SOCIAL Possible sub-topics • Effect of physical activity on sleep OR stress • Effect of physical activity on mood • Effect of physical activity on anxiety • Effect of physical activity on depression NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 5 NUFS/KIN 163 GRADING CRITERIA FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS “A” papers (receiving 90% or more of the total points) have the following characteristics: • Carefully follow the content guidelines given by the instructor; responding to each question with descriptions and critique for all components of the study; • Carefully follow the guidelines for format; which includes not exceeding by more than one-half page the maximum double-spaced pages allowed; • Are written in standard English, at an upper division college level, with complete sentences and appropriate paragraphs; • Are written in the student’s own words, with no direct quotes or copied material; • Are free of redundancies, and have, at most, only 2-3 spelling and/or grammatical errors; • Develop each section of the critique in a clear and logical fashion; have smooth transitions from one sentence or idea to another; • Include insightful interpretation that goes beyond the obvious or what the authors disclosed; • Cover all of the major aspects of the assignment without going off track or padding; • Are turned in on the due date and time. “B” papers (receiving 80-89% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” report in one or more of the following ways: • Show less care in following the guidelines; • Have a few lapses in good writing; • Have less than full clarity in expression of ideas and interpretations; • Show some tendency to go off track, pad the paper or have redundancies; • Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago • Are turned in one day or partial day late. “C” papers (receiving 70-79% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” paper in 2 or more of the following ways: • Show minimal care in following guidelines, leaving several components unaddressed; • Have more than a few lapses in good writing; • Use some ambiguous descriptions in the analysis or interpretation; • Go off track, pad the paper, or have redundancy in more than one instance; • Provide direct quotes rather than summarizing and/or paraphrasing; • Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago • Are turned in two days after the due date/time. Papers less than “C” (receiving less than 70% of the total points) usually differ from an “A” paper in more than one of the following ways: • Do not follow guidelines, or do not address several of the required components; • Are poorly written; • Fail to interpret information correctly, or answer questions clearly; • Frequently wander off track, are “padded” with extraneous information, or are redundant; • Are old studies, published more than 10 years ago for nutrition, or 20 years for fitness • Are turned in more than two days after the due date/time. REMEMBER TO CONSULT THE GRADING RUBRIC FOR SUCCESS! NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 6 Name _____________________________________ GRADING SHEET FOR ANALYSIS OF LITERATURE #1 & #2 CATEGORY Followed directions, originality report obtained, format Major flaws in following directions, format. Followed some, but not all directions; and/or some formatting errors. Excellent format. Possible Points 0-1 2-4 5 Writing, syntax, spelling, grammar Major flaws in writing, syntax, spelling and/or grammar Some errors in writing, syntax, spelling and/or grammar Well written. Possible Points 0-5 6-8 9-10 Poor; showed lack of understanding Average Very good-excellent Shows high level understanding Question 1 Stated research problem clearly. 0-1 2-3 4 Question 2 Described hypothesis/research question/goal clearly. 0-2 3-4 5 Question 3 Described participants and inclusion/ exclusion criteria 0-1 1.5 2-3 Question 4 Described the study design 0-2 3-4 5-6 Question 5 Described the results clearly 0-2 3-4 5-6 Question 6 Stated the results relative to the hypothesis 0 1 2 Question 7 Described limitations and strengths 0-1 1.5 2-3 Question 8 Described conclusions, future research ideas and applications(s) 0-2 3-4 5-6 Subtotal 2.5 points will be deducted for each calendar day or partial day late Deductions (if late): ___________ Your Total: ___________ NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 7 GUIDELINES FOR ORAL PRESENTATION OF ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE #2 This is a group presentation where each member presents the study he/she selected and wrote about for the Analysis of Scientific Literature #2 assignment. Each individual in the group should spend approximately 5 to 6 minutes leading a discussion on his/her own article from the group’s agreed upon topic. Having each individual present their own article on the same topic allows the overall group presentation to cover a variety of angles on the subject matter. Presentation • The presentation should begin with a brief introduction of the topic.This is often done by just one person and is not considered part of his/her formal presentation. • Each student’s introductory slide must contain a full APA reference for the research study including authors, year, title, journal name, volume and pages. • The presentation should include an evaluation (critique) of the research article including the purpose of the research, methodology, results, conclusions, strengths/limitations, and applications to the “real” world. Students are encouraged to evaluate studies that provide differing results. • Students should be creative and use any or all of the following in their presentations: demonstrations, visual aides (overheads, charts, handouts), and other techniques to inform and interest the audience. Students should practice oral presentation etiquette which includes addressing and greeting the audience, introducing yourself and the study, looking at the camera/audience instead of directly reading off of the slides. • Once each student presents his/her own paper, the group will then need to compare and contrast their studies. This is best done with each group member synthesizing their study results with the others and end with a “bottom line” type of take away and conclusion. This is not a restatement of study characteristics (i.e., participant statistics, study location, intervention type, etc.). • This is a group assignment; therefore, each member should collaborate on the introduction, compare/contrast and the conclusion. Oral Presentation Slides & Recording:Both the slides and a recording of the presentation need to be uploaded to Canvas.Only one group member needs to submit these because the assignment is listed as a group assignment and files will show up in each member’s Canvas as submitted. Evaluation of the oral presentation will be based on the following and a rubric is included with this assignment: 1. Presentation skills (including adherence to time guidelines; organization of presentation/preparedness; effectiveness of oral presentation (e.g., delivered without excessive reliance on notes); and effective use of visual aids/ability to interest audience). 