manage A04

A

ssignment 04 Measures

B

E

TA

-=-=-

Assignment 04 is 8 percent of the course grade

-=-=-

Individual work

.

-=-=-=

-=

How submitted:

*** post your file (or files) with your answers to the assignment in

C

anvas.

MS Word for longer narrative/memo.

If you use software (such as Excel), then also load that file.

If you use graphs or the like you do not need to spend hours making it super-pretty. On the other hand, it should be legible, pretty-much-to-scale, labelled, and accurate.

-=-=-=

The general scenario is that you are working for the company (Light-Up-My-Light, Inc). And need to do certain analytic or managerial work. Obviously (?), the major topics addressed will be the course topics; and more specifically usually the material from the
current chapters!

Please remember to:

.a. put your last name in the file name;

Example for student named Jones: 506

1

F

A22-A04-Jones

.b. include your last name in the running head; and

.c. number the pages

I usually print out your answers and these items help me to identify whose work I am looking at, grading, etc.

-=-=-=-

=-=-

Basic Copyright 2022

D

r. Paul Battaglia and Florida Institute of Technology. For use ONLY by students enrolled in M

G

T5061 for the FA22 term. Any other use requires explicit written permission.

-=–=

Light Up My Light, Inc.

The CEO (Mrs. Elise Ennis) holds weekly reviews which cover the key aspects of the firm’s operations. As expected, during the last review various information was presented including information on the status of logistics. Several metrics for logistics functions were presented and discussed. During the discussion one of the chief engineers commented along the lines that “this logistics stuff is all a bunch of mumbo-jumbo”. And although the engineer agreed that it was necessary to have the needed parts to make the fixtures; to ship the products; etc., — he thought that logistics was probably “overrated”.

Of course, some other parties in the meeting took a different tack on the answer to the question on the role & importance of logistics.

The CEO found this to be an interesting discussion. But in the interest of time she halted the discussion.

The CEO asked if it would be possible to do a quick analysis on the role of logistics. That was really a rhetorical question. As you might expect, the answer from

Tom

Perkins, a VP and the head of the logistics department, was “sure we can do an analysis for you”. The CEO said that she would send over some more specific questions after the meeting.

After the meeting, Tom approached you and says that as the senior logistician for the company

you
are to play a key role in writing the reply to the CEO of the results.

The next day when you get in to work, you find a note on your desk with the questions that the CEO had promised to send over. In turn Tom Perkins (the head of logistics & your boss) had scribbled a note to you — essentially to please handle ASAP.

{your name}

This is the promised follow-up from the last staff meeting.. Please handle ASAP.

Tom

(date)

TO: Tom Perkins

Ref the weekly briefing and the discussion on logistics. Very interesting. Not too often that we go off on an academic-type discussion. Here are the things that jumped into my mind as the topic was being discussed, and when I got back to my office.

Thank you.

Elise

#1. (100 pts) What factors are important to the successful accomplishment of the various logistics objectives? Include a brief explanation of each factor; and why it is important.

#2. (100 pts) We often develop new or modified fixtures based on customer needs. And we periodically drop products from our catalog. Something called a product life-cycle? How does logistics fit into such a life-cycle?

[Note: feel free to use Blanchard’s approach to a life-cycle. He uses a pretty general approach that should not prove too difficult to fit into a scenario of new and/or changed products. Products being added; products being supported; and products being dropped (retired).

If you use ANOTHER lifecycle, then be consistent. Use that different lifecycle for the rest of your answers.

Be sure that any other lifecycle that you might chose to use fits into the LUML structure.]

#3. (100 pts) What are a supply chain; supply chain management; logistics; and logistics management? Ho do those fit into our work?

#4. (225 pts) I believe that we recently did a review of cost and some options on our operations. I recall that was on the effectiveness of our operations.

#4a. (50 pts) What are measures of effectiveness?

#4b. (50 pts) If you can get that analysis, then can you make a diagram of the basic analytic results? [Aside: Obviously the CEO is looking for more than a yes or no answer, yes?]

