IFSM 438

Week 1 Topic: How can we define project success?
Based on what you have seen in your own experience, and based on what you have read so far, how would YOU define a successful project?What do you think contributes to a project being unsuccessful?And, when you read about HUGE failures, do you believe they are, in fact, failures?Please provide examples and explain your answers. One or two paragraphs is all that is required.Remember that the quality of your participation and contributions to these discussions can and does make a difference in your overall course grade.
(As a model for excellence, please consider this process, courtesy of Drs. Stephany Head & Tamie Santiago):
· Answer the question in your own words.
· Provide a quote, paraphrase or reference from the weekly readings, , or othercrediblesource.
· Provide examples that demonstrate your answer and understanding of the concept.
· Always include credible sources to support initial posts
Page 1 of 1June 2021
What NOT to do in a WBS
Additional Lecture Material from Garrett Rowley, Adjunct Professor, UMGC

Here are some (hilarious) examples from actual projects that illustrate what you should avoid in your
WBS. The names have been changed to protect the innocent! But everything else is real.

Activity Name Editorial comment
Draft Charter and Project Management Plan and Draft Cost Tool Too many deliverables
Review, finalize and present Proposal to JSP Customer Relations
Too many actions, named
resource doesn’t belong here
Engineering install applications in test environment for initial
Too many actions
PM Requests Service Design/Transition folder from Service Design Doesn’t describe work
Validate PerformanceNothing specific here
V&V Scans & Generates/Delivers Initial V&V Report to A&A / PM
Uhhhhh .. .
A&A Explains to Customer – System Categorization Document Well, that’s cozy
IF NEEDED – Return FW Request to Customer for Rework Tasks are never conditional
Engineer to submit CRQ Received by ECRB (latest 9am Friday) Oh my! What does this mean?
Meet with the IMOs to see what applications they ID and
compare then against Mr. Smith’s and/or General Jones’
Are we having a conversation?
Test servers have been built, some issues with firewalls being
worked on now to fully complete installation of application in test
environment; next steps after successful f/w implementation and
cBack up and restore the production data to a 3 cluster node
Are we writing a novel?
I’d like to see how implementation with our Enterprise Citrix is
going (we are still fixing some config items) – and then would like
to get with COOP manager to discuss. I’d also like to bring Joe
Snorkel on discussion since we are discussing
Oh, you’d like that?
Hear from Mr. George that HQ has discussed with XYZ COOP Didn’t know “Hear” was a project
Let me know if you can facilitate who would get this on the right
SQL Server for the SAM folks to use for HQ software. It was
mentioned today by Mr. Smersh that he agrees with my
assessment of using it to keep track of all software – eventually – b
Cute little emoji – OMG!
It depends on which servers that are used for this application. If
the servers are decommissioned then I would like to pull the
licenses back. I just don’t know enough about the infrastructure
and application to say what they are at this point.
OMG – Again!

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4. Framework for Project Management

Many different professions contribute to the theory and practice of project management. Engineers and
architects have been managing major projects since pre-history. Since approximately the 1960s, there
have been efforts to professionalize the practice of project management as a specialization of its own.
There are many active debates around this: Should project management be a profession in the same way
as engineering, accounting, and medicine? These have professional associations that certify who is legally
allowed to use the job title, and who can legally practice the profession. They also provide a level of
assurance of quality and discipline members who behave inappropriately. Another ongoing debate is:
How much industry knowledge is required of a seasoned project manager? How easily can a project
manager from one industry, say, IT, transition to another industry such as hospitality?
There are two major organizations with worldwide impact on the practice of project management: the
Project Management Institute (PMI), with world headquarters in the United States, and the International
Project Management Association (IPMA), with world headquarters in Switzerland. This textbook takes an
approach that is closer to the PMI approach. More details are included in this chapter, along with a section
on the project management office.
Project Management Institute Overview
Five volunteers founded the Project Management Institute (PMI) in 1969. Their initial goal was to
establish an organization where members could share their experiences in project management and
discuss issues. Today, PMI is a non-profit project management professional association and the most
widely recognized organization in terms of promoting project management best practices. PMI was
formed to serve the interests of the project management industry. The premise of PMI is that the tools and
techniques of project management are common even among the widespread application of projects from
the software to the construction industry. PMI first began offering the Project Management Professional
(PMP) certification exam in 1984. Although it took a while for people to take notice, now more than
590,000 individuals around the world hold the PMP designation.
To help keep project management terms and concepts clear and consistent, PMI introduced the book A
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) in 1987. It was updated it in
1996, 2000, 2004, 2009, and most recently in 2013 as the fifth edition. At present, there are more than one
million copies of the PMBOK Guide in circulation. The highly regarded Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has adopted it as their project management standard. In 1999 PMI was
accredited as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards developer and also has the
distinction of being the first organization to have its certification program attain International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001 recognition. In 2008, the organization reported more than
260,000 members in over 171 countries. PMI has its headquarters in Pennsylvania, United States, and

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also has offices in Washington, DC, and in Canada, Mexico, and China, as well as having regional service
centres in Singapore, Brussels (Belgium), and New Delhi (India). Recently, an office was opened in
Mumbai (India).
Because of the importance of projects, the discipline of project management has evolved into a working
body of knowledge known as PMBOK – Project Management Body of Knowledge. The PMI is
responsible for developing and promoting PMBOK. PMI also administers a professional certification
program for project managers, the PMP. So if you want to get grounded in project management, PMBOK
is the place to start, and if you want to make project management your profession, then you should
consider becoming a PMP.
So what is PMBOK?
PMBOK is the fundamental knowledge you need for managing a project, categorized into 10 knowledge
1. Managing integration: Projects have all types of activities going on and there is a need to keep
the “whole” thing moving collectively – integrating all of the dynamics that take place. Managing
integration is about developing the project charter, scope statement, and plan to direct, manage,
monitor, and control project change.
2. Managing scope: Projects need to have a defined parameter or scope, and this must be broken
down and managed through a work breakdown structure or WBS.Managing scope is about
planning, definition, WBS creation, verification, and control.
3. Managing time/schedule: Projects have a definite beginning and a definite ending date.
Therefore, there is a need to manage the budgeted time according to a project
schedule.Managing time/schedule is about definition, sequencing, resource and duration
estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.
4. Managing costs: Projects consume resources, and therefore, there is a need to manage the
investment with the realization of creating value (i.e., the benefits derived exceed the amount
spent).Managing costs is about resource planning, cost estimating, budgeting, and control.
5. Managing quality: Projects involve specific deliverables or work products. These deliverables
need to meet project objectives and performance standards. Managing quality is about quality
planning, quality assurance, and quality control.
6. Managing human resources: Projects consist of teams and you need to manage project team(s)
during the life cycle of the project. Finding the right people, managing their outputs, and keeping
them on schedule is a big part of managing a project. Managing human resources is about human
resources planning, hiring, and developing and managing a project team.