2. Ability to critically evaluate scientific research; 3. Ability to define/demonstrate practical application of the material; 4. Appropriateness of nutrition/fitness article; 5. Ability to compare & contrast article with other articles in group, contribution to group summary, conclusions and “take away.” This assignment is worth a total of 50 points, up to 25 points for each student’s individual presentation and up to 25 points for a group grade. The group grade is calculated as the average of the group’s individual scores.This means that the total score for each person is dependent upon the others in the group. To be most successful, communicate with your group early on and commit to a schedule. NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 8 Student Name:_______________________________ Date:__________________________ 1.Presentation (Adherence to time guidelines; organization of presentation/preparedness; effectiveness of oral presentation (delivered without excessive note reading; effective use of visual aids/ability to interest audience) Poor Adequate Good Very Good Excellent 0-1 2 3 4 5 2.Ability to critically evaluate scientific research Unacceptable/Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent No attempt to evaluate study or evaluative statements unsupported or inappropriate Student’s opinion of the article is not clear; critical thinking is not evident Student’s opinion of the article is stated, along with critical evaluation of the article’s premise and/or argument, but some significant points are overlooked Includes critical thinking that clearly states the student’s opinion and some evaluation of the article’s premise and/or arguments but overlooks some points Includes critical thinking that clearly states the student’s informed and substantiated opinion, thorough evaluation of the article’s premise, and supporting points 0-1 2-3 4-6 7-9 10 3.Ability to define/demonstrate practical application of material Unacceptable/Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent No attempt made to describe context of study or practical application of material Attempt made to discuss practical application but missed the mark Good attempt made to discuss practical application but could be improved Practical application of material clearly described Practical application of material very clearly described by providing a number of examples 0 1 2 3 4 4. Appropriateness of nutrition/fitness article Poor Needs improvement Good Very good Excellent 0 .5 1.5 1.75 2 5. Ability to compare/contrast article with other group articles, contribution to group summary/conclusions and “take away” Poor Below average Average Very good Excellent Student fails to mention how article compares and contrasts with others’ article; demonstrates low or non-existent level of understanding regarding how article chosen fits in with other articles; fails to include article in introduction and conclusion. Student fails to mention how article compares and contrasts with others’ article or does not correctly put article in context; demonstrates low level of understanding regarding how article chosen fits in with other articles; fails to include article in introduction and conclusion Student does an adequate job explaining how article compares and contrasts with others’ article; demonstrates average level of understanding regarding how article chosen fits in with other articles; fails to include article in introduction and/or conclusion. Student does a very good job explaining how article compares and contrasts with others’ article; demonstrates good but not great level of understanding regarding how article chosen fits in with other articles; includes article in introduction and conclusion. Student does an excellent and thorough job explaining how article compares and contrasts with others’ article; demonstrates high level of understanding regarding how article chosen fits in with other articles; includes article in introduction and conclusion. 0 1 2 3 4 Total Points – Individual__________ / 25 Total Points – Group Average__________ / 25 GRAND TOTAL POINTS __________ / 50 NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 9 CONSUMER PRODUCT: FITNESS & NUTRITION Purpose of the Assignment: to evaluate an electronic advertisement in a way that the student becomes a more critical consumer. The advertisement will be evaluated by comparing the claims made in the ad to scientific evidence and research findings. Ad Selection: For Nutrition, your instructor will provide two options, along with their URLs in the Assignment itself on Canvas. You will choose which one you want to research for this paper.For Fitness, you will also be provided the URL of the fitness ad on Canvas. If you opt to do this, make sure to pick an advertisement that has some substance to it, the less the ad says, the harder it is to critique. Original advertisements should not come from library sources or magazines. Assignment Format: Page 1: Title page with the product name/advertisement Pages 2 to 4 (or 5): Consumer Product Analysis This section contains your analysis of both the ad itself and the product advertised.Evaluating the ad itself is very important however the primary purpose of this paper is evaluating the product and whether there is research to support its claims.The paper should be 3-4 pages. You should comment on the positive aspects (praise) and the negative aspects (criticism) of the ad. Your analysis should be in paragraph form, and critical comments should be well developed and substantiated (cited) by the research studies you use for this assignment. When discussing scientific articles to analyze the product, do NOT use direct quotes or copied material from the scientific articles. Instead, paraphrase the information in your own words and cite appropriately in APA format. In the text of your paper, the author & year of the scientific source should be indicated. When more than two authors are cited, “et al.,” may be used as per APA format (however, remember to include all names on Reference Page.). See example below: According to Maughan et al. (2013), creatine supplementation has been shown to significantly increase total body mass in subjects over a 4-week period. When discussing the advertisement or product description, you may make limited use of short quotations (<40 words) from the ad or product description, but they should be in APA format and cited properly with page numbers, and author/year. When critically evaluating the advertisement, comment on the text, and use of color and graphics. You need to include comments about all of the following questions: • Who appears to be the intended consumer? • What techniques are used to draw the attention of the reader? Are they successful or not? Again, consider wording, terminology, graphics and more. • Is the ad straightforward and factual? Explain. • Is any important information omitted that should be disclosed to the consumer? • What gimmicks are used to sell the product?Were the gimmicks successful? When critically evaluating the product, incorporate responses to all of the following questions but do not limit your critique to the questions below.This product evaluation should make up the majority of the paper. • Is the use of this product supported by scientific evidence?If so, are there any conflicting results among various studies? Do the subjects’ age, health condition, fitness level, etc. match those for whom the ad is directed? Were there limitations and/or flaws in these studies? Describe the studies, NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 10 in your own words, to defend your statements and give evidence for or against the claims made in the ad. • What, if any, contribution would the consumption or use of the product make to the nutrient intake, physique, or fitness level of the intended consumer? • How much does the product cost?Could some less expensive product be used to obtain the same results? If so, what? • What hazards/adverse effects might be associated with the use of this product? Are there any conditions (e.g., medical, age-related) that would contraindicate the use of the product? The Consumer Product paper is aimed to analyze the product and provide research studies to demonstrate support, or lack thereof, of the product’s claims. This might necessitate a detailed discussion of the study if relevant to the product directly. You should avoid summarizing the studies independent from one another and the product. Page 5 or 6:References This is a separate page and should be headed “References” at the top center of the page. List the source of the advertisement, and alphabetically list the references used to support your evaluation. Do not alphabetize “within” each reference by changing the original order of authors. However, alphabetize your order among the various references, using the last name of the 1 st author of each reference. You may use the course textbooks. However, in addition, you must use at least 3 other reliable (peer reviewed) journal references to support your analysis. References need to be current (published within the last 10 years) and must be cited in the evaluation. Give the full publication information of each reference used, including all author(s), title of article and journal or title of book, year of publication, volume or edition, and page number(s). Indentation - Although the current Publication Manual advises standard (five spaces, first line) indentation