#4c. (25 pts) Given the options, which option do you recommend that we target for?

#4d. (100 pts) Why did you chose this recommendation?

#5. (50 pts — unless your answer is “none” and then 0 pts). Any other thoughts on this subject that you think I should be aware of.

You check around and find the following information on the work mentioned by the CEO. Seven options had been analyzed.

2.5

$395,000

Option

Projected Cost

Projected Effectiveness

(0 to 5. 5 is highest)

A

$250,000

2.5

B

$395,000

2.7

C

$490,000

D

4.0

E

$110,000

4.1

F

$100,000

2.9

G

$200,000

4.9

** For our current analytical purposes, we can use this one simplified “overall MOE”. We need not be more specific although in the real world the MOE might be — say – light intensity, or speed or load carrying capacity.

** Depending upon your work experience, the projected costs might seem low for an ongoing manufacturing operation. Then again if you worked for a small organization the $100,000 might be seen as “super big bucks”.

In any case. the thought process is essentially the same regardless of the figures. So, we are (usually?) happy to use smaller, more manageable numbers.

Senior management stated that the minimal acceptable effectiveness is 3.4. And the maximum acceptable cost is $455,000.

-=-=-=-

Your mission as the senior logistician? Prepare the answers to the CEO’s questions. One key reason that we study subjects such as logistics is to help manage better, solve problems, and the like.

Of course, we can also do the stuff in this class for other reasons — such as a lot of it is just plain interesting, and/or it can even be fun.

Interpreting the information in relation to the business situation and context is important. And it also aligns with the MS degree program objectives!

REMINDER:

There are also other standard graded elements that might not be explicitly stated in each assignment.

#1 For example, this is also an academic work
so please include references. Recall that APA standard convention is (a) an
in-text citation; and (b) also a
reference list of the works used at the end.

For
in-text citations, if you are citing a large document then including the page number is useful. (If the reader cannot readily find the information then not much credit?)

.

*** For other works then a more complete cite is preferable. Again, do not spend hours working on exact APA. But I do expect to be able to find the reference if I go looking for the document.

#2 The CEO is probably a busy person & probably cannot recall why she is getting any specific paper/analysis. Including a “purpose” with some “background” detail helps the reader in the business context.

#3 Each answer needs to have the answer plus supporting rationale. Recall that Mrs. Ennis is a numbers freak. That does not mean that each answer needs to be pages long! The answer itself and the rationale can easily be only be a couple of sentences. Any back-up math might be able to fit neatly in the memo. For other you can cite an attachment — but you need to be specific as to where the answer is found. “See attachment A” is not very specific. “See attachment A, cell B18” points the reader to the specific location.

1

MGT5061-FA22
Systems and Logistics Support Management
note03-w01
LUML style guide (THIRD Edition)

Beta

C 2022 by Dr. Paul Battaglia as prepared at Florida Tech.
1
Topics covered
From the CEO.

#1 Basic communications
#2 General comments on APA style
#3 Student title page
#4 Identifying sources in the body of the document
#5 A summary list of sources at the end of the document

#6 Should I include a purpose and/or background?
#7 Should I include the question?

#8 A suggested sequence or approach to presenting the answer.

#9 Equations and similar
#10 Methods and procedures
#11 Tables and Figures (graphs)
#12 Quality of references
#13 Language (e.g., phrasing; hyperbole; and the like)
#14 Clarity versus “length and flowery language”
To a certain degree

2

Easy. Duck soup.

Just comply with the 360 + page 7th Edition of the APA Publication Manual.

-=-=-
Gulp — actually the CEO will not quite leave you in the lurch.

Hence LUML has a Style Guide.

3
Light Up My Light, LLC
THIRD EDITION
From the CEO – Introduction
 
 
Hello to all employees and others who will produce documents for LUML. These documents will likely be in hard copy; eformat; or even both formats.
 
As you can see from portions of this Style Guide cover, LUML joins a number of prominent organizations in producing a Style Guide.
 
