Nursing assignment help – Discussion

Discussion Forums
• Discussion forums are a way for you to engage with each other about the course content. Questions will be asked in the forum. Given the time constraints with this course, there are no lectures associated with this class. The course will rely heavily on the discussions. 
• Please make sure that you answer all the discussion board questions and that you periodically review your initial posting for potential questions posed by either me or your classmates. You will receive a weekly grade based on your participation. In order to earn full credit for each discussion, you will need to post a thoughtful, well-written response to the question and respond to your classmates’ responses. You are required to incorporate a minimum 3 intext citations in your initial post and in your subsequent responses. 
• The discussion board replaces the face-to-face interactions and is meant to be a dialogue and a learning activity for the entire class.
• Responses should be at minimum a paragraph, which consists of 5 fully formed sentences. You are required to incorporate a minimum of 3 intext citations in your initial post and in your subsequent responses. A minimum total of 9 intext citations is required for each discussion.
• Responses that are not thoughtful and do not answer the question thoroughly will not receive full credit.
• The content of your postings must demonstrate an understanding of the relevant text material and include citations (3-9 minimum) from either the course reading or supplemental material.
• Please be very cognizant of spelling, grammar, and punctuation, as you will lose points for errors. No cyber speak, please. Use correct grammar, English, and punctuation.
• Only respond to questions that are posted in the discussion forum.
Assignment 3 C (N–Z)
For students with first names starting with the letters N to Z.
Assignments are graded out of a total of 60 points, and they are worth 9% of your total mark.
Submit this assignment after you have completed Unit 3 of the course.
Before you submit this assignment help, make sure you have read the section on Assignments in your Course Orientation.
Part A: Short-answer questions
1. Describe some of the main processes of cancer. (4)
2. Mitosis almost always results in two identical daughter cells. However, in which cells could one find an exception to that rule? (1)
3. What is cytokinesis? (1)
4. Use the following illustration, which shows some stages of three different processes represented by the three columns from left to right, to answer the questions below. (4)
4a. In which columns would you expect genetic recombination? (1)
4b. Crossing-over is not shown in this diagram. Which stage in the diagram is closest to the phase where crossing-over occurs? (E.g., “second column, third stage”) (1)
4c. Indicate all stages in the illustration where the nuclear phase (ploidy) has changed. (2)
5. Compare the final stage of conjugation between an F+ cell and an F- cell with the final stage of conjugation between an Hfr cell and an F- cell. Describe both the donor and the recipient cell and use appropriate terms. (5)
6. What are the two main differences between recombination in meiosis and recombination through mobile elements? (2)
7. Use the following scenario to answer the questions below. (10)
Calico cats have orange and black colour patterns that are determined by two genes, O (on the X chromosome) and B (autosomal). A female calico cat mates with a male cat of the genotype OBb.
7a. What is the phenotype of the father?
7b. Draw one of the possible Punnett squares for this cross.
7c. What is the likelihood that the first kitten has the Calico pattern?
About 50% of the cat’s litter have the same phenotype.
7d. Based on your Punnett square, what is that phenotype and what are the possible genotypes that result in that phenotype?
8. A mother with normal sight has a red-green colour-blind son and a red-green colour-blind daughter. What is the genotype of the father and the mother? What is the phenotype of the father? (3)
9. Use the following scenario to answer the questions below. (10)
In your experiments with Drosophila, you found that the wildtype allele that codes for grey adult insects is sometimes mutated, with mutants having a black colour. Similarly, you find that your population has alleles that code for vestigial wings instead of the wildtype normal wings. (Both mutations are recessive.) You want to know whether the two genes for body colour and wings are linked. In your preliminary crosses you have established a large number of individuals that you require for testcrosses.
9a. Which two genotypes will you use for the testcross? (Hint: One of the two genotypes should be a heterozygous dihybrid.) Use the common wildtype notation (e.g., “ar+ tg”) rather than the allele notation (VvZZ). For simplification, disregard the gender. (2)
9b. Indicate the two phenotypes of your testcross. (1) 
9c. Indicate the genotypes of the progeny (next generation) of the testcross by drawing a Punnett square. (3)
Assuming a total number of 4400 flies for the progeny generation, what are your expectations for the ratio of genotypes if 
9d. the two genes are linked? (1)
9e. the two genes are not linked? (1)
9f. Finally, if the two genes are not linked according to your results, would you expect that they lie on different chromosomes? Explain your answer. (2)
Part B: Multiple-choice questions this homework help
Choose one answer only. Enter your choice into the form field below the question.
Use the following diagram to answer questions 1–3. This diagram shows the incidences of a genetic disease for three generations. We assume that no new mutations occurred in the three generations shown on the diagram.