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7. Managing communication: Projects invariably touch lots of people, not just the end users
(customers) who benefit directly from the project outcomes. This can include project participants,
managers who oversee the project, and external stakeholders who have an interest in the success
of the project.Managing communication is about communications planning, information
distribution, performance reporting, and stakeholder management.
8. Managing risk: Projects are a discovery-driven process, often uncovering new customer needs
and identifying critical issues not previously disclosed. Projects also encounter unexpected
events, such as project team members resigning, budgeted resources suddenly changing, the
organization becoming unstable, and newer technologies being introduced. There is a real need to
properly identify various risks and manage these risks. Managing risk is about risk planning and
identification, risk analysis (qualitative and quantitative), risk response (action) planning, and risk
monitoring and control.
9. Managing procurement: Projects procure the services of outside vendors and contractors,
including the purchase of equipment. There is a need to manage how vendors are selected and
managed within the project life cycle. Managing procurement is about acquisition and contracting
plans, sellers’ responses and selections, contract administration, and contract closure.
10. Managing stakeholders: Every project impacts people and organizations and is impacted by
people and organizations. Identifying these stakeholders early, and as they arise and change
throughout the project, is a key success factor. Managing stakeholders is about identifying
stakeholders, their interest level, and their potential to influence the project; and managing and
controlling the relationships and communications between stakeholders and the project.
This is the big framework for managing projects and if you want to be effective in managing projects,
then you need to be effective in managing each of the 10 knowledge areas that make up PMBOK (see
Figure 4.1)


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Figure 4.1: PM Star Model suggested by GeekDisplaced
Certification in project management is available from the PMI, PRINCE2, ITIL, Critical Chain, and
others. Agile project management methodologies (Scrum, extreme programming, Lean Six Sigma, others)
also have certifications.
Introduction to the Project Management Knowledge Areas
As discussed above, projects are divided into components, and a project manager must be knowledgeable
in each area. Each of these areas of knowledge will be explored in more depth in subsequent chapters. For
now, lets look at them in a little more detail to prepare you for the chapters that follow.
Project Start-Up and Integration
The start-up of a project is similar to the start-up of a new organization. The project leader develops the
project infrastructure used to design and execute the project. The project management team must develop
alignment among the major stakeholders—those who have a share or interest—on the project during the
early phases or definition phases of the project. The project manager will conduct one or more kickoff
meetings or alignment sessions to bring the various parties of the project together and begin the project
team building required to operate efficiently during the project.
During project start-up, the project management team refines the scope of work and develops a
preliminary schedule and conceptual budget. The project team builds a plan for executing the project
based on the project profile. The plan for developing and tracking the detailed schedule, the procurement
plan, and the plan for building the budget and estimating and tracking costs are developed during the
start-up. The plans for information technology, communication, and tracking client satisfaction are also
all developed during the start-up phase of the project.

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Flowcharts, diagrams, and responsibility matrices are tools to capture the work processes associated with
executing the project plan. The first draft of the project procedures manual captures the historic and
intuitional knowledge that team members bring to the project. The development and review of these
procedures and work processes contribute to the development of the organizational structure of the
This is typically an exciting time on a project where all things are possible. The project management team
is working many hours developing the initial plan, staffing the project, and building relationships with the
client. The project manager sets the tone of the project and sets expectations for each of the project team
members. The project start-up phase on complex projects can be chaotic, and until plans are developed,
the project manager becomes the source of information and direction. The project manager creates an
environment that encourages team members to fully engage in the project and encourages innovative
approaches to developing the project plan.
Project Scope
The project scope is a document that defines the parameters—factors that define a system and determine
its behaviour—of the project, what work is done within the boundaries of the project, and the work that is
outside the project boundaries. The scope of work (SOW) is typically a written document that defines
what work will be accomplished by the end of the project—the deliverables of the project. The project
scope defines what will be done, and the project execution plan defines how the work will be
No template works for all projects. Some projects have a very detailed scope of work, and some have a
short summary document. The quality of the scope is measured by the ability of the project manager and
project stakeholders to develop and maintain a common understanding of what products or services the
project will deliver. The size and detail of the project scope is related to the complexity profile of the
project. A more complex project often requires a more detailed and comprehensive scope document.
According to the PMI, the scope statement should include the following:
• Description of the scope
• Product acceptance criteria
• Project deliverables
• Project exclusions
• Project constraints
• Project assumptions
The scope document is the basis for agreement by all parties. A clear project scope document is also
critical to managing change on a project. Since the project scope reflects what work will be accomplished
on the project, any change in expectations that is not captured and documented creates the opportunity for
confusion. One of the most common trends on projects is the incremental expansion in the project scope.

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This trend is labeled “scope creep.” Scope creep threatens the success of a project because the small
increases in scope require additional resources that were not in the plan. Increasing the scope of the
project is a common occurrence, and adjustments are made to the project budget and schedule to account
for these changes. Scope creep occurs when these changes are not recognized or not managed. The ability
of a project manager to identify potential changes is often related to the quality of the scope documents.
Events do occur that require the scope of the project to change. Changes in the marketplace may require
change in a product design or the timing of the product delivery. Changes in the client’s management
team or the financial health of the client may also result in changes in the project scope. Changes in the
project schedule, budget, or product quality will have an effect on the project plan. Generally, the later in
the project the change occurs, the greater the increase to the project costs. Establishing a change
management system for the project that captures changes to the project scope and assures that these
changes are authorized by the appropriate level of management in the client’s organization is the
responsibility of the project manager. The project manager also analyzes the cost and schedule impact of
these changes and adjusts the project plan to reflect the changes authorized by the client. Changes to the
scope can cause costs to increase or decrease.
Project Schedule and Time Management
The definition of project success often includes completing the project on time. The development and
management of a project schedule that will complete the project on time is a primary responsibility of the
project manager, and completing the project on time requires the development of a realistic plan and the
effective management of the plan. On smaller projects, project managers may lead the development of the
project plan and build a schedule to meet that plan. On larger and more complex projects, a project
controls team that focuses on both costs and schedule planning and controlling functions will assist the
project management team in developing the plan and tracking progress against the plan.
To develop the project schedule, the project team does an analysis of the project scope, contract, and other
information that helps the team define the project deliverables. Based on this information, the project
team develops a milestone schedule. The milestone schedule establishes key dates throughout the life of a
project that must be met for the project to finish on time. The key dates are often established to meet
contractual obligations or established intervals that will reflect appropriate progress for the project. For
less complex projects, a milestone schedule may be sufficient for tracking the progress of the project. For
more complex projects, a more detailed schedule is required.
To develop a more detailed schedule, the project team first develops a
work breakdown structure (WBS)—a description of tasks arranged in layers of detail. Although the
project scope is the primary document for developing the WBS, the WBS incorporates all project
deliverables and reflects any documents or information that clarifies the project deliverables. From the
WBS, a project plan is developed. The project plan lists the activities that are needed to accomplish the
work identified in the WBS. The more detailed the WBS, the more activities that are identified to
accomplish the work.

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After the project team identifies the activities, the team sequences the activities according to the order in
which the activities are to be accomplished. An outcome from the work process is the
project logic diagram. The logic diagram represents the logical sequence of the activities needed to
complete the project. The next step in the planning process is to develop an estimation of the time it will
take to accomplish each activity or the activity duration. Some activities must be done sequentially, and
some activities can be done concurrently. The planning process creates a project schedule by scheduling
activities in a way that effectively and efficiently uses project resources and completes the project in the
shortest time.
On larger projects, several paths are created that represent a sequence of activities from the beginning to
the end of the project. The longest path to the completion of the project is the critical path. If the critical
path takes less time than is allowed by the client to complete the project, the project has a positive total
float or project slack. If the client’s project completion date precedes the calculated critical path end date,
the project has a negative float. Understanding and managing activities on the critical path is an important
project management skill.
To successfully manage a project, the project manager must also know how to accelerate a schedule to
compensate for unanticipated events that delay critical activities. Compressing—crashing—the schedule
is a term used to describe the techniques used to shorten the project schedule. During the life of the
project, scheduling conflicts often occur, and the project manager is responsible for reducing these
conflicts while maintaining project quality and meeting cost goals.
Project Costs
The definition of project success often includes completing the project within budget. Developing and
controlling a project budget that will accomplish the project objectives is a critical project management
skill. Although clients expect the project to be executed efficiently, cost pressures vary on projects. On
some projects, the project completion or end date is the largest contributor to the project complexity. The
development of a new drug to address a critical health issue, the production of a new product that will
generate critical cash flow for a company, and the competitive advantage for a company to be first in the
marketplace with a new technology are examples of projects with schedule pressures that override project
The accuracy of the project budget is related to the amount of information known by the project team. In
the early stages of the project, the amount of information needed to develop a detailed budget is often
missing. To address the lack of information, the project team develops different levels of project budget
estimates. The conceptual estimate (or “ballpark estimate”) is developed with the least amount of
knowledge. The major input into the conceptual estimate is expert knowledge or past experience. A
project manager who has executed a similar project in the past can use those costs to estimate the costs of
the current project.