The goal is to help us improve the efficiency of producing the needed publications; as well as to improve the effectiveness of our communications.
 
Of course, it is not possible to cover every eventuality in one document (especially in only the third edition). But by applying the principles that should be fairly obvious to you, we should be able to handle almost any situation.
 
Thank you for all that you do for LUML.
 
Warm regards,

Elise Ennis
CEO

Aside:

This is one of the few cases where you will see references to students, the class, and other school-house terms.

In virtually all other work in this class the approach is as an employment situation.

Example: You would not usually tell your boss according to our textbook

Rather, according to Blanchard (2004) ……….
4

TOPIC#1 basic communications (especially in this class but in other situations as well).

We live in an age of “quick communication”, in many cases using email or social communications.

Alas, in my experience these format do not tend to encourage more accurate nor more complete written communications.

In an academic environment, accuracy and precise meanings are pretty important.

And for many communications in the business world much the same is true.
People have certain tolerance for less precision in emails or texts.
But for more formal communications that tolerance should be driven to almost zero.
5

Recall the objectives for the class (e.g., as presented in the syllabus; as implied in the course description).

Consider the following 3 points.

First, you may remember that in the syllabus we noted that the Florida Tech Extended Studies Masters degrees are designed to develop competence at the graduate level in four areas:

#1. Critical thinking
#2. Oral Communication
#3. Written communication
#4. The major area (.g., for the MS/LM the major
area is Logistics and Logistics Management).

So we certainly do aim to help develop those competencies.
6

Second, for the most part the student body consists of mid- to senior technical people as well as managers.
In the logistics degrees (e.g., MS/LM) these are typically logisticians.
In some cases the students are people who are working towards that relative status.
In other cases the students are taking the course because of interest in the subject, a desired elective. availability of a class to fit into his/her schedule, or other reasons.

Third, in the introductory course material we covered the idea that we study the various topics in the class because for the most part they are tools or knowledge that can help us to do our job better! These skills are used in a variety of organizational settings. That is true regardless of what sector we are employed in (e.g., private, government, non-profit, academic, etc.).
7
In brief — the ability to effectively communicate with people at all levels of the organization is an important capability.

*** Because of the delivery format of this class, the communication is mostly thru written communication.

8
Topic # 2 — General comments on APA Style

APA style is not the homogeneous to-be-feared-product that we may be led to believe.

Yes, the 7th edition of the manual is some 360 pages long with at times very detailed instruction.

But everything is not written in stone nor in only one way.

*** It is hard to envision anticipating EVERY situation that could be encountered.

*** Publications have different requirements. See chapters 2 and 12.9.

Even the various APA journals have slightly different manuscript requirements.

Some require all the document in one file (which is the our preferred approach).

Others require the cover page; main text; figures; reference list; and supplemental materials all in separate files.

9
Yes, grading in MGT5061 does depend on the use of outside sources.
And citations.

But rest assured that no one in MGT 5061 goes from an A to a C or D for a minor error such as the year being in the wrong place.

What is the point? Where is this leading to?

In many of the assignments in this class you are going to :
** be involved in a business situation
** be asked to do an analysis
** send the results/information to the CEO or other executives
** EXPLAIN what you did, how you did it, why you did it.
The idea is to put the academic work that is being done smack dab in the middle of the business context.

EXAMPLE: In business we do not just do a reliability analysis because it is fun (even though it can be fun).

We do the analysis because it helps us in some business sense.

And I can think of few better ways to make the context clear than to have the work being sent and EXPLAINED to one of the senior executives in the organization.
10

11
Topic #3 Student title page

*** Use a running head –
author and short title; and page numbering. Start at page 1.

About 2/3 of the way down the page and centered

*** Title of the paper (e.g., Assignment #)

*** Name of the author

*** Affiliation (e.g., Florida Institute of Technology, Virtual Graduate Center)

*** Course number and name
(e.g., MGT5061 Systems and Logistics Support Management)

Instructor name (Dr. Paul Battaglia)

Assignment due date (e.g., Month day, year)

Topic #2 is basic APA style
12
TOPIC#4 — identifying sources used in the body of the document

Basic concept: for any idea or information that is not your own you should provide the source of where you found that idea or information.

