HRMN 406: Training Plan

Please see the attached documents, and let me know if any questions or concerns arise. 

PLEASE READ CAREFULLY

– Please use APA (7th edition) formatting 

– All questions and each part of the question should be answered in detail (Go into depth)

– Response to questions must demonstrate understanding and application of concepts covered in class

– Responses MUST be organized (Should be logical and easy to follow)

– Use in-text citations and resources per discussion from the school materials  


The use of course materials to support ideas is HIGHLY RECOMMENDED

“Need at minimum 2 pages

Training Plan. Given the template provided below, prepare a training plan document to present to your HR director. The template includes all the steps of the ADDIE process. Make sure your outcomes are reflected in your content and your assessment.
Note that sections 3 and 4 will be done later on in assignment 3.

ADDIE worksheet – HRMN 406

1. Analyze

What is the learning need?

Who are your learners? What are their backgrounds? What do they already know?

What do the learners need to know? Summarize the content of your training program.

Delivery/Resources/Timeline. What is the delivery method? What resources will you need? What is your timeline?

2. Design

Outcomes. At the end of the training the learners will be able to:

Instructional methods. Describe activities, how learners will engage with the material.

Assessment: What can the learners do/show/present/submit to show they have learned the content?

3. Develop

This is where you will actually develop the material that goes into your course. Include at least:

1. Overview or introduction

2. Content of course

3. Assessment

4. Opportunity for learner feedback

4. Implement

This is where you will upload the content and materials into your Articulate Rise trial.

This will be considered your PROTOTYPE.

Here you will also CALIBRATE by asking 2-3 colleagues to go through your course and give you feedback (also known as USABILITY TESTING).

5. Evaluate

How will you evaluate the effectiveness of your training program?

Getting To Know ADDIE: Part 2 – Design Phase

https://elearningindustry.com/getting-to-know-addie-design

Getting To Know ADDIE: Part 3 – Development Stage

https://elearningindustry.com/getting-to-know-addie-development

Chapter 12

Examples of Using a Process Model
to Design Training Programs

The road has twists and turns but always takes us to the end.

Chapter Twelve

Learning Objectives

Readers will achieve the following learning objectives after reading
Chapter Twelve.

1 Describe the process for creating an hour-long training program.
2 Describe the process for creating a two-hour-long training program.
3 Describe the process for creating a half-day training program.
4 Describe the process for creating a full-day training program.
5 Describe the process for creating a three-day training program.
6 Describe the process for creating an online training program.
7 Describe the process for creating a visual representation for a one-hour,

two-hour, half-day, full-day, three-day, and online training programs.
8 Identify the issues and discuss the process in applying a training

program cost-benefit analysis model.

Learning Objective #1: Describe the Process for Creating
an Hour-Long Training Program

Situation

Nazares Women’s Designer Clothing conducts frequent customer surveys
covering such critical subjects as customer service satisfaction. Customer sur-
vey results over the past year indicate a steady and persistent unhappiness
with customer service. The most significant complaint is inattentiveness from
Customer Service Assistants when a customer enters the store.

Needs Assessment

Two training program designers assigned to design the training program met
with marketing managers to discuss their concerns. After the meeting the

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176 Examples of Using a Process Model

designers formulated two sets of questions for interviewing a random sam-
ple of store managers and Customer Service Assistants. After conducting the
qualitative surveys, the designers concluded the following.

• Neither the store managers nor the assistants knew the company’s policy
on greeting customers.

• Store managers and assistants had different perceptions on how to greet
customers entering the store.

• Assistants were very young and for many this was their first real job.
• Assistants are uncomfortable with strangers.
• Store managers were unfamiliar with the best approach to provide feed-

back to assistants about avoiding socializing among themselves or texting
when at work.

Training Goals

Designers drafted two training program goals that senior management approved.

1 Within six months of the start of training, 70% or more of customer
feedback would rate attention upon entering a store as superior or higher.

2 Within six months of the start of training, 80% or more of feedback from
Customer Service Assistants would rate greeting customers as important.

Learning Objectives

Store managers and Customer Service Assistants will achieve the following
learning objectives upon completing the training program.

1 Store managers and Customer Service Assistants are able to describe the
company policy on greeting customers.

2 Store managers and Customer Service Assistants are able to explain the
process for greeting customers.

3 Customer Service Assistants recognize the importance of being the first
one to initiate communication with a customer on entering the store.

4 Store managers are able to discuss three or more methods of providing
feedback to Customer Service Assistants.

5 Customer Service Assistants are able to re-state three or more methods
store managers can use to provide feedback to them.

6 Customer Service Assistants are able to describe the company’s policy on
the use of cell phones during work hours.

Constraints

The time limitation means that the designers could only offer an overview of
the organization’s policies. Management would allow only one hour of training.

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Chapter 11

Designing Online Training Programs

You can lead a horse to water but can you make the horse drink?

Chapter Eleven Learning Objectives

Readers will achieve the following learning objectives after reading
Chapter Eleven.

1 Identify and discuss the major benefits of online training programs.
2 Identify and describe the important factors that contribute to a suc-

cessful online training program experience.
3 Identify, describe, and explain the major challenges in creating suc-

cessful online training programs.
4 Identify and discuss the reasons to focus on designing a training

program that motivates trainees.
5 Identify, discuss, and explain, with examples, effective types of

synchronous and asynchronous instructional methods to use in an
online training program.

6 Identify, discuss, and explain, with examples, formative assessment
methods to use in an online training program.

7 Identify and describe effective communication methods to use in an
online training program.

8 Identify and describe the important personal attributes of an online
training program trainer.

9 Identify, describe, and explain the methods to use to overcome
trainee resistance to learning through an online training program.