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When more information is known, the project team can develop a rough order of magnitude (ROM)
estimate. Additional information such as the approximate square feet of a building, the production
capacity of a plant, and the approximate number of hours needed to develop a software program can
provide a basis for providing a ROM estimate. After a project design is more complete, a project detailed
estimate can be developed. For example, when the project team knows the number of rooms, the type of
materials, and the building location of a home, they can provide a detailed estimate. A detailed estimate is
not a bid.
The cost of the project is tracked relative to the progress of the work and the estimate for accomplishing
that work. Based on the cost estimate, the cost of the work performed is compared against the cost
budgeted for that work. If the cost is significantly higher or lower, the project team explores reasons for
the difference between expected costs and actual costs.
Project costs may deviate from the budget because the prices in the marketplace were different from what
was expected. For example, the estimated costs for lumber on a housing project may be higher than
budgeted or the hourly cost for labour may be lower than budgeted. Project costs may also deviate based
on project performance. For example, a project team estimated that the steel design for a bridge over a
river would take 800 labour hours, but 846 hours were actually expended. The project team captures the
deviation between costs budgeted for work and the actual cost for work, revises the estimate as needed,
and takes corrective action if the deviation appears to reflect a trend.
The project manager is responsible for assuring that the project team develops cost estimates based on the
best information available and revises those estimates as new or better information becomes available.
The project manager is also responsible for tracking costs against the budget and conducting an analysis
when project costs deviate significantly from the project estimate. The project manager then takes
appropriate corrective action to ensure that project performance matches the revised project plan.
Project Quality
Project quality focuses on the end product or service deliverables that reflect the purpose of the project.
The project manager is responsible for developing a project execution approach that provides for a clear
understanding of the expected project deliverables and the quality specifications. The project manager of
a housing construction project not only needs to understand which rooms in the house will be carpeted but
also what grade of carpet is needed. A room with a high volume of traffic will need a high-grade carpet.
The project manager is responsible for developing a project quality plan that defines the quality
expectations and ensures that the specifications and expectations are met. Developing a good
understanding of the project deliverables through documenting specifications and expectations is critical
to a good quality plan. The processes for ensuring that the specifications and expectations are met are
integrated into the project execution plan. Just as the project budget and completion dates may change
over the life of a project, the project specifications may also change. Changes in quality specifications are
typically managed in the same process as cost or schedule changes. The impact of the changes is analyzed

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for impact on cost and schedule, and with appropriate approvals, changes are made to the project
execution plan.
The PMI’s A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) has an extensive
chapter on project quality management. The material found in this chapter would be similar to material
found in a good operational management text.
Although any of the quality management techniques designed to make incremental improvement to work
processes can be applied to a project work process, the character of a project (unique and relatively short
in duration) makes small improvements less attractive on projects. Rework on projects, as with
manufacturing operations, increases the cost of the product or service and often increases the time needed
to complete the reworked activities. Because of the duration constraints of a project, the development of
the appropriate skills, materials, and work processes early in the project is critical to project success. On
more complex projects, time is allocated to developing a plan to understand and develop the appropriate
levels of skills and work processes.
Project management organizations that execute several similar types of projects may find process
improvement tools useful in identifying and improving the baseline processes used on their projects.
Process improvement tools may also be helpful in identifying cost and schedule improvement
opportunities. Opportunities for improvement must be found quickly to influence project performance.
The investment in time and resources to find improvements is greatest during the early stages of the
project, when the project is in the planning stages. During later project stages, as pressures to meet project
schedule goals increase, the culture of the project is less conducive to making changes in work processes.
Another opportunity for applying process improvement tools is on projects that have repetitive processes.
A housing contractor that is building several identical houses may benefit from evaluating work processes
in the first few houses to explore the opportunities available to improve the work processes. The
investment of $1,000 in a work process that saves $200 per house is a good investment as long as the
contractor is building more than five houses.
Project Team: Human Resources andCommunications
Staffing the project with the right skills, at the right place, and at the right time is an important
responsibility of the project management team. The project usually has two types of team members:
functional managers and process managers. The functional managers and team focus on the technology of
the project. On a construction project, the functional managers would include the engineering manager
and construction superintendents. On a training project, the functional manager would include the
professional trainers; on an information technology project, the software development managers would be
functional managers. The project management team also includes project process managers. The project
controls team would include process managers who have expertise in estimating, cost tracking, planning,
and scheduling. The project manager needs functional and process expertise to plan and execute a
successful project.

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Because projects are temporary, the staffing plan for a project typically reflects both the long-term goals
of skilled team members needed for the project and short-term commitment that reflects the nature of the
project. Exact start and end dates for team members are often negotiated to best meet the needs of
individuals and the project. The staffing plan is also determined by the different phases of the project.
Team members needed in the early or conceptual phases of the project are often not needed during the
later phases or project closeout phases. Team members needed during the implementation phase are often
not needed during the conceptual or closeout phases. Each phase has staffing requirements, and the
staffing of a complex project requires detailed planning to have the right skills, at the right place, at the
right time.
Typically a core project management team is dedicated to the project from start-up to closeout. This core
team would include members of the project management team: project manager, project controls, project
procurement, and key members of the function management or experts in the technology of the project.
Although longer projects may experience more team turnover than shorter projects, it is important on all
projects to have team members who can provide continuity through the project phases.
For example, on a large commercial building project, the civil engineering team that designs the site work
where the building will be constructed would make their largest contribution during the early phases of
the design. The civil engineering lead would bring on different civil engineering specialties as they were
needed. As the civil engineering work is completed and the structural engineering is well underway, a
large portion of the civil engineers would be released from the project. The functional managers, the
engineering manager, and civil engineering lead would provide expertise during the entire length of the
project, addressing technical questions that may arise and addressing change requests.
Project team members can be assigned to the project from a number of different sources. The organization
that charters the project can assign talented managers and staff from functional units within the
organization, contract with individuals or agencies to staff positions on the project, temporarily hire staff
for the project, or use any combination of these staffing options. This staffing approach allows the project
manager to create the project organizational culture. Some project cultures are more structured and detail
oriented, and some are less structured with less formal roles and communication requirements. The type
of culture the project manager creates depends greatly on the type of project.
Completing a complex project successfully requires teamwork, and teamwork requires good
communication among team members. If those team members work in the same building, they can
arrange regular meetings, simply stop by each other’s office space to get a quick answer, or even discuss a
project informally at other office functions. Many complex projects in today’s global economy involve
team members from widely separated locations, and the types of meetings that work within the same
building are not possible. Teams that use electronic methods of communicating without face-to-face
meetings are called virtual teams.