For large sources, the better format is (author, date/year, page).

For short sources, the basic format is (author, date/year).

Example:
One source discusses the system engineering process (Blanchard, 2004, p. 123)

For better reading we can vary this a bit:
Blanchard (2004, p. 123) discusses the systems engineering process.

-=-=-=
*** Strictly speaking the page number is not always required. Remember the idea is so that the reader can find the information in the source. For large publications (such as the Blanchard book) the page number is a great help.
*** Would you really tell your boss in-effect – hey the statement is in Blanchard’s 546-page book. You go find it.

13
Why do we need to identify sources or backup material?

First, this is a mixture of academic and business. So we need to make a few minor adjustments to meet both needs.

Second, at the very least “common sense” should tell us to keep track of the sources that we use.

Example statement in a document sent to the CEO.
The transportation inflation rate for the period 1990 to 2021 was 2.8 percent.

The boss asks: where did you get that 2.8 percent from?

Almost certainly unacceptable answers:
I found it in something I was reading.
I lost that paper.
I do not remember.
I came across it somewhere on the web.

A MUCH better answer:
GTYA — Glad that you asked.
That was from the Jones article on inflation in the March 2022 edition of the Federal Reserve Bulletin.

14
Smith and Barney (2018, p. 172) reported that 8 out of 12 major logistics projects studied had cost overruns.
Smith, T.H., & Barney, A.B. (2018). The accuracy of project cost estimates. New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-123 456-98
Example of in the body and in the summary list.
#1. In the main body we address a concept, fact, whatever that is not our own idea! We need to give the source. Example of a book:
#2. Summary List at the end.

15
Topic #5 – a summary list of sources at the end of the document

RULE:
*** Except for personal communications, if the source is listed in the document, then it needs to be included in the reference list.

*** The reference list includes only items actually used in the paper.
APA does not use a bibliography (i.e., all items you looked at).

*** The summary list is in alphabetical order by the Author’s last name.

*** The next page shows some commonly used formats.

-=-=
Note
** If I can find the document using the info you presented, then you are probably ok.
** If I cannot find the document, then you are not ok.
** Do not spend an inordinate amount of time trying to match exactly all the APA possibilities.
Keep in mind that the main idea is for the reader to be able to find the source that you have listed

Some common ways to identify sources –minimize the use of extensive URL’s
1. Periodicals (magazines):
Smith, T.H. (2002, April 10). The Locomotive Powers the Way. Business Week, 84, 37-39.
The 84 is the volume issue (it is italicized), the 37-39 are the pages (don’t use p. or pp. in the reference). If there were multiple authors it would appear: Smith, T.H., & Brown, A. B.
A monthly magazine would list the month and not the day of the month. An alternative to this is to list only the year and show the volume numbers before the pages: 84(4), 37-39.

2. Daily Newspaper
Smith, T.H. (2002, April 10). The Locomotive Powers the Way. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
This shows the article is on page A1 and continues on A4. Note that sections of the newspaper are identified by letters and pages are identified in newspaper references.
NOTE ABOUT PERIODICAL & NEWSPAPER REFERENCES: Many are available in both printed paper and electronic versions. If you review these only via the Internet then you must insert this between the article title and the publication title: [Electronic version]

3. Book
Smith, T.H., & Brown, A.B. (2002). The power of the locomotive. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN13: 978-xxxxxxxxxxxxx

4. Electronic sites (web pages, etc..).
Smith, T.H. (2004, June 12). A Timeline for the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved July 24, 2004, from http://www.mcgraw-hill.org/business/historical.html

5. Articles found in Databases (Blount Library or similar)
Smith, T.H. (2004, June 12). A Timeline for the Industrial Revolution. Fortune 18 (15), 42-44. Retrieved July 24, 2004, from Factiva Database. (Note: this is different from the article taken from the Fortune magazine web site where [Electronic version] is appropriate.)
The uniform resource locator (URL) should take the reader to the exact place to see the cited data, not to a web site front page. The URL is typed in all lower cases. The student should check all URLs, to make sure they are operable when the paper is submitted for grading, but make sure these are not “hot links.” (typed in blue and underlined, a feature that must be turned off in Word when typing the paper) ) .
The preferred date is the date published (if it is known)—an alternative is the date the cite was retrieved. An author is highly desirable, but if it isn’t known then the title of the cited page is used in place of the author
16

Topic #6 – should I include a purpose and/or background?

