identify and explain process you would use to encourage healthy coping behaviors for Michael’s stressors.

Step-3 of McCollum’s Model of Mental Health Education is “Goal Setting”to identify short-term or long-term goals for changes in knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Module 4 provided several theories, models, and constructs for stress and coping. For this assignment, you are asked to apply stress and coping theory to reduce the stress response.
Think about the population identified in module two and the assessment measurements selected in module three. Then, summarize the population and assessment tool.
Reflect on the theories of stress and coping. Select one theory that aligns with the population and assessment and provide an overview.
Select one of the below:
relaxation techniques (Focus feature 4.1 pg. 110)
stress-management and reduction techniques (Focus Feature 4.2 pg. 112).
In 2-3 paragraphs, explain how you would use the theory to implement the technique. Then, identify specific behaviors modified by the method. Discuss the cultural impact of the theory/technique on the population and its alignment with cultural traditions.
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ATTACHED FILE(S)
Theories of Stress and Coping
Module 4
Response-based Models
Event-based Model
Coping & Defense Mechanisms
Transactional Model
Generalized unsafety theory of stress (GUTS)
Adaptive Calibration Model
End of Presentation
Stress and Coping
CHAPTER 4
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Copyright © 2021 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company. www.jblearning.com
Historical Perspectives
The concept of stress in physiology and psychology was not known before 1932. Prior to that time, this term was used mainly in physical sciences to denote cracks in the structure of buildings caused by pressure.
Walter Cannon (1932), a physiologist, first defined stress as a “fight-or-flight” syndrome.
Hans Selye (1936) described the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
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General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Exposing rats to events such as cold, heat, injury, infection, loss of blood, pain, and other noxious stimuli causes their adrenal glands to secrete corticoid hormones and their bodies to go through three stages:
1. Alarm reaction, in which the homeostasis, or balance, is disrupted by the noxious stimuli
2. Stage of resistance, in which the body tries to resist the noxious stimuli
3. Exhaustion, or permanent damage
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1960s: Event-Based Models
Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe (1967) developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, which listed 43 life events, each with a predetermined weight, and asked the person to identify events he or she had experienced in the past year.
This was the start of event-based models.
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1970s: Coping
Psychologist Norma Haan (1977) distinguished defense mechanisms from coping.
She explained that coping is purposive and involves choices, whereas defense mechanisms are rigid and set.
Coping is focused on the present, whereas defense mechanisms are premised on the past and distort the present.
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Transactional Model (1 of 2)
All stressful experiences, including chronic illnesses, are perceived as person–environment transactions
The person undertakes a four-stage assessment known as appraisal.
1. Primary appraisal: The person internally determines the severity of the stressor and whether he or she is in trouble.
2. Secondary appraisal: The person determines how much control he or she has over the stressor.
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Transactional Model (2 of 2)
Appraisal (continued)
3. Coping: The individual ascertains what means of control are available to him or her.
There are two broad categories of coping: problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.
4. Reappraisal: The person determines whether the effects of the stressor have been effectively negated.
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Type A and Type B Personalities
Friedman and Rosenman (1974) classified people into type A and type B personalities.
The type A personality was characterized by hurrying, exercising control over people and things, a sense of urgency, and a challenging nature.
The type B personality was more laid back and had a more relaxed disposition.
It was found that type B personalities had less stress, and type A personalities had more stress.
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Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) (1 of 2)
According to this theory, instead of the stressors, it is the unconscious perception of “unsafety” that results in prolonged stress responses that often lead to mental illnesses.
Principles:
Perception of unsafety gives rise to physiological response in humans.
The stress response is largely unconscious.
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Generalized Unsafety Theory of Stress (GUTS) (2 of 2)
Prolonged stress response can even occur without the presence of stressors or their thoughts as long as unconscious perception of unsafety is present through compromised conditions.
Worrying and rumination are both part of the result of stress response and cause for its maintenance.
Safety signals that can counteract such stress responses can be socially learned, which can form the basis of stress-management programs.
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Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM)
Combines modern evolutionary and developmental biology in its conceptualization
According to this model, the individual variations to stress response are due to a person’s inability to modify its response to match the conditions of physical and social environmental changes.