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Communicating can be divided into two categories: synchronous and asynchronous. If all the parties to
the communication are taking part in the exchange at the same time, the communication is synchronous.
A telephone conference call is an example of synchronous communication. When the participants are not
interacting at the same time, the communication is asynchronous. (The letter a at the beginning of the
word means not.) Communications technologies require a variety of compatible devices, software, and
service providers, and communication with a global virtual team can involve many different time zones.
Establishing effective communications requires a communications plan.
Project Risk
Risk exists on all projects. The role of the project management team is to understand the kinds and levels
of risks on the project and then to develop and implement plans to mitigate these risks. Risk represents the
likelihood that an event will happen during the life of the project that will negatively affect the
achievement of project goals. The type and amount of risk varies by industry type, complexity, and phase
of the project. The project risk plan will also reflect the risk profile of the project manager and key
stakeholders. People have different comfort levels with risk, and some members of the project team will
be more risk averse than others.
The first step in developing a risk management plan involves identifying potential project risks. Some
risks are easy to identify, such as the potential for a damaging storm in the Caribbean, and some are less
obvious. Many industries or companies have risk checklists developed from past experience. The
Construction Industry Institute published a 100-item risk checklist that provides examples and areas of
project risks. No risk checklist will include all potential risks. The value of a checklist is the stimulation
of discussion and thought about the potential risks on a project.
The project team analyzes the identified risks and estimates the likelihood of the risks occurring. The
team then estimates the potential impact on project goals if the event does occur. The outcome from this
process is a prioritized list of estimated project risks with a value that represents the likelihood of
occurrence and the potential impact on the project.
The project team then develops a risk mitigation plan that reduces the likelihood of an event occurring or
reduces the impact on the project if the event does occur. The risk management plan is integrated into the
project execution plan, and mitigation activities are assigned to the appropriate project team member. The
likelihood that all the potential events identified in the risk analysis would occur is extremely rare. The
likelihood that one or more events will happen is high.
The project risk plan reflects the risk profile of the project and balances the investment of the mitigation
against the benefit for the project. One of the more common risk mitigation approaches is the use of
contingency. Contingency is funds set aside by the project team to address unforeseen events. Projects
with a high-risk profile will typically have a large contingency budget. If the team knows which activities
have the highest risk, contingency can be allocated to activities with the highest risk. When risks are less
identifiable to specific activities, contingency is identified in a separate line item. The plan includes

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periodic risk-plan reviews during the life of the project. The risk review evaluates the effectiveness of the
current plan and explores possible risks not identified in earlier sessions.
Project Procurement
The procurement effort on projects varies widely and depends on the type of project. Often the client
organization will provide procurement services on less complex projects. In this case, the project team
identifies the materials, equipment, and supplies needed by the project and provides product
specifications and a detailed delivery schedule. When the procurement department of the parent
organization provides procurement services, a liaison from the project can help the procurement team
better understand the unique requirements of the project and the time-sensitive or critical items of the
project schedule.
On larger, more complex projects, personnel are dedicated to procuring and managing the equipment,
supplies, and materials needed by the project. Because of the temporary nature of projects, equipment,
supplies, and materials are procured as part of the product of the project or for the execution of the
project. For example, the bricks procured for a construction project would be procured for the product of
the project, and the mortar mixer would be equipment procured for the execution of the project work. At
the end of the project, equipment bought or rented for the execution of the work of the project are sold,
returned to rental organizations, or disposed of some other way.
More complex projects will typically procure through different procurement and management methods.
Commodities are common products that are purchased based on the lowest bid. Commodities include
items like concrete for building projects, office supplies, or even lab equipment for a research project. The
second type of procurement includes products that are specified for the project. Vendors who can produce
these products bid for a contract. The awarding of a contract can include price, ability to meet the project
schedule, the fit for purpose of the product, and other considerations important to the project.
Manufacturing a furnace for a new steel mill would be provided by a project vendor. Equipment
especially designed and built for a research project is another example. These vendors’ performances
become important parts of the project, and the project manager assigns resources to coordinate the work
and schedule of the vendor. The third procurement approach is the development of one or more partners.
A design firm that is awarded the design contract for a major part of the steel mill and a research firm that
is conducting critical subparts of the research are examples of potential project partners. A partner
contributes to and is integrated into the execution plan. Partners perform best when they share the project
vision of success and are emotionally invested in the project. The project management team builds and
implements a project procurement plan that recognizes the most efficient and effective procurement
approach to support the project schedule and goals.

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Project Stakeholder Management
People and organizations can have many different relationships to the project. Most commonly, these
relationships can be grouped into those who will be impacted by the project and those who can impact the
A successful project manager will identify stakeholders early in the project. For each stakeholder, it is
important to identify what they want or need and what influence or power they have over the
project. Based on this information, the need to communicate with the stakeholder or stakeholder group
can be identified, followed by the creation of a stakeholder management plan. A stakeholder register is
used to identify and track the interactions between the project and each stakeholder. This register must be
updated on a regular basis, as new stakeholders can arise at any time, and the needs and interest levels of
a particular stakeholder may change through the course of the project.
Table 4.1 Stakeholder Register
Knowledge Area Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and
Project Integration
Develop Project Charter Develop Project
Management Plan
• Monitor and control
project work
• Perform integrated
change control
Close project or phase
Project Scope
• Plan scope
• Collect requirements
• Define scope
• Create WB
• Validate scope
• Control scope

Project Time
• Plan schedule
• Define activities
• Sequence activities
• Estimate activity
• Estimate activity
• Develop schedule

Control schedule
Project Cost
• Plan cost
• Estimate costs
• Determine budget

Control costs
Project Quality
Plan quality
Perform quality
Control quality
Scrum Development Overview
“Scrum” is another formal project management/product development methodology and part of agile
project management. Scrum is a term from rugby (scrimmage) that means a way of restarting a game. It’s
like restarting the project efforts every X weeks. It’s based on the idea that you do not really know how to

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plan the whole project up front, so you start and build empirical data, and then re-plan and iterate from
Scrum uses sequential sprints for development. Sprints are like small project phases (ideally two to
four weeks). The idea is to take one day to plan for what can be done now, then develop what was
planned for, and demonstrate it at the end of the sprint. Scrum uses a short daily meeting of the
development team to check what was done yesterday, what is planned for the next day, and what if
anything is impeding the team members from accomplishing what they have committed to. At the end of
the sprint, what has been demonstrated can then be tested, and the next sprint cycle starts.
Scrum methodology defines several major roles. They are:
• Product owners: essentially the business owner of the project who knows the industry, the market,
the customers, and the business goals of the project. The product owner must be intimately
involved with the Scrum process, especially the planning and the demonstration parts of the
• Scrum Master: somewhat like a project manager, but not exactly. The Scrum Master’s duties are
essentially to remove barriers that impede the progress of the development team, teach the
product owner how to maximize return on investment (ROI) in terms of development effort,
facilitate creativity and empowerment of the team, improve the productivity of the team, improve
engineering practices and tools, run daily standup meetings, track progress, and ensure the health
of the team.
• Development team: self-organizing (light-touch leadership), empowered group; they participate
in planning and estimating for each sprint, do the development, and demonstrate the results at the
end of the sprint. It has been shown that the ideal size for a development team is 7 +/- 2. The
development team can be broken into “teamlets” that “swarm” on user stories, which are created
in the sprint planning session.
Typically, the way a product is developed is that there is a “front burner” (which has stories/tasks for the
current sprint), a “back burner” (which has stories for the next sprint), and a “fridge” (which has stories
for later, as well as process changes). One can look at a product as having been broken down like this:
product -> features -> stories -> tasks.
Often effort estimations are done using “story points” (tiny = 1 SP, small = 2 SP, medium = 4 SP, large =
8 SP, big = 16+ SP, unknown = ? SP) Stories can be of various types. User stories are very common and
are descriptions of what the user can do and what happens as a result of different actions from a given
starting point. Other types of stories are from these areas: analysis, development, QA, documentation,
installation, localization, and training.
Planning meetings for each sprint require participation by the product owner, the Scrum Master, and the
development team. In the planning meeting, they set the goals for the upcoming sprint and select a subset
of the product backlog (proposed stories) to work on. The development team decomposes stories to tasks