Basic APA does not require a purpose nor a background.

The main reason to include a purpose and/or background is to accurately explain to the reader
*** “why” this information is being passed along.
*** any action that needs to be taken.

Example: To answer the CEO’s 5 questions on [topic]
To provide the information requested by the CEO on [ ].
To approve ……
To disapprove …….
Note the following …….

As part of the historical record it also helps people who are reading the work well after the document was prepared.

A background serves a similar function. It sets the stage for the information to be presented.

-=-=-
My own 2 cents is that not having a purpose/background is like holding a meeting without at least some basic agenda.
17

Topic #7. Should I include the question?

I opine that generally it is better to include the question. Verbatim (unless you edit just a bit for clarity).

First, we should not “assume” that people know or recall exactly what was asked. A period of time likely passed; and people work on many items.

Second, more than likely a good number of the readers were not directly involved (e.g., a reader was not at the staff meeting where the discussion occurred, and the CEO asked for some information).

Third, as a historical document we have documented the specifics of what was asked.

Fourth, if the question is incorrect it is easy to identify and set back on-track.

Fifth, it helps to ensure that all the questions have been answered.

-=-=-
It is usually cleaner to use the same numbering for the Q’s and A’s.
e.g., Do not answer CEO’s question #2 in answer #4.
18

19
Topic #2 is basic APA style
TOPIC#8 a suggested sequence of presenting information (aka answering the question).

Related item:
** it IS NOT the reader’s job to try to figure out what the writer meant.
** It IS the writer’s job to make the answer clear to the reader.

First, answer the question as simply as possible (newsworthy).
Second, give details and/or explanation.
Third, provide other info as needed.

Referred to as the inverted pyramid.
-=-=
Note that this is a suggested approach for your consideration. Ultimately you are responsible for presenting your work. I grade based primarily on the answer being correct; your explanation; and the sources.

20
By way of overview Carnegie Mellon University explains it this way.
As the writer we usually
** Start at the beginning with the question and some information.
** Think thru the question,.
** Gather whatever else we need.
** Answer/solve it.
** Reach a conclusion.
** Write it up in about that order.
However, as the reader (getting the paper)
** we are more likely interested in the answer.
** Then the explanation of how the answer was determined.
** Then other information.
** Write it up in that order.

21
Topic #9 Equations
** Give the equation
** Define the variables.
** State the known values.
** Substitute into the formula
** Solve. For more complex calculations you should include more steps.

Example: A system has two parts that function in series. The reliability of Part a is 0.8. Part b is 0.9. To one decimal point what is the expected or computed reliability of the system?
Answer: The reliability of a series system is given by

Rs = (Ra) x (Rb)

Where
Rs is the reliability of a system that operates in series
Ra is the reliability of part a 0.8
Rb is the reliability of part b 0.9

Rs = (0.8) x (0.9) = 0.72 or 0.7 rounded
Source: xxxxxx
-=–=-
In a more perfect world we would use full subscripts, etc..
Rs would be Rs
Ra would be Ra

You can take a few shortcuts as long as the work is clear.
Such as using Ra which is not the same as R times a.
Or using Excel functions such as Ra * Rb with * being the Excel function for multiplication.
Do not forget the units if appropriate.

22
We include the equation and the backup for three reasons.

First, we should not assume that everyone “knows” what is being discussed. Even more so the mathematics behind the topic.

Second, there is often more than one way to solve a problem.
So we need to specify the method what we are using.