Based on this model, the purpose of stress management efforts is to reduce sympathetic and HPA activation, which can be learned through techniques such as biofeedback; relaxation; and mind–body–spirit interventions such as yoga, tai chi, mindfulness mediation, etc.
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Types of Stressors (1 of 4)
Life events or life change events
Discrete, observable, and objectively reportable events that require some social and/or psychological adjustment on the part of the individual
Recent: Within past year
Remote: Childhood events such as physical abuse, sexual abuse, and/or neglect
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Types of Stressors (2 of 4)
Chronic stressors
Events encountered in everyday life; more prevalent
Persistent life difficulties: Life events lasting longer than 6 months (e.g., long-term disability)
Role strains: From performing specific roles (parenting, working, being in a relationship, etc.) or a multiplicity of roles at the same time
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Types of Stressors (3 of 4)
Chronic stressors (continued)
Chronic strains: Response of one social group to another (e.g., overt or covert, intentional or unintentional discriminatory behavior due to race, ethnicity, etc.)
Community-wide strains: Stressors at an ecological level (e.g., living in a high-crime neighborhood)
Daily hassles: Everyday problems (e.g., standing in a queue, getting stuck in traffic)
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14
Types of Stressors (4 of 4)
Nonevents
Desired or anticipated events when they do not occur (e.g., wanting to graduate but not having enough credits)
Desirable events that do not occur even though their occurrence is normative for people of a certain group (e.g., having an intimate friend of the opposite sex as a college student)
Not having anything to do (e.g., getting bored)
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15
Types of Coping
Problem-focused coping
Based on one’s capability to think and to alter the environmental event or situation
Emotion-focused coping
Based on focusing inward on altering the way one thinks or feels about a situation or an event
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Problem-Focused Coping (1 of 2)
Examples of this strategy at the thought process level include:
Utilization of problem-solving skills
Interpersonal conflict resolution
Advice seeking
Time management
Goal setting
Gathering information about what is causing one stress
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Problem-Focused Coping (2 of 2)
Examples of this strategy at the behavioral or action level include activities such as:
Joining a smoking cessation program
Compliance with a prescribed medical treatment
Adherence to a diabetic diet plan
Scheduling and prioritizing tasks for managing time
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Emotion-Focused Coping (1 of 2)
Examples of this strategy at the thought process level include:
Denying the existence of the stressful situation
Freely expressing emotions
Avoiding the stressful situation
Making social comparisons
Minimization, or looking at the bright side of things
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Emotion-Focused Coping (2 of 2)
Examples of this strategy at the behavioral or action level include:
Seeking social support
Use of exercise
Relaxation
Meditation
Support groups
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Examples of Applications of Theories of Stress and Coping (1 of 2)
Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction
Coping following traumatic brain injury
Coping in breast cancer survivors
Coping in the elderly
Coping in elderly people with arthritis
Coping in head and neck cancer patients
Coping in newly incarcerated adolescents
Coping in old-age psychosis
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Examples of Applications of Theories of Stress and Coping (2 of 2)
Coping in people with sickle cell disease
Coping in survivors of domestic violence
Coping with sexual abuse in childhood
Coping with exacerbation in psoriasis and eczema
Coping with diabetes mellitus
Prevention of atherosclerosis
Prevention in recurrent depression
Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment for stroke caregivers
Smoking cessation
Worksite stress-management program
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Limitations of Response-Based Models
Nonspecificity of stimuli/stressors
Do not account for individual variations
Multiplicity of stressors not addressed
No attention to the cognitive processing of the stressor(s)
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Limitations of Event-Based Models
Do not cover physiological mechanisms
Do not distinguish between cause and effect; for example, disease is an event that produces stress as well as being considered an outcome of stress
Copyright © 2021 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company. www.jblearning.com
Limitations of Transactional Model
Lack of objective measurement of coping
Does not consider personality characteristics
Does not cover physiological mechanisms
Copyright © 2021 by Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC an Ascend Learning Company. www.jblearning.com
Skill-Building Activity
Figure 4.2 How the transactional model can be used to modify healthy coping.
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