In the output from summary(WTI ADF trend), you will see thefollowing in the endCritical values for test statistics:1pct 5pct 10pcttau3 -3.99 -3.43 -3.13phi2 6.22 4.75 4.07phi3 8.43 6.49 5.47The critical values in the row of “tau2” is for the null hypothesis ρ = 0 (hence unit root).Those in the row of “phi2” is for the joint null ρ = β0 = 0 (unit root and no drift). Thosein the row of “phi3” is for the joint null ρ = β0 = …
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