for the reference list, this is primarily designed to make typesetting easier; the typeset version will have hanging indents (first line flush left, following lines five spaces indent). We recommend for this paper that you use hanging indents for enhanced readability. We have formatted our sample references list with hanging indents. Capitalization - Capitalize only the first word of book titles and articles and the first word after a colon. However, for name of journals, capitalize first letter of all major words. Punctuation - Use a comma to separate: • Surnames from initials • A journal title from volume number • A volume number from page numbers • When given, an issue number from page numbers • (Ed.) from book title • City of publication from state Spacing - All entries (the entire page) should be double-spaced. NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 11 References should be completed in American Psychological Association (APA) format. See examples below. Journal article: Volek, J. S., Duncan, N. D., Mazetti, S. A., Putukian, M., Gomez, A. L., & Kraemer, W. J. (2000). No effect of heavy resistance training and creatine supplementation on blood lipids. International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 10, 144-156.doi:134-5678-321 Book (other than first edition): Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2005). Understanding nutrition (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Article or chapter in edited book: Eiser, S., Redpath, A., & Rogers, N. (1987).Outcomes of early parenting: Knowns and unknowns. In A. P. Kern & L. S. Maze (Eds.), Logical thinking in children (pp. 58-87). New York: Springer. Electronic Reference (see note of caution below): Mack, G. W., & Bergeron, M. F. (May 30, 1997). Hydration and physical activity: Scientific concepts and practical applications. Retrieved from: http://www.gssiweb.com/hydr.html Quality of References:Acceptable references include any reliable, professional, nutrition, physical education, sports medicine, or scientific journal or book.Unacceptable references include popular magazines (e.g., Runner’s World, American Health, Prevention, Muscle and Fitness), blogs or influencers’ posts, or popular books (The Zone Diet, 50 Ways to Stay Fit on a Busy Schedule, Total-Life Exercise Book).If you are unsure of the reliability of a reference, check with your instructor! Refer to the syllabus for a partial list of acceptable periodicals and on-line resources. You may contact our reference librarian to make an appointment at the library for help in using the databases and searching for appropriate references.See the course syllabus for contact information. Use of WWW pages: The World Wide Web (The Internet) is an unmonitored, un-refereed source of information. Consequently, information may be accurate or inaccurate, and each page must be judged for accuracy and reliability. Authoritative web pages are written by individuals with appropriate credentials (e.g., Ph.D., R.D., M.D., etc.) and should cite references used to write the page. Pages that are sponsored or maintained by the seller of a product are most often biased toward the product and should be read with this in mind. We highly recommend that you only use journal articles (or articles coming from professional sources). Again, if you are unsure of the reliability of the source, check with your instructor. General Paper Form and Style Guidelines: Your paper must: • Be written in narrative, paragraph format, typed and double spaced • Be written in the 3rd person (do not use first or second person, such as “we”, “I” or “you”) • Be written in the past tense when describing the research study NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 12 • Not use direct quotations or copied material from the scientific sources • Be in a font size that is New York Times 12 point or similar size (easy to read) • Be left justified (do not right justify/align, which centers the text) • Have 1-inch margins all around • Have numbered pages • Be submitted in the manner requested by your instructor NUFS/KIN 163 - Physical Fitness and Nutrition, Spring 2022, San Jose State University Revised 012422 13 Name ________________________________________ CONSUMER PRODUCT GRADING SHEET Format/appearance/organization/complete information APA format PoorVery Good 0-1 2 3.5 4 5 References (number and quality) PoorVery Good 0-1 2 3.5 4 5 Use of references in paper (appropriate citations for all references) PoorVery Good 0-1 2 3.5 4 5 Quality of writing (syntax, grammar, spelling) PoorVery Good 0-5 6 7-8 9 10 Critical evaluation of advertisement (text, color, graphics) PoorVery Good 0-5 6 7-8 9 10 Critical evaluation of product (how claims of ad relate to scientific evidence) PoorVery Good 0-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 Subtotal: ___________ Deductions (if late): ___________* * 2.5 points deducted for each calendar day or partial day late Total Score: ___________ Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Experimental Gerontology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/expgero Effect of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults Sarah Johannsmeyer a, Darren G. Candow a,⁎, C. Markus Brahms a, Deborah Michel b, Gordon A. Zello b a Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Canada b College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Canada ⁎ Corresponding author at: Faculty of Kinesiology & Hea 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada. E-mail address: Darren.Candow@uregina.ca (D.G. Can http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.08.005 0531-5565/© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 15 June 2016 Received in revised form 4 August 2016 Accepted 10 August 2016 Available online 11 August 2016 Section Editor: Christiaan Leeuwenburgh Objective: To investigate the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: Creatine (CR: n = 14, 7 females, 7 males; 58.0 ± 3.0 yrs, 0.1 g/kg/day of creatine + 0.1 g/kg/day of maltodextrin) or Placebo (PLA: n = 17, 7 females, 10 males; age: 57.6 ± 5.0 yrs, 0.2 g/kg/day of maltodextrin) during 12 weeks of drop-set resistance training (3 days/week; 2 sets of leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down exercises performed to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-repetition maximum [1-RM] immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM). Methods: Prior to and following training and supplementation, assessments were made for body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, tasks of functionality, muscle protein catabolism and diet. Results: Drop-set resistance training improved muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle endurance and tasks of functionality (p b 0.05). The addition of creatine to drop-set resistance training significantly increased body mass (p = 0.002) and muscle mass (p = 0.007) compared to placebo. Males on creatine increased muscle strength (lat pull-down only) to a greater extent than females on creatine (p = 0.005). Creatine enabled males to resistance train at a greater capacity over time compared to males on placebo (p = 0.049) and females on cre- atine (p = 0.012). Males on creatine (p = 0.019) and females on placebo (p = 0.014) decreased 3-MH compared to females on creatine. Conclusions: The addition of creatine to drop-set resistance training augments the gains in muscle mass from re- sistance training alone. Creatine is more effective in untrained aging males compared to untrained aging females. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sarcopenia Muscle mass Strength Endurance Muscle protein catabolism 1. Introduction The age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle performance has a negative effect on physical function (Balagopal et al., 1997), which sub- sequently decreases the ability to perform activities of daily living (Manini and Clark, 2013). Two interventions which may benefit aging individuals are creatine supplementation and resistance training (for reviews see Candow et al., 2014; Devries and Phillips, 2014; Gualano et al., 2016). Creatine has been shown to increase intramuscular total creatine (i.e. free creatine and PCr) in aging adults (Brose et al., 2003). The increase in high energy phosphates could allow one to train with a greater volume of resistance training leading to an increase in muscle mass (Chrusch et al., 2001). Furthermore, creatine may have a direct ef- fect on muscle biology by influencing cellular hydration status (Balsom et al., 1995), satellite cell activity (Olsen et al., 2006), anabolic hormone production (i.e. IGF-1) (Burke et al., 2008; Deldicque et al., 2005), myo- genic regulatory transcription factors (Hespel et al., 2001; Willoughby lth Studies, University of Regina, dow). and Rosene, 2003) and muscle protein kinetics (Candow et al., 2008; Parise et al., 2001; Safdar et al., 2008). Speculation exists that the age-related loss of muscle mass is partial- ly caused by an attenuated response to resistance training (Breen and Phillips, 2011). Therefore, a greater volume of resistance training may be needed to produce significant muscle accretion and strength gains in aging individuals. One potential strategy which may help increase the volume of resistance training performed and subsequently benefit aging muscle is combining heavy loads with light loads in each working set. Young adults who performed 3 sets of light load resistance training (30% 1-RM to muscle fatigue) experienced similar gains in muscle mass compared to 3 sets of heavy load resistance training (80% 1-RM to mus- cle fatigue) after 10 weeks (Mitchell et al., 2012). However, the 80% 1- RM group had superior muscle strength compared to the 30% 1-RM group. In postmenopausal women, 3 sets of light load training (30% 1- RM to muscle fatigue) for 10 weeks produced significant gains in muscle mass and strength (Weisgarber et al., 2015). Results across studies indi- cate that heavy load (80% baseline 1-RM) and light load (30% baseline 1- RM) resistance training increases muscle size and strength. Since aging is characterized by a loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, it is plausible that a resistance training program which combines heavy http://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.exger.2016.08.005&domain=pdf http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.08.005 mailto:Darren.Candow@uregina.ca http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2016.08.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/05315565 www.elsevier.com/locate/expgero 113S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 and light loads (80% baseline 1-RM + 30% baseline 1-RM) in the same training set (i.e. drop-set) may benefit aging adults. Based on the potential of creatine for increasing aging muscle mass, strength (for reviews see Candow et al., 2014; Gualano et al., 2016; Devries and Phillips, 2014) and muscle performance (i.e. number of rep- etitions at a specific percentage of maximal strength) (Rawson and Volek, 2003), the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training to placebo and drop-set resistance training in untrained healthy aging adults. It was hypothesized that creatine supplementation during drop-set resis- tance training would increase muscle mass, upper and lower body mus- cle strength and endurance, functionality and decrease muscle protein catabolism compared to placebo during drop-set resistance training. 2. Methods 2.1. Experimental design and participants The study was a double-blind, repeated measures design. In order to minimize differences between groups at baseline, participants were matched according to gender, age, weight, height and baseline physical activity status. After exclusion criteria were applied, participants were randomized using a computer generated schedule on a 1:1 basis to sup- plement with creatine monohydrate (CR) or placebo (PLA) during 12 weeks of drop-set resistance training. A research assistant, who was not involved in any other aspect of the study, was responsible for randomization. The primary dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the intervention included: (1) body composition (muscle mass, fat mass), (2) muscle strength (1-RM for the leg press, chest press, hack squat, and lat pull-down exercise), (3) muscle endurance (leg press and chest press exercises; maximal number of repetitions performed at 80% and 70% baseline 1-RM respectively), (4) tasks of functionality (walking speed, balance, hand grip strength) and (5) uri- nary excretion of 3-methylhistidine (indicator of muscle protein catab- olism). In addition, participants filled out a 3-day food diary during the first and final week of training to determine whether total energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake changed over time. Forty participants (21 males, 19 females) volunteered to participate in the study. Both males and females were included to increase the im- pact of the study findings to the general population. Females were post- menopausal for at least 1 year (defined as having their last menstrual cycle ≥ 1 year prior to the start of the study). Participants were required to fill out a leisure time exercise questionnaire at the start of the study, which indicated the average number of times they performed strenuous (i.e. heart beats rapidly), moderate (i.e. not exhausting) and mild exer- cise (i.e. minimal effort) per week (Godin and Shephard, 1985). Partic- ipants also filled out a Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR- Q+), which assessed their ability to participate in the resistance train- ing program. If a participant indicated a contraindication to exercise, they were required to get medical clearance before starting the study. Participants were excluded if they had taken medications that affect muscle biology (i.e. corticosteroids) or creatine monohydrate ≤ 12 weeks prior to the start of the study; if they had a his- tory of fragility fractures; diseases that affect muscle biology (i.e. Crohn's Disease), if they suffered from severe osteoarthritis; if they had participated in moderate-vigorous resistance training (≥3 times per week) for 6 weeks prior to the start of the study; if they were vege- tarian; if they were planning to travel during the study period for N2 weeks at a time or if they had pre-existing kidney or liver abnormalities. Participants were instructed not to change their dietary habits, en- gage in any additional physical activity that was not part of their normal daily routine or consume non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during the study as these interventions can affect muscle protein synthesis (Trappe et al., 2002). The Research Ethics Board at the University of Regina approved the study and participants were informed of the risks and purposes of the study before their written consent was obtained. 2.2. Creatine supplementation and blinding procedures Creatine (Creapure® AlzChem Trostberg GmbH, Germany) and pla- cebo (Globe Plus 10 DE Maltodextrin, Univar Canada) were adminis- tered in powder form. The creatine supplementation dosage was 0.1 g/kg/day which has previously been shown to be effective for in- creasing muscle mass in aging adults without resulting in adverse events (Candow et al., 2015, 2008). Creatine was mixed with equal parts maltodextrin (0.1 g/kg/day creatine + 0.1 g/kg/day maltodextrin) and the placebo group received 0.2 g/kg/day maltodextrin so the pow- ders were identical in taste, texture, color and appearance. Contents of the creatine monohydrate powder were verified by testing in an inde- pendent laboratory (The Cary Company, Addison IL, USA; creatine purity N 99.9%). On training days, participants consumed half their sup- plement immediately before and half immediately after each exercise session. Creatine supplementation immediately before and immediate- ly after resistance training sessions has a positive effect on muscle mass (Candow et al., 2014), strength (Candow et al., 2015) and muscle pro- tein catabolism in aging adults (Candow et al., 2014). On non-training days, participants were instructed to ingest one third of their daily sup- plement with each meal (i.e. breakfast, lunch, dinner) as creatine reten- tion has been shown to be higher if co-ingested with insulin-simulating nutrients (i.e., glucose or protein) (Jäger et al., 2011). An individual not involved in any other aspect of the study was responsible for mixing and packaging up the supplements in plastic bags and preparing individual study kits. Each study kit contained the participants' supplement for the duration of the study, detailed supplementation instructions, and measuring spoons. Participants were instructed to mix their supple- ment in water but not caffeinated beverages as this has been shown to decrease the ergogenic effects of creatine (Vandenberghe et al., 1996). A retrospective treatment identification questionnaire was adminis- tered to all participants upon completion of the study in order to assess whether participants thought they were administered creatine, placebo, or unsure about what supplement they consumed. 