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and estimates them. The development team and product owner do final negotiations to determine the
backlog for the following sprint.
The Scrum methodology uses metrics to help with future planning and tracking of progress; for
example, “burn down” – the number of hours remaining in the sprint versus the time in days; “velocity” –
essentially, the amount of effort the team expends. (After approximately three sprints with the same team,
one can get a feel for what the team can do going forward.)
Some caveats about using Scrum methodology: 1) You need committed, mature developers; 2) You still
need to do major requirements definition, some analysis, architecture definition, and definition of roles
and terms up front or early; 3) You need commitment from the company and the product owner; and 4) It
is best for products that require frequent new releases or updates, and less effective for large, totally new
products that will not allow for frequent upgrades once they are released.
The Project Management Office
Many large and even medium-sized organizations have created a department to oversee and support
projects throughout the organization. This is an attempt to reduce the high numbers of failed projects (see
the Project Management Overview chapter.) These offices are usually called the project management
office or PMO.
The PMO may be the home of all the project managers in an organization, or it may simply be a resource
for all project managers, who report to their line areas.
Typical objectives of a PMO are:
• Help ensure that projects are aligned with organizational objectives
• Provide templates and procedures for use by project managers
• Provide training and mentorship
• Provide facilitation
• Stay abreast of the latest trends in project management
• Serve as a repository for project reports and lessons learned
The existence and role of PMOs tends to be somewhat fluid. If a PMO is created, and greater success is
not experienced in organizational projects, the PMO is at risk of being disbanded as a cost-saving
measure. If an organization in which you are a project manager or a project team member has a PMO, try
to make good use of the resources available. If you are employed as a resource person in a PMO,
remember that your role is not to get in the way and create red tape, but to enable and enhance the success
of project managers and projects within the organization.

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Text Attributions
• Table 4.1 by Adrienne Watt. © CC BY (Attribution).
This chapter of Project Management is a derivative of the following texts:
• Project Management by Merrie Barron and Andrew Barron. © CC BY (Attribution).
• Project Management From Simple to Complex by Russel Darnall, John Preston, Eastern
Michigan University. © CC BY (Attribution).
Media Attributions
• PM star model by GeekDesplaced © CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike)

Page 1 of 9June 2021
How to Build Work Breakdown Structures
Additional Lecture Material from Garrett Rowley, Adjunct Professor, UMGC

WBS Overview
To begin, here is how the PMBOK® defines the WBS:
“The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by
the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required
deliverables. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project and
represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement.”
(Project Management Institute, 2017)

Notice the emphasis placed on project scope. It is the starting point for getting from a high-level concept
down to the details of the work needed to execute the project and ultimately satisfy the scope. That
happens through something called decomposition.
“Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and
project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts. The work package is the work
defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost, and duration can be estimated
and managed.” (Project Management Institute, 2017)

• A WBS is not a schedule
• A schedule is not a WBS
• Neither a WBS nor a schedule is an unordered checklist
It is important for you to understand how all this works before you begin Week 3. A correctly structured
WBS will enable you to produce the results expected from ITP-1 Project WBS with Durations, TTP-4
Project Costs and Resources and TPP-6 Project Execution, Tracking and Changes.

Top-Down WBS Creation
• Step 1: Identify the final products of the project – what must be delivered to achieve project
success. A thorough review of high-level project scope documents is recommended to ensure
consistency between the WBS and the project requirements.
• Step 2: Define the project’s major deliverables, which are often interim deliverables (such as a
design specification) necessary for the project, but which in themselves do not satisfy a business
• Step 3: Decompose major deliverables to a level of detail appropriate for management and
integrated control. These WBS elements are normally tied to clear and discrete identification of
stand-alone deliverable products. The sum of the elements at each level should represent 100%
of the work in the element above it (the 100% Rule). Each work package of the WBS should
contain only one deliverable.
• Step 4: Review and refine the WBS until project stakeholders agree that project planning can be
successfully completed, and that execution and control will successfully produce the desired
deliverables and results.
(Project Management Institute, 2006)

Page 2 of 9June 2021
This is where Microsoft Project® diverges from Haugan, PMI, and other project management experts.
PMI uses three descriptors in the WBS:
1. WBS Element
2. Work Package
3. Activity

Project® uses only two:
1. Summary Task
2. Subtask

Since we are using Project® in this class, we will use Microsoft’s descriptors. (Microsoft Office Support,

Summary Task:
• Is the Project® equivalent of a WBS element1
• Is made up of subtasks (or other summary tasks) indented below it
• Shows a rollup of the combined information from subtask(s)
• Never has work or resources assigned
• Named using adjective/noun format (represents a deliverable)
• Does not use verbs in the name (no action is performed)

• Is the Project® equivalent of an activity
• Is a component of work performed during the course of a project
• Named using verb, adjective, and noun format (conveys action)
• Has defined start and finish points
• Has expected duration, cost, and resource requirements
• Has a single person or organization responsible for the work
• Has tangible output or product at completion
• Fits logically under an existing Summary Task
WBS Example
Here is a hypothetical project from Haugan. Watch as I decompose it into smaller parts. Assume the
objective statement goes something like, “Develop a Time-Sharing System (TSS)”. Rather simple, but I
like it. As an experienced TSS project manager, I know we need to deliver:
1) A requirements specification
2) A design specification
3) The TSS software

At the lowest level of the WBS, the summary task is equivalent to a work package and provides a logical basis for defining activities as
Page 3 of 9June 2021

Figure 1: TSS Project at WBS Level 1
When building the WBS, you must understand how WBS numbering works. Figure 1 shows WBS Level 1
for the TSS project. This level represents the major deliverables of the project. Now we can decompose
the WBS into lower levels. As you might suspect, there is a convention for structuring WBS levels:
• The high-level product elements, or major deliverables, belong at Level 1
• The Project Management element also belongs at Level 1
o This is for the managerial responsibilities and activities of the project including such
items as reports, project reviews and other activities of the project manager and staff
o The WBS always has a Project Management element
• The decomposition of the Level 1 elements belongs at Level 2 or lower
• Decomposition of a WBS branch ends with a Work Package element (no more decomposition
• Use an outline numbering scheme, a simple hierarchy of numbers and decimals representing
WBS levels2

Figure 2: TSS Project at WBS Level 2
That’s it! My WBS is finished. Notice:
1) I did not indent any WBS elements
2) I used Excel® to build my WBS3

Here are several points to take into consideration when building your WBS:
• The WBS structure is not based on timing or sequence dependencies among components.
Timing, sequencing, and dependencies are project schedule concerns.
• The WBS is not strictly structured by process or organization.

2 For example: 1, 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.2.3, etc.
3 Since Project® manages WBS numbering, I will only copy the WBS elements into Project® – not the WBS numbers.
Page 4 of 9June 2021
• The WBS defines the logical relationships among all components of the project.
• All WBS elements are deliverable-oriented.
• Project activities are not listed, as these are components of the project schedule, not the WBS.
• All WBS element names are nouns. Verbs are not used to identify WBS elements.
• The WBS includes only sufficient and necessary deliverables as defined in the project scope.
• All project deliverables (i.e., regulatory permits, packaging, distribution, or marketing, as well as
preliminary, interim, internal, external, or final deliverables) are identified and detailed.
• There are no WBS elements with overlapping responsibilities. Each WBS element must have one
person who is clearly accountable for its completion.

