Liberty University PHIL 201 Module Week 6 Study Guide Lesson 17 complete Answers | Rated A+$ 14.00

Liberty University PHIL 201 Module Week 6 Study Guide Lesson 17 complete Answers | Rated A+

Study Guide Lesson 16

Study Guide Lesson 18

Study Guide: Lesson 17

The Concept of God

Lesson Overview:

Central to most religions is the belief in a supreme being. However, there are a number of different ideas of the nature of that being. In this lesson, we will survey a number of different concepts of God. We will then settle on the traditional God of monotheism as the concept most often appealed to in western society. We will also explore those attributes that have customarily been assigned to him. In discussing the attributes of God, we will explore 2 of the most puzzling problems in traditional theology: divine foreknowledge/ human freedom and religious language. We will also discuss the primary means that philosophers use to understand God—natural theology. There will be a lot of terminology for this lesson. Finally, in preparation for our next lesson, we will discuss some of the elements that go into arguing for the existence of the traditional God of theism.


View and take notes of the presentation, “Approaching the Question of God’s Existence.”

·         Know the 4 elements of approaching the question of God’s existence.

Read Chapter 2 of Philosophy of Religion: Thinking about Faith, “The Theistic God: The Project of Natural Theology.” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions:

·         Describe the different conceptions of God.

·         What are the characteristics of the classical conception of monotheism?

·         What are the qualifications in saying that God is infinite?

·         What 2 ways are meant when Christians claim God is a “necessary” being?

·         What is the problem of divine foreknowledge and human freedom?

·         What is the difference between “necessarily God knowing the future” and “the future necessarily occurring?”

·         Explain Boethius’s solution to the problem and criticisms of it.

·         Explain the compatibilist solution and criticisms of it.

·         Explain the middle knowledge solution and the primary objection to it.

·         Explain the open theism solution and the problem with it.

·         Evans conclusion to the problem of divine foreknowledge and human freedom.

·         What is the problem of religious language?

·         What are 2 problems with the verifiability theory?

·         What function does natural theology play for Christian philosophers?

·         What is the distinction between natural theology and revealed theology?

·         Explain the distinction between an argument being valid, sound, or a successful proof (this is a review of terms discussed in Lesson 5).

·         What are 2 reasons a sound argument might still fail as a convincing proof?

·         What is Evans’ conclusion concerning a successful proof for God’s existence?


Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:

·         Theism

·         Polytheism

·         Henotheism

·         Monotheism

·         Pantheism

·         Panentheism

·         Theistic Dualism

·         Deism

·         Absolute Monism

·         Agnosticism

·         Atheism

·         Naturalism

·         Omnipotent

·         Immutable

·         Omniscient

·         Necessary Being

·         Aseity

·         Omnipresence

·         Divine Foreknowledge

·         Alternate Possibilities concept of Freedom

·         Theological Compatibilism

·         Middle Knowledge

·         Open Theism

·         Logical Positivism

·         Verifiable Theory of Meaning

·         Analytic Proposition

·         Synthetic Proposition

·         Natural Theology

·         Revealed Theology

·         Valid

·         Sound

·         Best Explanation Approach

·         Cumulative Case Approach

·         Minimlistic Concept of God

Study Guide: Lesson 16

Philosophy of Religion: Introduction

Lesson Overview:

With this lesson, we begin our unit on philosophy of religion. Religious questions are among the most important for the vast majority of persons: Is there a God? Is there an afterlife? Why does God allow evil and suffering? How can we know God? Are miracles possible? What is the relation between faith and reason? In this first lesson, we explore exactly how philosophy and religion relate to each other. Can we objectively explore religion from a philosophical vantage point? We will critically examine 2 extreme answers to this question and then arrive at a proposed way that religious beliefs can be philosophically investigated.


Read Chapter 1 of Philosophy of Religion: Thinking about Faith, “What is Philosophy of Religion?” As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions:

·         Explain the distinctions between philosophy of religion and sociology, history, theology, and religious philosophy.

·         Explain the arguments for and problems with fideism.

·         What 2 factors do Evans and Manis raise in answering the fideist claim that critical reflection about religious beliefs is arrogant and presumptuous?

·         According to Evans and Manis, is it possible to be completely neutral, and is it valid?

·         How is critical dialogue a balance between fideism and neutralism?