2.3. Drop-set resistance training program Prior to the start of supplementation, participants became familiar with the resistance training equipment. The resistance training equip- ment consisted of four machine-based exercises, which included two upper body exercises (chest press, lat pull-down) and two lower body exercises (hack squat, leg press) using Atlantis® (Precision Series) and Equalizer machines in the Fitness and Lifestyle Centre at the University of Regina. Familiarization 1-RM strength testing was performed for each exer- cise. Following a 5-minute warm-up on a stationary cycle ergometer at a self-selected intensity, participants performed two warm-up sets of each exercise to be tested in the following order: 1 set of 10 repetitions using a load, which was determined by each participant to be comfort- able and 1 set of 5 repetitions using a heavier weight. Two-minutes after the warm-up sets, the load was progressively increased for each subse- quent 1-RM attempt. Participants rested (passively) at least 2 min be- tween 1-RM attempts. All participants reached their 1-RM in 6 sets or less. 5 min of passive rest separated each 1-RM assessment between dif- ferent muscle groups. The first training session of the familiarization phase (5 sessions) was directly supervised by a researcher, blinded to group allocation. Subsequent familiarization and study training sessions were indirected supervised by staff in the Fitness and Lifestyle Centre, University of Re- gina. During the familiarization phase, participants were properly shown how to use the equipment and perform repetitions to muscle fa- tigue using 80% and 30% of their familiarization 1-RM. During the first two familiarization sessions, participants performed 1 set of drop-set 114 S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 resistance training for each exercise in the following order: leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down. In the subsequent familiariza- tion sessions, participants performed 2 sets of drop-set resistance train- ing for each exercise. An important aspect of the resistance training program was that all sets were performed to muscle fatigue (defined as the inability to perform the concentric phase of a muscle contraction; Candow et al., 2011). Baseline 1-RM strength testing was performed no earlier than 48 h after the last familiarization session. The same re- searcher, blinded to group allocation, performed all assessments. During the study, participants exercised 3 days/week, on non-consecutive days, to reduce the risk of injury. Participants performed 2 sets of drop-set re- sistance training for the leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull- down exercises. Each set consisted of performing repetitions to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-RM immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM (Fig. 1). The training load did not change during the 12 weeks of training and supplementation, as the purpose of the study was to overload the upper and lower body muscu- lature by increasing the number of repetitions performed to muscle fa- tigue. Participants filled out training logs so that resistance training volume (weight × sets × repetitions) and progression could be deter- mined. Only complete muscle contractions were used in the training volume calculations. Participants were contacted every second week by email to help ensure exercise and supplementation adherence. Addi- tionally, personal meetings were arranged and supervised training ses- sions were offered throughout the program if required. 2.4. Body composition Whole-body muscle mass and fat mass were assessed by dual-ener- gy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) using a Hologic® Discovery™ system. Participants were instructed to refrain from intense physical activity for 24 h and food and drink for 3 h prior to their DXA scan. Before scan- ning, participants were required to remove all objects containing metal (i.e. jewelry, glasses, clothing with buttons, and/or zippers). Nuclear Medicine Technologists performed the scans at baseline and at the end of the study. The coefficients of variation were 0.15% for muscle mass and 0.33% for fat mass. 2.5. Strength and endurance Leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down strength and leg press and chest press endurance was assessed using a standard testing protocol. Seat position and settings were recorded for each participant to ensure consistency between pre- and post-testing. Muscle strength and endurance was assessed in the following order: (1) leg press strength, (2) chest press strength, (3) hack squat strength, (4) lat pull- down strength, (5) leg press endurance, (6) chest press endurance. 5 min of passive rest separated each assessment and the time of day and order of tests was identical at the beginning and end of the study. A horizontal, bilateral leg press machine with backrest placed in a seated position was used to measure 1-RM leg press strength and en- durance. Following a demonstration, participants were positioned in the leg press machine so that a 90° angle at the knees was achieved and feet placed shoulder width part. The starting position was near Fig. 1. Description of th full leg extension, with knees slightly bent. Participants were instructed to perform the contraction to a knee flexion of 90°, without putting the load down at the end of the movement, followed by a full extension back to starting position. The coefficient of variation was 0.30%. The 1-RM test for the hack squat was similar to that of the leg press. The same bilateral, horizontal leg press machine was used but the back- rest was adjusted to a supine position. Following a demonstration, par- ticipants were positioned in the hack squat to a 90° knee and hip angle. Feet were placed shoulder width apart. The starting position was near full leg extension. Participants were instructed to slowly flex their knees to a 90° angle and then push the load back to full leg extension without locking the knees. The coefficient of variation was 0.41%. For chest press 1-RM and endurance, participants were positioned in a vertical bilateral chest press machine with both feet placed on the floor. Following a demonstration, participants were instructed not to lift their hips off the bench or arch their back during the lift. Participants were positioned in the chest press machine so that the adjacent bars lined up mid-chest level. Participants were instructed to grasp the bars (overhand grip) approximately shoulder width apart and push the load away from the body until full extension without locking the el- bows and then lower the load back to the starting position. The coeffi- cient of variation was 0.46%. The 1-RM strength test for the lat pull-down was conducted on a lat pull-down cable pulley machine. Following a demonstration, partici- pants were instructed to grasp the bar (overhand grip) slightly wider than shoulder width apart, sit down and then tuck their legs under the thigh-pads for support. Participants pulled the bar down to their chin and then slowly returned the load to the starting position without locking the elbows. Shoulders remained stable and torso slightly arched during the exercise. The coefficient of variation was 0.45%. 