The WBS is NOT the same as your project schedule. Over the years, I have seen a lot of Project
Managers confuse the two. Don’t be that PM! On the other hand, the WBS will be used in the project
schedule. That is why I did not indent any WBS elements. I am going to copy the list of WBS elements
(but not the WBS numbers) and paste them into Project®.
Schedule Development Process
Starting with the WBS:
1) Enter the WBS in Project®
2) List all deliverable end items or services under their appropriate WBS element
3) Define and list tasks (activities) under each lowest-level summary task (WBS element, i.e., the
work package)
4) Establish task durations and, if applicable, task resources
5) Identify predecessor – successor relationships between tasks
6) Iterate steps 3 and 4 as necessary to achieve a workable schedule
(Haugan, 2002)

Notice the WBS numbering in Figure 3. It has no decimals yet because the WBS elements are not
indented. (Microsoft Office Support, n.d.)

Figure 3: WBS Entered in Project
Page 5 of 9June 2021
Figure 4 shows the result of Steps 1 and 2 of the schedule development process. In this project, the
finished WBS goes to WBS level 2 where the work packages show outlined in red.

Figure 4: WBS Level 2 work packages
Page 6 of 9June 2021
Completing Step 3 of the process adds subtasks (activities) at WBS level 3 indented under the WBS level
2 summary tasks (work packages). Figure 5 shows the resulting project with subtasks outlined in red4.

Figure 5: WBS Level 3 activities

4 It is normal and usual to add two milestones to a project – one for Project Start and one for Project Complete, I placed them at WBS level 1.
Page 7 of 9June 2021
Completing steps 4 (establish task durations) and 5 (identify predecessor – successor relationships) of
the Schedule Development Process results in the fully loaded project shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: The TSS project schedule
Page 8 of 9June 2021
The “Hidden” Level
There is a WBS Level that I have not yet explained. It is Level 0, also known as the Project Level of the
WBS. Project® automatically creates it for you, based on the file name used when saving the project file.
By default, Project® defaults to hiding Level 0 but you can (and should) reveal it:
• From the ribbon, open the Format tab

• From the Show/Hide group, select Project Summary Task

Here is what you get:

WBS Final Thoughts
As you go through your assignments, it is important to get the terminology right. Since the beginning,
Microsoft has called every row in a project schedule a task. This is not consistent with the PMBOK®
Guide or with Haugan or with practically any career project manager. If you fall into the habit of thinking
everything is a task instead of distinguishing between WBS elements and activities, your project
schedules will not work as intended.
Page 9 of 9June 2021
Haugan, G. (2002). Effective Work Breakdown Structures. Vienna, VA: Management Concepts.
Microsoft Office Support. (n.d.). Create and work with subtasks and summary tasks in Project desktop.
Retrieved from support.office.com: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/create-and-work-
Microsoft Office Support. (n.d.). Outline Level fields. Retrieved from support.office.com:
Project Management Institute. (2006). Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures, 2nd ed.
Newtown Square, PA: PMI.
Project Management Institute. (2017). PMBOK Guide – 6th Edition. Newtown Square, PA: PMI.

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Download for free from the B.C. Open Textbook Collection.
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1. Project Management: Past and Present
Careers Using Project Management Skills
Skills learned by your exposure to studying project management can be used in most careers as well as in
your daily life. Strong planning skills, good communication, ability to implement a project to deliver the
product or service while also monitoring for risks and managing the resources will provide an edge
toward your success. Project managers can be seen in many industry sectors including agriculture and
natural resources; arts, media, and entertainment; building trades and construction; energy and utilities;
engineering and design; fashion and interiors; finance and business; health and human services;
hospitality, tourism, and recreation; manufacturing and product development; public and private
education services; public services; retail and wholesale trade; transportation; and information
Below we explore various careers and some of the ways in which project management knowledge can be
Business Owners
Business owners definitely need to have some project management skills. With all successful businesses,
the product or service being delivered to the customer meets their needs in many ways. The product or
service is of the quality desired, the costs are aligned with what the consumer expected, and the timeliness
of the product or service meets the deadline for the buyer of that item.
The pillars of project management are delivering a product/service within schedule, cost, scope, and
quality requirements. Business owners need planning, organizing, and scoping skills and the ability to
analyze, communicate, budget, staff, equip, implement, and deliver.
Understanding the finances, operations, and expenses of the business are among the skills that project
managers learn and practice. Some businesses may focus more on accounting, providing financial advice,
sales, training, public relations, and actuary or logistician roles. Business owners may own a travel agency
or provide hospitality. Business owners could be managing a storefront or a location in their town’s
Example: Restaurant Owner/Manager
Restaurant managers are responsible for the daily operations of a restaurant that prepares and serves
meals and beverages to customers. Strong planning skills, especially coordinating with the various
departments (kitchen, dining room, banquet operations, food service managers, vendors providing the
supplies) ensure that customers are satisfied with their dining experience. Managers’ abilities to recruit
and retain employees, and monitor employee performance and training ensure quality with cost
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containment. Scheduling in many aspects, not only the staff but also the timing of the food service
deliveries, is critical in meeting customer expectations.
Risk management is essential to ensure food safety and quality. Managers monitor orders in the kitchen to
determine where delays may occur, and they work with the chef to prevent these delays. Legal
compliance is essential in order for the restaurant to stay open, so restaurant managers direct the cleaning
of the dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment. They ensure the safety
standards and legality, especially in serving alcohol. Sensitivity and strong communication skills are
needed when customers have complaints or employees feel pressured because more customers arrive than
Financial knowledge is needed for the soundness of running the restaurant, especially tracking special
projects, events, and costs for the various menu selections. Catering events smoothly can be an outcome
of using project plans and the philosophy of project management. The restaurant manager or the executive
chef analyzes the recipes to determine food, labour, and overhead costs; determines the portion size and
nutritional content of each serving; and assigns prices to various menu items, so that supplies can be
ordered and received in time.
Planning is the key for successful implementation. Managers or executive chefs need to estimate food
needs, place orders with distributors, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and supplies. They also plan
for routine services (equipment maintenance, pest control, waste removal) and deliveries, including linen
services or the heavy cleaning of dining rooms or kitchen equipment, to occur during slow times or when
the dining room is closed. A successful restaurant relies on many skills that the project management
profession emphasizes.
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Outsourcing Services

Figure 1.1: Sample status chart, which is typical with the use of a red-yellow-green
Many businesses explore outsourcing for certain services. Below is a sample status and project plan that
reflects the various tasks needed for a project. A review of finances, the importance of communicating to
stakeholders, and the importance of time, cost, schedule, scope, and quality are reflected. Many
companies may use these steps in their business. These plans show the need for the entire team to review
the various proposals to choose the best plan. Figure 1.1 represents a sample project status report.
Example: Construction Managers
Construction managers plan, direct, coordinate, and budget a wide variety of residential, commercial, and
industrial construction projects including homes, stores, offices, roads, bridges, wastewater treatment
plants, schools, and hospitals. Strong scheduling skills are essential for this role. Communication skills
are often used in coordinating design and construction processes, teams executing the work, and
governance of special trades (carpentry, plumbing, electrical wiring) as well as government
representatives for the permit processes.
A construction manager may be called a project manager or project engineer. The construction manager
ensures that the project is completed on time and within budget while meeting quality specifications and
codes and maintaining a safe work environment. These managers create project plans in which they
divide all required construction site activities into logical steps, estimating and budgeting the time
required to meet established deadlines, usually utilizing sophisticated scheduling and cost-estimating
software. Many use software packages such as Microsoft Project® or Procure® or online tools like
BaseCamp®. Most construction projects rely on spreadsheets for project management. Procurement skills
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used in this field include acquiring the bills for material, lumber for the house being built, and more.
Construction managers also coordinate labor, determining the needs and overseeing their performance,
ensuring that all work is completed on schedule.
Values including sustainability, reuse, LEED-certified building, use of green energy, and various energy
efficiencies are being incorporated into today’s projects with an eye to the future. Jennifer Russell, spoke
about project management and global sustainability” at the 2011 Silicon Valley Project Management
Institute (PMI) conference. She informed the attendees of the financial, environmental, and social areas in
expanding the vision of project management with the slide in Figure 1.2. These values are part of the
PMI’s code of ethics and professionalism. By adhering to this code, project managers include in their
decisions the best interests of society, the safety of the public, and enhancement of the environment.