Third, not everyone necessarily uses the same notation.
Common use is that
distance = rate times time

But a physicist might rather use

Distance = velocity times time.

23
Topic#10 methods and procedures

In a similar vein identify the source of the analytical techniques that we are using.

Most often this is suggested by some other publication (or even standard industry practice).

Usually the easiest and simplest is just to state what you are doing.

Jones (2019, p. 434) states that the risk of a portfolio should be
measured using the beta of the portfolio. I am using this measure.

-=-=
It almost always better NOT to try to invent your own version of how-to-analyze.

It is better/best to use techniques that are accepted and can be referenced.

After all,
** are you prepared to try to demonstrate that your method is valid and reliable?
** that your method is actually measuring what you claim you are measuring?

24
Topic #11 Tables

A statistical table has at least five major parts (#1-5); and two or more other minor parts.
#1 The Title.
#2 The Box Head (column captions)
#3 The Stub entries (row captions)
#4 The Body.
#5 Source and any notes

#6 Prefatory Notes.
#7 Foot Notes.

Tables should be labelled appropriately.

Modify your table to meet your specific need.

25

Topic#11 Figures (often a 2-dimensional x-y graph)

Generally, the most important parts are:
Title
Scale on x-axis (include units)
Scale on y-axis (include units)
Label for x-axis
Label for y-axis
Specific plotted data points
Line connecting the data points.

Modify your figure to meet your specific situation.
Source: —-

Topic #12 – Quality of references

The quality of the references is important.

Use data from leading authors, journals, and other reputable sources.

More recent dates are usually preferred over older citations.
One of the advantages of APA is that the age of the source is readily apparent!

Electronic sites (general Web Pages, wiki-type, etc..) should be minimized (or avoided altogether), especially if
(a) the author is not identified
(b) the qualifications of the author are not supported
(c.) future continued access may not exist
(d) the site lacks ‘face validity’.

Many wiki-type sources can be edited by anyone so are a less reliable reference.
26

27
-=-=
As a related matter, just because we have what seems to be a reasonable reference for the idea does not meant that it should be cited, supports our work, etc.

We should all be familiar with the old adage —
Tell me the information or answer you want, and I will find sources to back it up.

How to fight knights. How to slay dragons.

By design libraries etc. have a wide range of materials.

Even if you have a citation, be sure that it fits!

Try any extreme hypothesis on the net and you will find a zillion hits.

So “hey, I have a reference” is not always valid.
Courtesy of American Librarians Association.

Topic #13 language (phrasing, hyperbole, and the like).

Be “careful” of how and what you write.
Try reading your prose to see if it is “literally true”.

Example:
** In order to correct this situation, we must (emphasis added) take action to ……

Really? There is a physical imperative that forces us to take this action?
If there really is a physical imperative, then why does the problem exist?
Complex problems tend to have multiple possible solutions; and frequently have a “do nothing” option.

Or do we mean “ I recommend ……” or “It would be advisable” or similar?

Example:
** There are several factors to consider.; or a number of factors to consider.
[Implies a long list will be presented.]
But then list only one or two.

** Better to say the number: Two factors to consider are …..
28

29
Topic#14 clarity versus “length” or what might be considered a proper “academic response”

Back to the basic principle:

do not answer as if this was an exam or a version of “academic work”.
The answer likely will be very dense.
It is likely to try to cover a large number of points in one extended (hundreds of words?) paragraph,.
Trying for a seemingly scholarly tone.

Rather —
** Make the coverage clear and concise.
** Individual points or topics should be readily identifiable.
** Remember that you have been working on this topic and are very familiar.
You know what you want and intend to say.

Unlike you, the reader is most likely reading the document “cold”.
And likely is not all that familiar with the subject matter.

30
Example: this is an actual question from an actual assignment.

Question:

** what is a project?
** what is a program?
** what are some of the important variables/characteristics?
** explain the variables.

Let’s look at 3 or so “versions” of the possible answers.