·         What are some criteria for testing basic religious beliefs, suggested in Evans and Manis’ concept of critical dialogue?


Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:

·         Philosophy of Religion

·         Natural Theology

·         Religious Philosophy

·         Fideism

·         Neutralism

·         Foundationalism

·         Strong Foundationalism

·         Weak Foundationalism

·         Critical Dialogue

Study Guide: Lesson 18

Arguments for the Existence of God

Lesson Overview:

In this lesson, we arrive at 1 of the most important questions of the course for Christians: Do we have good reasons to believe that God exists? Today, many are claiming that there is no evidence for God’s existence and those who believe in God are just deluding themselves. However, this lesson will show that some very interesting arguments have been developed throughout the history of philosophy that demonstrate that the theist is within his epistemic rights in believing in God. While the case is not 100% certain (few things are in philosophy), it is certainly reasonable in the absence of any contrary evidence to hold that God exists as the best explanation for certain effects we observe in creation.


View and take notes of the presentation: “Arguments for God’s Existence.”

Read “The Absurdity of Life without God” by William Lane Craig.

This reading by Christian philosopher William Lane Craig is titled the “The Absurdity of Life without God.” In this powerful argument, Craig seriously considers the ramifications for us if in fact there really is no God. I assign it to my students on campus and they always tell me it is their favorite reading of the semester. I think you will really enjoy it. It is not a difficult reading and is very powerful on a personal level. While it does not prove God’s existence, it does add positive epistemic evidence for the cumulative case for God as the best explanation. As you read, make sure you understand the following points and questions:

·         What are the 3 specific areas in which Craig argues life is absurd if there is no God or Immortality?

·         What is the atheist response to each of these areas and why does that response ultimately fail according to Craig?

·         What is the dilemma for modern man as a result of denying God’s existence?

·         Explain the Noble Lie.

Read Chapter 3 of Philosophy of Religion: Thinking about Faith, “Classical Arguments for the Existence of God.” As you do, make sure you understand the following points and questions:

·         The Ontological Argument

o   Anselm’s Version of the Argument: God is the greatest possible being.

o   Anselm’s answer to Gaunilio’s objection.

o   Know Kant’s objection to it.

o   Malcolm’s Version: God as a necessary being.

o   How can the Ontological argument be used to prove atheism?

o   Evans evaluation of the argument: If not rationally compelling, then what is its value? What is the moral for all the arguments?

·         The Cosmological Argument

o   Distinctions between part/whole versions and temporal/non-temporal versions.

o   The non-temporal contingency version of the argument.

o   Three irrelevant objections to the argument.

o   Evans’ reply to the “matter is the necessary being” objection.

o   Evans’ reply to the “infinite series of causes” objection.

o   Evans’ final evaluation of the rationality of the argument.

·         The Teleological Argument

o   Aquinas’ version of the argument.

o   The argument as a probable argument.

o   The simple version of the argument.

o   The analogical version of the argument.

o   Hume’s 2 “analogical” objections to the argument and Evans’ responses.

o   The Evolutionary objection and Evans’ responses.

o   Explain the fine tuning argument, criticisms of it and responses to the criticisms.

o   Hume’s “religious” objections to the argument and Swinburne’s response.

o   How the cosmological and teleological arguments balance each other out.

o   Concluding comment about the nature of proof and philosophy.

·         The Moral Argument

o   Kant’s version of the argument.

o   The “inference to the best explanation” form of the argument.

o   The cultural and individual relativist objections and Evans’ responses.

o   The emotivist objection and Evans’ responses.

o   Naturalism’s three attempts to ground morality apart from God and their accompanying problems.

o   The heart of the moral argument.

o   Two ways God’s existence grounds morality (DCT and HNT) and how moral obligations make more sense in a world with God then without it.

o   Explain 2 versions of divine command theory.

·         Evans’ balanced evaluation of the value of the arguments for God’s existence.


Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:

·         Ontological Argument

·         Cosmological Argument

·         Necessary Being

·         Contingent Being

·         Principle of Sufficient Reason

·         Teleological Argument

·         Telos

·         Beneficial Order

·         Inference to the Best Explanation

·         Analogical Argument

·         Fine Tuning Argument

·         Moral Argument

·         Cultural Relativism

·         Individual Relativism

·         Naturalistic Humanism

·         Divine Command Theory

·         Human Nature TheoryCategory: PhilosophyGeneral Philosophy

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