Figure 1.2: In addition to considering the cost, scope, and schedule of a project, a project manager should work to ensure the
project is socially responsible, environmentally sound, and economically viable.
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 5
Creative Services
Creative service careers include graphic artists, curators, video editors, gaming managers, multimedia
artists, media producers, technical writers, interpreters, and translators. These positions use project
management skills, especially in handling the delivery channel and meeting clients’ requirements.
Let us look at one example, graphic artists, to understand and identify some of the project management
skills that aid in this career.
Example: Graphic Artists
Graphic artists plan, analyze, and create visual solutions to communication problems. They use many
skills found in project management, especially communications. They work to achieve the most effective
way to get messages across in print and electronic media. They emphasize their messages using colour,
type, illustration, photography, animation, and various print and layout techniques. Results can be seen in
magazines, newspapers, journals, corporate reports, and other publications. Other deliverables from
graphic artists using project management skills include promotional displays, packaging, and marketing
brochures supporting products and services, logos, and signage. In addition to print media, graphic artists
create materials for the web, TV, movies, and mobile device apps.
Initiation in project management can be seen in developing a new design: determining the needs of the
client, the message the design should portray, and its appeal to customers or users. Graphic designers
consider cognitive, cultural, physical, and social factors in planning and executing designs for the target
audience, very similar to some of the dynamics a project manager considers in communicating with
various project stakeholders. Designers may gather relevant information by meeting with clients, creative
staff, or art directors; brainstorming with others within their firm or professional association; and
performing their own research to ensure that their results have high quality and they can manage risks.
Graphic designers may supervise assistants who follow instructions to complete parts of the design
process. Therefore scheduling, resource planning, and cost monitoring are pillars of project management
seen in this industry. These artists use computer and communications equipment to meet their clients’
needs and business requirements in a timely and cost-efficient manner.
“Educator” is a broad term that can describe a career in teaching, maybe being a lecturer, a professor, a
tutor, or a home-schooler. Other educators include gurus, mullahs, pastors, rabbis, and priests. Instructors
also provide vocational training or teach skills like learning how to drive a car or use a computer.
Educators provide motivation to learn a new language or showcase new products and services. Educators
use project management skills including planning and communication.
Let us look at teachers, since we all have had teachers, and see if we can recognize the project
management skills that are demonstrated in this profession.
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Example: Teachers
Some teachers foster the intellectual and social development of children during their formative years;
other teachers provide knowledge, career skill sets, and guidance to adults. Project management skills that
teachers exhibit include acting as facilitators or coaches and communicating in the classroom and in
individual instruction. Project managers plan and evaluate various aspects of a project; teachers plan,
evaluate, and assign lessons; implement these plans; and monitor each student’s progress similar to the
way a project manager monitors and delivers goods or services. Teachers use their people skills to
manage students, parents, and administrators. The soft skills that project managers exercise can be seen in
teachers who encourage collaboration in solving problems by having students work in groups to discuss
and solve problems as a team.
Project managers may work in a variety of fields with a broad assortment of people, similar to teachers
who work with students from varied ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds. These teachers must
have awareness and understanding of different cultures.
Teachers in some schools may be involved in making decisions regarding the budget, personnel,
textbooks, curriculum design, and teaching methods, demonstrating skills that a project manager would
possess such as financial management and decision making.
Engineers apply the principles of science and mathematics to develop economical solutions to technical
problems. As a project cycles from an idea in the project charter to the implementation and delivery of a
product or service, engineers link scientific discoveries to commercial applications that meet societal and
consumer needs.
Engineers use many project management skills, especially when they must specify functional
requirements. They demonstrate attention to quality as they evaluate a design’s overall effectiveness, cost,
reliability, and safety similar to the project manager reviewing the criteria for the customer’s acceptance
of delivery of the product or service.
Estimation skills in project management are used in engineering. Engineers are asked many times to
provide an estimate of time and cost required to complete projects.
Health Care
There are many jobs and careers in health care that use project management skills. Occupations in the
field of health care vary widely, such as athletic trainer, dental hygienist, massage therapist, occupational
therapist, optometrist, nurse, physician, physician assistant, and X-ray technician.These
individuals actively apply risk management in providing health care delivery of service to their clients,
ensuring that they do not injure the person they are caring for. Note: There is a section on nursing later in
this chapter.
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Many of you may have had a fall while you were growing up, and needed an X-ray to determine if you
had a fracture or merely a sprain. Let us look at this career as an example of a health care professional
using project management skills.
Example: Radiology Technologists
Radiology technologists and technicians perform diagnostic imaging examinations like X-rays, computed
tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and mammography. They could also be called
radiographers, because they produce X-ray films (radiographs) of parts of the human body for use in
diagnosing medical problems.
Project management skills, especially people skills and strong communication, are demonstrated when
they prepare patients for radiologic examinations by explaining the procedure and what position the
patient needs to be in, so that the parts of the body can be appropriately radiographed. Risk management
is demonstrated when these professionals work to prevent unnecessary exposure to radiation by
surrounding the exposed area with radiation protection devices, such as lead shields, or limiting the size
of the X-ray beam. To ensure quality results, the health technician monitors the radiograph and sets
controls on the X-ray machine to produce radiographs of the appropriate density, detail, and contrast.
Safety and regulations concerning the use of radiation to protect themselves, their patients, and their
coworkers from unnecessary exposure is tracked in an efficient manner and reported as a control to ensure
compliance. Project management skills are also used in preparing work schedules, evaluating equipment
for purchase, or managing a radiology department.
Some radiological technologists specialize in CT scans; as CT technologists they too use project
management skills. CT uses ionizing radiation to produce a substantial number of cross-sectional X-rays
of an area of the body. Therefore, it requires the same precautionary measures that are used with X-rays,
hence the need for risk management and monitoring for exposure.
Teamwork, not only with the patient that the radiological technologist supports and the doctor who
ordered the request, but also with other health care providers, relies on strong communication, quality,
work done in a timely manner, and wise use of hospital resources. This all boils down to ensuring that the
three elements of the project management triangle of cost, schedule, and scope with quality delivered
remain the essentials that provide a cornerstone to project management and the skills needed to obtain the
Example: Nurses
Nurses treat and educate patients and their families and the public about various medical conditions and
provide advice and emotional support. Nurses establish a care plan for their patients that include activities
like scheduling the administration and discontinuation of medications (e.g., intravenous (IV) lines for
fluid, medication, blood, and blood products) and application of therapies and treatments. Communication
with the patient, their family, physicians and other health care clinicians may be done in person or
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 8
via technology. Telehealth allows nurses to provide care and advice through electronic communications
media including videoconferencing, the Internet, or telephone.
Risk management is very important for a nurse, with some cases having a life or death consequence.
Nurses monitor pain management and vital signs and provide status reports to physicians to help in
responding to the health care needs of the patient.
The nursing field varies. Some nurses work in infection control. They identify, track, and control
infectious outbreaks in health care facilities and create programs for outbreak prevention and response to
biological terrorism. Others are educators who plan, develop, execute, and evaluate educational programs
and curricula for the professional development of students and graduate nurses. Nurses may use project
management skills while conducting health care consultations, advising on public policy, researching in
the field, or providing sales support of a product or service.
Attorneys assume the ultimate responsibility for legal work but they often obtain assistance. Paralegals
assume this role in law firms and perform many tasks to aid the legal profession. However, they are
explicitly prohibited from carrying out duties considered to be the practice of law (e.g., giving legal
advice, setting legal fees, presenting court cases).
Project management skills such as planning are used in helping lawyers prepare for closings, hearings,
trials, and corporate meetings. Communication skills are used in preparing written reports that help
attorneys determine how cases should be handled or drafts for actions such as pleading, filing motions,
and obtaining affidavits.
Monitoring skills aid paralegals who may track files of important case documents, working on risk
containment related to filing dates and responses to the court. Procurement skills, which a project
manager uses, canalso be seen from a paralegal perspective in negotiatingterms of hiring expert
witnesses as well as other services such as acquiring services fromprocess servers.
Financial skills may be used as well, such as assisting in preparing tax returns, establishing trust funds,
and planning estates or maintaining financial office records at the law firm.
Government, litigation, personal injury, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, intellectual
property, labour law, bankruptcy, immigration, family law, and real estate are some of the many different
law practices where a paralegal professional may use project management skills.
Software developer
Computer software developers and computer programmers design and develop software. They apply the
principles of computer science and mathematics to create, test, and evaluate software applications and
systems that make computers come alive. Software is developed in many kinds of projects: computer
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 9
games, business applications, operating systems, network control systems, and more. Software developers
us project management skills to develop the requirements for the software, identify and track the product
development tasks, communicate within the development team and with clients, test cases, and manage
quality, the schedule, and resources (staff, equipment, labs, and more).
Science Technicians
Science technicians use principles and theories of science and mathematics to assist in research and
development and help invent and improve products and processes. In their jobs, they are more practically
oriented than scientists. Planning skills project managers use can be seen as science technicians set up,
operate, and maintain labouratory instruments; monitor experiments; and observe, calculate, and record
results. Quality is a factor here as it is in project management; science technicians must ensure
that processes are performed correctly, with proper proportions of ingredients, for purity or for strength
and durability.
There are different fields in which science technicians can apply project management skills. Agricultural
and food science technicians test food and other agricultural products and are involved in food, fibre, and
animal research, production, and processing. Control and risk management are important here in
executing the tests and experiments, for example, to improve the yield and quality of crops, orthe
resistance of plants and animals to disease, insects, or other hazards. Quality factors are paramount when
food science technicians conduct tests on food additives and preservatives to ensure compliance with
government regulations regarding colour, texture, and nutrients.
Biological technicians work with biologists studying living organisms. Many assist scientists who
conduct medical research or who work in pharmaceutical companies to help develop and manufacture
medicines. Skills in scheduling, especially in incubation periods for the study of the impact on cells, could
impact projects, such as exploring and isolating variables for research in living organisms and infectious
agents. Biotechnology technicians apply knowledge and execution skills and techniques gained from
basic research, including gene splicing and recombinant DNA, to product development. Project
management skills are used in collaboration and communication among team members to record and
understand the results and progress toward a cure or product.
Other kinds of technicians are chemical technicians who may work in labouratories or factories, using
monitoring and control skills in the way they collect and analyze samples. Again, quality assurance is an
important factor for most process technicians’ work in manufacturing, testing packaging for design,
ensuring integrity of materials, and verifying environmental acceptability.
Technicians use a project management skill set to assist in their initiation, planning, and executing tasks,
while managing risks with some measure of reporting to determine if their objectives satisfy the
constraints of cost, schedule, resource, and quality standards set.
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 10
Could the Great Wall of China, the pyramids, or Stonehenge have been built without project
management? It is possible to say that the concept of project management has been around since the
beginning of history. It has enabled leaders to plan bold and massive projects and manage funding,
materials, and labour within a designated time frame.
In late 19th century, in the United States, large-scale government projects were the impetus for making
important decisions that became the basis for project management methodology such as the
transcontinental railroad, which began construction in the 1860s. Suddenly, business leaders found
themselves faced with the daunting task of organizing the manual labour of thousands of workers and the
processing and assembly of unprecedented quantities of raw material.