2.6. Functionality Handgrip strength was assessed using a handgrip dynamometer (Jamar® Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer by Sammons Preston Rolyan). The test was conducted in an upright standing position and the arm to be tested was flexed at a 90° angle with the elbow by the side of the body. Grip width was adjusted to the participants' hand size. Partici- pants were instructed to squeeze the dynamometer with maximal iso- metric effort for 3 s. Participants performed one practice trial, followed by two test trials for each hand with 1 min rest between trials. The highest value produced from each hand was recorded. The coefficient of variation was 0.34%. Dynamic balance was assessed by recording the time it took partic- ipants to perform backward tandem walking (i.e. toe to heel) over a dis- tance of 6 m on a 10 cm-wide board that was raised about 4 cm off the ground. The coefficient of variation was 0.36%. Additionally, the number of errors (i.e. number of times the participant stepped off the walking board) during the test was recorded. Participants performed one prac- tice trial, followed by two test trials, for which the average time and er- rors were recorded. Walking speed was assessed by the time required to walk an 80 m course on an indoor track as fast as possible. The coeffi- cient of variation was 1.26%. e training protocol. 115S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 2.7. Muscle protein catabolism For the measurement of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), an indicator of muscle protein catabolism, urine was collected during the last 24 h of a 72 h meat free diet (not protein free) immediately before and imme- diately after the study. A meat-free diet was implemented because meat consumption increases urinary 3-MH values and may falsely represent an increase in myofibrillar protein turnover (Lukaski et al., 1981). The urine collection procedure was to discard the first urination upon wak- ing in the morning and then collect all urinations for 24 h, including the first urination upon waking the following morning. Participants were instructed to store their specimen in a cold place or fridge during the 24 h urine collection. After completing the 24 h urine collection, partic- ipants recorded the total urine volume (ml) and poured off two aliquots into vials, which were then sealed in a plastic bag. The vials were stored in a freezer at −20°C until analyzed. The concentration of 3-MH was measured using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) (Agilent) (Rathmacher et al., 1992). The daily amount of 3-MH excreted by each participant was determined by multiplying the concentration by the 24 h urine volume. This amount of 3-MH was then expressed rel- ative to lean tissue mass (nmol/kg LTM). The coefficient of variation was 0.50%. 2.8. Diet Dietary intake was recorded during the first and final week of sup- plementation and resistance training to assess differences in total ener- gy and macronutrient composition between groups. Participants used a 3 day food booklet to record food intake for two weekdays and one weekend day. Participants were instructed to record all food items, in- cluding portion sizes consumed for the three designated days. 2.9. Adverse events In the case of an adverse event, participants were asked to complete an adverse event form in order to provide details on the type of adverse event, the severity (i.e. mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening), the frequency, and the relationship to the intervention (i.e. not related, un- likely, possible, probable, or definite). 2.10. Sample size estimation and statistical analyses A priori power analysis (G*Power v. 3.1.5.1) showed that 34 partici- pants were required. This calculation was based on a moderate effect size (Cohen's d = 0.25), an alpha level of 0.05, a β-value of 0.8 for a re- peated measures: within-between interactions, ANOVA approach (Faul et al., 2007). A 2 (group: CR vs. PLA) × 2 (gender: males vs. females) × 2 (time: pre- vs. post-training) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine differences between groups and gender over time for the dependent variables of body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, hand grip strength, walk- ing speed, 3-MH, diet and training volume progression. If significant main effects or interactions were found, simple main effects analysis followed using Tukey's post hoc tests or t-tests, file splitting and profile plots. A t-test was used to assess baseline characteristics and average total training volume between groups. Significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05 and all results are expressed as means ± standard deviation. The magnitude of the differ- ence between significant means was determined by eta squared (η2). This is a measure of the effect size and therefore of the proportion of the total variance that can be explained by the effects of the treatment. A η2 value of 0.15 represents large differences, 0.06 represents medium differences, and 0.01 represents small differences. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM® SPSS® Statistics, v. 21. 3. Results 3.1. Participants and adverse events Of the forty participants who volunteered for the study, 3 partici- pants (2 male, 1 female) did not meet the inclusion criteria and 1 partic- ipant (male) withdrew because of time constraints. Thirty-six participants started the familiarization phase with 3 participants (fe- males) withdrawing because of knee pain, shoulder problems and time constrains. Therefore, thirty-three participants started the supplementation and resistance training portion of the study. Two participants (1 male, 1 female) then withdrew because of health issues that were unrelated to the study (see Fig. 2 for a summary of recruitment, allocation and analysis). Thirty-one participants completed the study. There were no significant differences between the CR and PLA groups at baseline for age, body weight, height, or physical activity status (Table 1). Following the 12 weeks of supplementation and training, 5 par- ticipants in the creatine group correctly guessed they were receiving creatine, 6 participants incorrectly guessed and 3 participants did not know. In the PLA group, 6 participants correctly guessed they were receiving placebo, 4 participants incorrectly guessed and 6 par- ticipants did not know. Supplementation compliance, based on participant's entries in their logs, was similar between the CR and PLA group (98% for both groups). Twenty-six participants (CR = 12, PLA = 14) were able to provide urine samples at the beginning and end of the study for determination of 3-MH. Twenty-nine partic- ipants (CR = 14, PLA = 15) were able to provide 3 day food records at the beginning and end of the study. There were no serious adverse events reported over time. How- ever, as expected, most participants experienced muscle soreness in the first few weeks of training. One participant in the PLA group reported back strain during the familiarization phase and did not perform the hack squat during the 12 week study. Another partici- pant was diagnosed with a torn shoulder muscle at the beginning of the study, which was likely related to a past shoulder injury. Two subjects in the PLA group reported gastrointestinal distress at the beginning of the supplementation. One participant in the CR group reported increased sweating/hot flashes while working out as well as during the day. 3.2. Body composition There was a significant gender main effect (p = 0.003, η2 = 0.28) and a group × time interaction for body weight (p = 0.002; η2 = 0.31). The CR group experienced a significant increase in body weight over time (pre: 78.3 ± 17.3 kg, post: 80.0 ± 18.3 kg) with no change for the PLA group (pre: 81.8 ± 18.9, post: 81.2 ± 18.4 kg). There was a significant time main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.54), gen- der main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.66) and a group × time interaction for muscle mass (p = 0.007, η2 = 0.24). The CR group increased muscle mass more than the PLA group (Fig. 3). Both groups experienced a de- crease in fat mass over time (p = 0.002, η2 = 0.30) (CR: pre: 27.2 ± 9.5 kg, post: 25.9 ± 9.3 kg; PLA: pre: 27.8 ± 9.0 kg, post: 26.3 ± 8.8 kg), with no differences between groups or gender. 3.3. Muscle strength and endurance There was a time main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.78) and gender main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.61) for leg press strength and hack squat strength (time main effect: p b 0.001, η2 = 0.70; gender main effect: p = 0.001, η2 = 0.38), with no differences between groups over time. Similar to leg press and hack squat strength, there was a time main ef- fect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.76) and gender main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.65) for chest press strength. There was also a gender × time interac- tion (p = 0.005, η2 = 0.27). Both males and females increased chest Fig. 2. Summary of recruitment, allocation and analyses. 