1. The genetic disease shown here is most likely 
a. autosomal dominant
b. X-linked recessive
c. Y-linked recessive
d. X-linked dominant
e. either a or c
2. Which of the following pairs must be both carriers of the disease?
a. 1 and 5
b. 4 and 7
c. 13 and 16
d. 15 and 19
e. 7 and 9
3. Which of the following groups of three individuals may not be carriers of the disease?
a. 7, 15 and 19
b. 4, 15 and 19
c. 2, 6 and 16
d. 7, 15 and 16
e. 7, 10 and 19
The following diagram shows the result of inbreeding in British aristocracy involving the 
X-linked recessive hemophilia allele. Squares indicate males, circles indicate females, and affected individuals are black. Four generations are included. Note that not all members of a generation are in the same row (e.g., both Beatrice and Leopold belong to the second generation).
4. Carisbrooke is not affected by the disease because 
a. none of his grandparents was a carrier
b. none of his parents was a carrier
c. he is a male
d. he received a copy of the “healthy” allele from his father
e. he received a copy of the “healthy” allele from his mother
5. Which of the following terms can be associated with genomic imprinting?
a. Mutation
b. Maternal inheritance
c. Cytoplasmic inheritance
d. Both b and c
e. Methylation 
6. During one cell cycle, the amount of DNA in a cell 
a. remains constant
b. changes once
c. changes twice
d. changes four times
e. changes at every phase of the cycle
7. Mapping of chromosomes is mainly based on 
a. the linkage of genes
b. mutations
c. the likelihood of deletions and inversions
d. transposable elements
e. sex linkage
8. Which of the following processes is crucial for genetic recombination?
a. Prophase and metaphase of meiosis
b. Prophase and metaphase of mitosis
c. S-phase
d. G1 phase
e. Both a and b
9. Which of the following terms/processes could be matched with specialized transduction?
a. Polyploidy
b. RNA virus
c. Hfr cells
d. Bacterial host receives only bacterial DNA.
e. Prophage
10. Which of the following statements describes Hfr cells?
a. They carry an F factor plasmid that is transferred to F- cells.
b. They turn an F- recipient into an F+ cell.
c. They may produce genetic recombination in the recipient cell.
d. They may produce genetic recombination in the donor cell.
e. All of the above
11. Trisomy 21 is an example of 
a. polyploidy
b. aneuploidy
c. cytoplasmic inheritance
d. deletion
e. sex-linked genes
12. Individual genes may be lost in which of the following situation(s)?
a. Duplication
b. Translocation
c. Inversion
d. Deletion
e. All of the above
13. In which situation could it be expected that Mendel’s rules do not apply?
a. Independent assortment
b. Dihybrid crosses
c. Monohybrid crosses
d. Multiple alleles
e. Polygenic inheritance
14. A virus particle may in rare cases only contain bacterial DNA. This may lead to 
a. conjugation
b. transformation
c. the lytic cycle
d. generalized transduction
e. Hfr cells
15. Which of the following term(s) is/are related to oncogenes?
a. Cancer
b. Mutation
c. Metastasis
d. Tumours
e. All of the above
16. What are alternative forms of a gene that govern the same feature, such as flower colour, and occupy corresponding positions on homologous chromosomes?
a. Alleles
b. Loci
c. Homozygotes
d. Coupled traits
e. None of the above
17. Most human somatic cells are 
a. polyploid
b. diploid
c. aneuploid
d. tetraploid
e. haploid
18. A Barr body in a mammalian female cell is 
a. an inactivated oocyte
b. a polar body
c. a degenerate nucleus
d. an inactivated X chromosome
e. an inactivated Y chromosome
19. If the two genes are unlinked, an organism with the genotype of AaBb can produce gametes containing 
a. either Aa or Bb
b. AB, Ab, aB, or ab
c. AaBb
d. AB or ab
e. none of the above
20. A chromosome has the genes U, V, W, and X. They have been shown to have the following crossover frequencies: U and V: 2%; U and W: 9%; U and X: 7%; V and W: 7%; V and X: 5%; and W and X: 2%. What is the sequence of the genes on the chromosome?
a. W-X-V-U
b. U-X-V-W
c. X-W-U-V
d. V-U-W-X
e. None of the above
After receiving the marked assignment back, carefully read all comments from the marker and revise accordingly. If you had any of the MCQ incorrect, make sure to understand why you went wrong. Many studies have shown that revising mistakes results in learning improvement and closes gaps in your understanding. Do not hesitate to contact your Academic Expert if any of the comments are unclear.
If your total mark for the assignment is below 75%, contact your Academic Expert for advice on how to improve your study habits.

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