Figure 1.3: MindView Gantt Chart.
Henry Gantt, studied in great detail the order of operations in work and is most famous for developing the
Gantt chart in the 1910s. A Gantt chart (Figure 1.3) is a popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project
schedule and has become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project so
they can be understood by a wide audience. Although now a common charting technique, Gantt charts
were considered revolutionary at the time they were introduced. Gantt charts were employed on major
infrastructure projects in the United States including the Hoover Dam and the interstate highway system
and are still accepted today as important tools in project management.
By the mid-20th century, projects were managed on an ad hoc basis using mostly Gantt charts and
informal techniques and tools. During that time, the Manhattan Project was initiated and its complexity
was only possible because of project management methods. The Manhattan Project was the code name
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 11
given to the Allied effort to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It involved over
30 different project sites in the United States and Canada, and thousands of personnel from the United
States, Canada, and the U.K. Born out of a small research program that began in 1939, the Manhattan
Project would eventually employ 130,000 people, cost a total of nearly US$2 billion, and result in the
creation of multiple production and research sites operated in secret. The project succeeded in developing
and detonating three nuclear weapons in 1945.
The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era. Two mathematical project-
scheduling models were developed.
The program evaluation and review technique (PERT) was developed by Booz-Allen and Hamilton as
part of the United States Navy’s Polaris missile submarine program. PERT is basically a method for
analyzing the tasks involved in completing a project, especially the time needed to complete each task, the
dependencies among tasks, and the minimum time needed to complete the total project (Figure 1.4).
The critical path method (CPM) was developed in a joint venture by DuPont Corporation and Remington
Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects. The critical path determines the float, or
schedule flexibility, for each activity by calculating the earliest start date, earliest finish date, latest start
date, and latest finish date for each activity. The critical path is generally the longest full path on the
project. Any activity with a float time that equals zero is considered a critical path task. CPM can help
you figure out how long your complex project will take to complete and which activities are critical,
meaning they have to be done on time or else the whole project will take longer. These mathematical
techniques quickly spread into many private enterprises.

Figure 1.4: Pert Chart
Project management in its present form began to take root a few decades ago. In the early 1960s,
industrial and business organizations began to understand the benefits of organizing work around projects.
They understood the critical need to communicate and integrate work across multiple departments and
Project Management by Adrienne Watt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License 12
Text Attributions
This chapter of Project Management is a derivative and remix of the following sources:
• Project Management by Merrie Barron and Andrew Barron. © CC BY (Attribution).
• Project Management for Skills for All Careers by Project Management Open Resources and TAP-
a-PM. © Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Licence.
Media Attributions
• Sourcing initiative status report by Maura Irene Jones in Project Management Skills for All
Careers © CC BY (Attribution)
• Project Management Triange by Jennifer Russell © CC BY (Attribution)
• Mindview Gantt Chart by Matchware Inc (MindView) © CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike)
• Pert Chart (Colored) by Jeremykemp adapted by Rehua © Public Domain


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