31
Version #1 . This answer was actually submitted

A project is a specific and singular endeavor to deliver a tangible (output, while a program is a group of projects managed and delivered as one package. [3 sentences omitted.]   Projects and programs differ in structure, effort, duration, and benefits accruing from them. Regarding structure, the project scope and goals are well defined compared to a program where the scope and goals are less clear-cut.   Correspondently, the project tends to have a relatively small team, while a program tends to have a larger team because it incorporates multiple projects. Because a project entails a single focused endeavor, managing a project requires less effort than managing a program as a program has different complementary projects that tend to overlap, which requires more effort to achieve smooth program progress. The program takes a very long time to achieve the intended objective, while a typical project does not take very long to complete. Whereas a project focus on tangible outputs, programs focus on outcomes that are often not tangible.

32
Comments on the ACTUALLY submitted version #1 answer.

Wow.

That is one longish paragraph with many different ideas. And the writer has done little to separate the ideas.

On the variables and characteristics, how many are there? What are they? How many did the writer intend (as opposed to the reader’s guess)?

Even from a basic skimming it is pretty obvious that the reader will have a hard time figuring out the number; and that not all of the variables are described.

Not a reference in the place.

Would you really send in an answer like that to the CEO (or other senior person)? Or even to a very junior person?

33
Possible version #2 with a bit of basic editing to better help the reader get oriented and help to figure-out-what-the-answer-is.

A project is a specific and singular endeavor to deliver a tangible output.

A program is a group of projects managed and delivered as one package.    

Projects and programs differ in 9 key variables: (#1) number; (#2) output, (#3) structure, (#4) effort, (#5) duration, and (#6)  benefits accruing from them. Regarding structure, the project scope and goals are well defined compared to a program where the scope and goals are less clear-cut.   Correspondently, the project tends to have a relatively small team, while a program tends to have a larger team because it incorporates multiple projects. Because a project entails a single focused endeavor, (#7) managing a project requires less effort than managing a program as a program has different complementary projects that tend to overlap, which requires more effort to achieve smooth program progress. The program takes (#8) a very long time to achieve the intended objective, while a typical project does not take very long to complete. Whereas a project (#9) focus on tangible outputs, programs focus on outcomes that are often not tangible.

34
Thoughts on possible version #2.

This is now 3 paragraphs. Better, but still no cigar.

That third paragraph is still a killer.

On the variables at least we now know the writer intended to identify 9.
In narrative form, they are hard (but not impossible) to pick out.

Still: not all of the variables are described.

Still: no references

Still: pretty sure that as an addressee I would not want to receive this.

35

Characteristic
Comments on the characteristic of a project
Comments on the characteristic of a program

1
Number
[short description of each characteristic]

2
Output

3
Structure

4
Effort

5
Duration

6
Benefits

7
Management effort

8
Timeframe

9
Focus

Source: adapted from Jones, 2018, p. 66

Source: adapted from Jones, 2018, p. 66

A possible version #3.

A project is ……. (Jones, 2018, p. 22).

A program is …… (Jones, 2018, p. 44).

Projects and programs differ in 9 key characteristics.
Since the characteristics vary between a project and a program, then probably 2 columns: one for project and one for program.

36
Thoughts on possible version #3.

Much better, yes?

At least the reader has a fighting chance?

-=-=
Maybe still not perfect, but much better?

37
Possible version #4, #5, etc..

I do not want to leave you with the idea that a “table” is the ultimate and/or only acceptable format.

** Might have used bullets or similar for each variable followed by the narrative.

** Might have numbered the variables and followed with the narrative.

-=-=-
Tables and similar have two major advantages.
#1 using a matrix tends to “force” your thinking into clear, separate information categories.
For example, in the original answer did the author really think that he/she was covering or describing all of the variables?

#2 In MS Word using bullets, autonumbering, and the like is usually less-than-user-friendly. They tend to easy to “disrupt” (e.g., an inserted pace causes a new number to be inserted).
And these also tend to more prone to printing problems (indents, bleeding off the pages, etc..).

LUML Style Guide. That’s it in a relative nutshell.

38

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