Morphological rules to insert ga and o.

Problem set 7:

A. First formulate a mini-grammar to account for the sentences below.

S→NP (NP) (PP) VP

NP→N

PP→NP P

Morphological rules to insert ga and o.

ga – a particle that indicates the subject in a sentence.

o – a particle that indicates the object.

What is your best guess about the subcategorization of yatta→ ‘gave’?

This is a transitive verb because it requires an object to complete its meaning.

Draw trees for (2c), (3a), and (4b).

2c. John ga hon o yonda. John read the book

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(3) a. John ga Tokyo ni itta. John went to Tokyo

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4b. John ga kawa de oyoida. John swam in a river

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A. Next revise and expand your grammar to account for the following.

S→NP (AP) (NP) (PP) VP

NP→(PossP) (NP) (AP)

PossP→NP

PP→NP P

Give trees for (7) and (10).

(7) Mary kara tegami ga kita. A letter from Mary arrived

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(10) John no atama ga Mary no atama to butukatta. John’s head collided with Mary’s head.

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C. Now revise the lexicon and phrase structure rules to account for the following.

S→NP (NP) (AP) VP

PossP

AP→NP A

What is your best guess about the subcategorization of suki ‘fond’?

‘Suki’ can be subcategorized as an adjective because it gives us more information about a noun.

Give trees for:

(14). Saru ga ningen no senzo desu. ˆe monkey is man’s ancestor (ningen =‘man’)

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16). John ga nihongo ga nigate da. John is bad at Japanese

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D. Finally, extend your system one more time, so that it will account for the data seen

in (18)–(21). Do NOT try to account for the difference between -ga in the earlier

examples and -wa in these examples. Assume for present purposes that these are

the same thing.

S→NP (NP) (AP) VP (INTERR)

VP→(CP) V

AP→NP P

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