116 S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 press strength over time (p b 0.001) but the change was greater in males (pre: 82.3 ± 21.6 kg, post: 100.3 ± 26.9 kg) compared to females (pre: 37.7 ± 10.2 kg, post: 46.7 ± 11.0 kg). Regarding lat pull-down strength, there was a time main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.82), gender main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.82), gender × time interaction (p = 0.005, η2 = 0.28) and a Table 1 Subject characteristics at baseline for the CR group and PLA group. Group Age Mass Height Training status (years) (kg) (cm) Mild/moderate/strenuous exercise (times/week) CR (n = 14) 58.0 ± 3.0 78.3 ± 17.3 168.2 ± 9.1 3.6 ± 3.1/1.9 ± 2.2/2.3 ± 1.3 PLA (n = 17) 57.6 ± 5.0 81.8 ± 18.9 171.7 ± 12.6 4.0 ± 5.7/3.1 ± 2.8/2.1 ± 2.1 Values are means ± standard deviation. group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.049, η2 = 0.15). Both males and females increased lat pull-down strength over time (p b 0.001) but the change was greater in males (pre: 80.4 ± 12.5 kg, post: 93.0 ± 15.1 kg) compared to females (pre: 38.8 ± 7.7 kg, post: 45.7 ± 8.7 kg). Splitting the file by group showed that males on creatine increased lat pull-down strength more (pre: 81.8 ± 12.8 kg, post: 98.0 ± 17.2 kg, p = 0.005) than females on creatine (pre: 39.3 ± 5.9 kg, post: 45.8 ± 7.2 kg) with no differences between males and fe- males on placebo (Males: pre: 79.2 ± 12.9 kg, post: 88.6 ± 12.5 kg; Fe- males: pre: 38.2 ± 9.7 kg, post: 45.6 ± 10.6 kg). Splitting the file by gender showed that there were no significant differences between males or females on creatine or placebo. There was a trend (p = 0.053) for males in the CR group to have greater lat pull-down strength (pre: 81.8 ± 12.8 kg, post: 98.0 ± 17.2 kg) compared to males on place- bo (pre: 79.2 ± 12.9 kg, post: 88.6 ± 12.5 kg). There was a time main effect for leg press (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.77), and chest press endurance (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.72), with no differences be- tween groups or gender (see Table 2). Fig. 3. Lean tissue mass before and after 12 weeks of resistance training and supplementation for the CR and PLA groups. Values are mean ± standard deviation. *Significantly different after training (p b 0.05). **Indicates that the CR group increased lean tissue mass more than the PLA group (p = 0.007). 117S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 3.4. Tests of functionality There was a time main effect for the number of errors (p = 0.042, η2 = 0.15) and time taken to finish the balance board test (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.70). In addition, there was a group × time interaction for the time taken to finish the balance board test (p = 0.032, η2 = 0.16). Both groups improved performance over time but the magnitude of change was greater in the placebo group (pre: 32.8 ± 12.7 s, post: 22.7 ± 10.9 s) compared to the creatine group (pre: 28.3 ± 9.0 s, post: 22.8 ± 9.0 s). There was a time main effect (p = 0.013, η2 = 0.21) and gender main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.71) for hand-grip strength and walking time (time main effect: p b 0.001, η2 = 0.42; gen- der main effect: p = 0.039, η2 = 0.15), with no differences between groups over time (Table 3). 3.5. Urinary 3-methylhistidine There was a gender × time interaction (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.26) and a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.017, η2 = 0.23) for 3-MH. Post hoc analysis showed that males experienced a significant decrease in 3-MH over time compared to an increase for females (Fig. 4). Splitting the file by gender showed that females on creatine increased 3-MH ex- cretion over time, whereas females on placebo decreased 3-MH (p = Table 2 Muscle strength (1-RM) for the leg press, hack squat, chest press and lat pull down exercise and press and 70% baseline 1-RM for chest press) before and after 12 weeks of supplementation an 1-RM strength (kg) CR group Exercise Pre Post % p-V Leg press 117.5 ± 37.0 145.2 ± 37.0 23.6 b0. Hack squat 100.0 ± 37.3 121.6 ± 46.1 21.6 b0. Chest press 62.0 ± 27.4 77.3 ± 32.8 24.7 b0. Lat pull-down 60.6 ± 24.0 71.9 ± 29.9 18.6 b0. Endurance (number of repetitions) CR group Exercise Pre Post % p-Val Leg press 10.9 ± 4.1 24.2 ± 9.1 122.0 b0.00 Chest press 11.1 ± 2.3 22.6 ± 7.4 103.6 b0.00 Values are mean ± standard deviation. % = percent change over time. 0.014). There were no differences between males on creatine or place- bo. Splitting the file by group showed that males on creatine decreased 3-MH compared to an increase for females on creatine (p = 0.019) with no differences between males and females in the placebo group. 3.6. Training volume and progression Average total training volume per session (across 4 exercises) was similar between the CR group (12,961.5 ± 6656.9 kg) and the PLA group (13,426.5 ± 4624.6 kg). There were no differences in average training volume between groups for the leg press (CR: 5007.5 ± 3015.3 kg, PLA: 5084.9 ± 2636.5 kg), chest press (CR: 2046.6 ± 972.7 kg, PLA: 2219.9 ± 810.2 kg), hack squat (CR: 3556.1 ± 1835.8 kg, PLA: 3838.5 ± 1700.3 kg) or lat-pull down exercise (CR: 2351.5 ± 1010.4 kg, PLA: 2283.1 ± 712.4 kg). Regarding the change in training volume from week 1 (average of the first three training sessions) to week 12 (average of the last three training sessions), there was a significant time main effect (p b 0.001, η2 = 0.77), gender main effect (p = 0.002, η2 = 0.33), gender × time interaction (p = 0.005, η2 = 0.27) and group × gender × time interac- tion (p = 0.043, η2 = 0.15). The change in training volume from week 1 to week 12 was greater in males compared to females. Splitting the file by gender showed that males on creatine progressed at a faster rate compared to males on placebo (p = 0.049). There were no differences in training volume progression between females on creatine or placebo. Splitting the file by group showed that males on creatine progressed with a greater volume of training compared to females on creatine (p = 0.012) with no differences between males and females on placebo. Compared to week 1 (average of the first three training sessions), the creatine group performed (on average) 61 more repetitions at 80% base- line 1-RM (CR-males: 71, CR-females: 50) and 79 more repetitions (CR- males: 107, CR-females: 50) at 30% baseline 1-RM after 12 weeks of training (average of last three training sessions). Compared to week 1 (average of first three training sessions), the placebo group performed (on average) 40 more repetitions at 80% baseline 1-RM (PLA-males: 37, PLA-females: 44) and 72 repetitions at 30% baseline 1-RM (PLA- males: 66, PLA-females: 77) after 12 weeks of training. 3.7. Diet There was a group × gender × time interaction for carbohydrate in- take (p = 0.022, η2 = 0.19). Splitting the file by gender showed that males in the CR group increased carbohydrate intake over time (pre: 250.1 ± 32.3 g, post: 319.1 ± 105.7 g), whereas males in the PLA group decreased carbohydrate intake (pre: 239.0 ± 121.6 g, post: 207.4 ± 100.2 g). There was no change in fat intake between groups or gender during the study (p = 0.055). There was a gender main effect for protein (p = 0.009, η2 = 0.24) and caloric intake (p = 0.023, η2 = 0.19), with males consuming more protein (pre: 103.0 ± 32.0, post: endurance measurements (repetitions to volitional fatigue with 80% baseline 1-RM for leg d high-low resistance training. PLA group alue Pre Post % p-Value 001 126.2 ± 32.9 162.0 ± 40.0 28.4 b0.001 001 102.8 ± 35.1 120.3 ± 36.7 17.0 b0.001 001 61.1 ± 29.8 73.6 ± 36.3 20.5 b0.001 001 60.1 ± 23.9 68.5 ± 24.9 14.0 b0.001 PLA group ue Pre Post % p-Value 1 10.6 ± 3.4 25.2 ± 9.7 137.7 b0.001 1 15.5 ± 7.0 27.5 ± 15.6 77.4 b0.001 Table 3 Functionality tests (balance test, handgrip strength and walking speed) before and after 12 weeks of supplementation and high-low resistance training. Functionality tests CR group PLA group Pre Post % p-Value Pre Post % p-Value Balance time (sec) 28.3 ± 9.0 22.8 ± 9.0 19.4 0.002 32.8 ± 12.7 22.7 ± 10.9⁎ 30.8 b0.001 Balance errors (steps off the board) 2.3 ± 2.1 1.9 ± 1.8 17.4 0.317 2.1 ± 3.2 1.4 ± 2.6 33.3 0.037 Handgrip strength (kg) 40.1 ± 11.9 41.0 ± 12.8 2.2 0.054 40.0 ± 10.6 41.4 ± 11.1 3.5 0.058 80 m walking time (sec) 38.2 ± 4.6 37.1 ± 4.3 2.9 0.045 36.2 ± 5.7 33.9 ± 6.6 6.4 0.001 Values are mean ± standard deviation. % = percent change over time. ⁎ Indicates PLA had greater improvements in balance time vs. CR (p b 0.032). 118 S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 108.8 ± 34.3 g) and having higher total calorie intake (pre: 2186.3 ± 727.2 kcal, post: 2401.5 ± 859.5 kcal) than females (Protein: pre: 83.1 g ± 14.6 g, post: 80.7 ± 13.8 g; Total calories: pre: 1798.1 ± 231.8 kcal, post: 1802.9 ± 367.1 kcal). Total calorie and macronutrients intake between groups over time is shown in Table 4. 4. Discussion This is the first study to examine the effects of creatine supplemen- tation and drop-set resistance training in aging adults. Results showed that drop-set resistance training increased muscle mass, strength, en- durance, and tasks of functionality and creatine supplementation aug- mented the gains in muscle mass and strength (lat pull-down in males only) and decreased muscle protein catabolism (males only). These results are important because the reduction in muscle mass and strength with aging decreases the ability to perform activities of daily living (Manini and Clark, 2013) and improvements in muscle size may lead to greater functionality over time (Chalé et al., 2013). Creatine supplementation increased muscle mass (2.8 kg) to a great- er extent than placebo (0.9 kg). These results support the growing body of research showing a beneficial effect from creatine on aging muscle (Brose et al., 2003; Candow et al., 2015, 2014, 2008; Chrusch et al., 2001; Gotshalk et al., 2008; Tarnopolsky et al., 2007). While the mech- anisms explaining the greater increase in muscle mass from creatine re- main to be elucidated, creatine has been shown to influence intracellular osmolarity and cell swelling (Balsom et al., 1995), gene and muscle protein kinetics (Safdar et al., 2008; Willoughby and Fig. 4. 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) before and after 12 weeks of resistance training and supplementation for the CR and PLA groups. Values are mean ± standard deviation. *Indicates that males experienced a significant decrease in 3-MH over time compared to females (p = 0.010). **Indicates that females on creatine significantly increased 3-MH, whereas females on placebo decreased 3-MH over time (p = 0.014). ***Indicates a significant difference in 3-MH between men and women in the CR group over time (p = 0.019). Rosene, 2003), satellite cell proliferation and differentiation (Olsen et al., 2006), and anabolic hormone secretion (i.e. IGF-1) (Burke et al., 2008; Deldicque et al., 2005). It is possible that some of the gains in muscle mass observed in the present study were from water retention. Burke et al. (2003) observed an increase in body water retention and muscle mass after eight weeks of creatine supplementation. However, the percentage of water retention to body mass did not differ in subjects supplementing with creatine, suggesting that the increase in water re- tention corresponded to an increase in dry muscle mass. Males who supplemented with creatine experienced a decrease in urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine, an indicator of muscle protein catabolism, which supports our previous findings in aging males (Candow et al., 2014, 2008). Furthermore, Parise et al. (2001) showed that creatine decreased protein catabolism in males, not females. Re- sults across studies indicate that creatine's effect on muscle protein ca- tabolism may be gender specific. The anti-catabolic effects of creatine may have enabled males to resistance train at a greater capacity over time. The lack of response from females on creatine could involve intra- muscular creatine metabolism (Dalbo et al., 2009). Females may have higher resting intramuscular creatine levels than males (Forsberg et al., 1991) and therefore may not respond as well to creatine supplemen- tation (Tarnopolsky, 2000). Creatine supplementation augmented the gains in muscle strength (lat-pull down) in males only. This small beneficial effect could be due to exogenous creatine increasing high-energy phosphate metabolism (Brose et al., 2003; Smith et al., 1998) or calcium reuptake into the sar- coplasmic reticulum (Bazzucchi et al., 2009). Creatine had no greater ef- fect on other indices of muscle strength or tasks of functionality which could be related to the complexity of the exercises used in the resistance training program and the type, frequency and duration of the training program. Drop-set resistance training improved muscle mass, muscle perfor- mance and functionality in untrained aging adults. These results sup- port the growing body of evidence showing that heavy and light loads, performed to muscle fatigue, are beneficial (Burd et al., 2010; Mitchell et al., 2012; Weisgarber et al., 2015). For example, in postmenopausal women, significant improvements in muscle size (i.e. elbow flexors and extensors) and strength (i.e. biceps curl, leg extension, triceps ex- tension) were observed after 10 weeks of light load (30% baseline 1- RM to muscle fatigue) resistance training (Weisgarber et al., 2015). In young adults who performed unilateral leg extensions at 30% 1-RM to muscle fatigue and 90% 1-RM to muscle fatigue, significant increases in the rates of muscle protein synthesis were observed (Burd et al., 2010). Additional work from the same laboratory showed that 3 sets of light load resistance training (30% 1-RM to muscle fatigue) produced similar gains in muscle mass compared to 3 sets of heavy load training (80% 1-RM to muscle fatigue) in a group of young, healthy men after 10 weeks training (Mitchell et al., 2012). Unfortunately, no comparisons can be made between drop-set resistance training (80% 1-RM immedi- ately followed by 30% 1-RM) and heavy load (80% 1-RM) or light load (30% 1-RM) resistance training which limits our ability to conclude that drop-set resistance training is superior to heavy or light load train- ing in aging adults. Progressive overload was achieved by increasing the number of repetitions, and consequently the training volume, rather Table 4 Total calorie (kcal/day) and macronutrient (g/day) content of the CR and PLA group for 3 days during the first and final week of supplementation and resistance training. Dietary intake CR group (n = 14) PLA group (n = 15) Week 1 Week 12 % p-Value Week 1 Week 12 % p-Value Total calories (kcal/day) 2097.5 ± 329.5 2301.1 ± 724.7 9.7 0.183 1906.9 ± 732.8 1936.5 ± 702.0 1.6 0.741 Carbohydrates (g/day) 235.1 ± 43.4 264.9 ± 102.3 12.7 0.213 227.7 ± 90.0 211.5 ± 81.5 −7.1 0.168 Fat (g/day) 80.4 ± 19.6 90.4 ± 34.6 12.4 0.199 66.5 ± 32.8 74.0 ± 36.9 11.3 0.156 Protein (g/day) 102.2 ± 21.4 100.4 ± 25.0 −1.8 0.794 85.1 ± 29.2 90.4 ± 33.7 6.2 0.218 Data is based on the average for one day from 3-day food records. Values are means ± standard deviation. % = percent change over time. 119S. Johannsmeyer et al. / Experimental Gerontology 83 (2016) 112–119 than increasing the training load itself. The training load was based on 80% and 30% baseline 1-RM strength. Subsequently, the training inten- sities would have decreased over time as the participants increased muscle strength. 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Introduction 2. Methods 2.1. Experimental design and participants 2.2. Creatine supplementation and blinding procedures 2.3. Drop-set resistance training program 2.4. Body composition 2.5. Strength and endurance 2.6. Functionality 2.7. Muscle protein catabolism 2.8. Diet 2.9. Adverse events 2.10. Sample size estimation and statistical analyses 3. Results 3.1. Participants and adverse events 3.2. Body composition 3.3. Muscle strength and endurance 3.4. Tests of functionality 3.5. Urinary 3-methylhistidine 3.6. Training volume and progression 3.7. Diet 4. Discussion Conflict of interest Acknowledgements References

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