10 Discuss the application of the RISD and the RISDP models in
designing trainee-centered online training programs.

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Book: Stanley C. Ross. (2019). Training and Development in Organizations: An Essential Guide For Trainers. Routledge.

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Designing Online Training Programs 159

Designing Online Training Programs

Learning Objective #1: Identify and Discuss the Major
Benefits of Online Training Programs

Online training programs offer a number of benefits that make designing
and implementing online training programs advantageous for an organiza-
tion to consider under the right circumstances. These circumstances include
the following.

• Cost-effective: there are the initial costs in developing an online training
program, But after the initial cost, the cost of repeating the same training
program is inconsequential. Trainees work at their personal work stations
or at a community work station.

• Standardized format: designing a uniform training program means that the
program offers a consistency that ensures covering all the important issues
in the way the training program designers want the issues covered. This
includes the use of particular instructional methods and assessment meth-
ods along with instructions to accompany each method other than lectures.

• Technology: the use of technology and a course management system
(CMS) offers the organization the chance to reach large numbers of peo-
ple efficiently and enables trainees to pursue the training in their own
time if the training is largely asynchronous.

• Live: if training is live the trainer is at a central location able to reach a
large number of trainees. Alternatively, the training program’s trainer
utilizes video for instructional purposes. In either instance, a limited
number of trainers is sufficient.

• Two-plus rule: online training programs can easily implement the two-
plus rule of being able to utilize two or more instructional methods.
Online training can leverage a wider variety of instructional methods that
are both synchronous and asynchronous.

• CMS: the use of CMS enables the trainers to monitor individual par-
ticipation by activity and aggregate participation rates for all the trainees.
This enables trainers to track trainee participation efforts and helps train-
ers evaluate various aspects of the training program.

• Asynchronous instructional methods: online training programs enable
designers to incorporate the use of asynchronous instructional meth-
ods more easily into the training program. This is advantageous to the
trainees as trainees have the flexibility to respond when and how they
prefer within the guidelines of the program. This approach is practi-
cal and supported by the learning theory of andragogy. Andragogy (or
constructionism) posits that adult learners prefer to be in control of their
learning experiences.

• Emails: a log of email exchanges between the trainer and individual
trainees provides a useful historical record that trainers, administrators,
and trainees can reference as needed.

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160 Designing Online Training Programs

• Reference material: online training enables trainers to more easily
post reference material and links to outside sources of information that
trainees can access electronically. Trainers have access to a wide vari-
ety of instructional material and can select relevant items to download
and print.

• Instructional planning: online training programs include instructional
plans that serve as a learning process guide for trainees to follow.

Learning Objective #2: Identify and Describe the Important
Factors that Contribute to a Successful Online Training
Program Experience

A successful training program is determined to be a success when trainees
achieve the learning objectives, which means the program has achieved the
training goals. Identifying the important factors contributing to the program
success is important to ensure that these factors remain on the checklist of
what to do when designing and implementing new training programs.

One factor is that the trainer of an online training program needs to have
experience in online training. An experienced online trainer possesses the
knowledge and skills that can only come from participating in an online
training program. There are the features of the program to know and a pro-
cess to follow that is unique for online training, but it is the subtleties associ-
ated with conducting an online training program that are important to know
and which can make the difference between a successful program and an
unsuccessful program.

Another factor is knowing how to engage a learner. Engaging the learner
(or trainee) is always a trainer’s goal because an engaged learner is motivated to
learn and learning leads to achieving the learning objectives. There are factors
that are essential to perform in fostering the development of an engaged trainee.

• Frequent communication from the trainer to trainees demonstrates an
interest in the subject and the trainee’s learning about the subject. A
trainer’s interest in the trainees’ learning is shown through proactive
communication efforts that demonstrate an interest in a trainee’s success
in learning the training program subject matter.

• Brief learning modules make learning the subject of each module easier
for the trainees. More learning modules with less to learn enables the
trainee to cognitively process the subject matter more easily and also
work within the trainee’s cognitive limitations.

• The choice of instructional methods and the order of presentation of
the instructional methods can impact a trainee’s engagement to learning.
Training program designers need to know when instructional methods
work best in an online training program and vary the order of the instruc-
tional methods used to maintain the interest level of trainees. Using the

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Designing Online Training Programs 161

same instructional method continuously leads to a familiarity that can
lead to a diminished interest in learning.

• Asynchronous types of instructional methods are important to include in
an online training program because these methods engage the trainees in
ongoing learning without them needing to be actually online. Think of
this as homework assignments that a trainee can do when under preferred
learning conditions. Trainees will perform the assignments when ready
to give their best effort.

• Objective-based grading rubrics are very important to the online trainee
because of limited communication time. Objective criteria reduce the
chance of confusion in performing the assigned work successfully. Also,
objective criteria enable the trainer to provide concise and relevant
feedback to trainees who want to succeed and need to know that their
efforts are not at variance with the criteria. For example, if the rubric
asks for two or more correct tables, the trainees need to know how
“correct” is defined in objective terms; two or more is an obvious
objective measure.

• Online training programs enable trainers to use technology to track the
participation rates of all the trainees (and establish baseline measures). This
simultaneously enables monitoring of individual trainee rates (and any
participation rate below the baseline) so that the trainer can reach out to
trainees with low attendance in an effort to engage these trainees in the
learning process.

• An organized, process-oriented training program provides consistency
and familiarity to a trainee who wants to work within their comfort
zone. A trainee’s comfort zone refers to the need for a trainee to reduce or
eliminate all the unknowns that can create learner stress. Though research
indicates some level of stress promotes active learning, a trainee’s comfort
zone is programmed to eliminate all forms of stress. Also, research tells us
that too much stress leads to diminished learning. Feelings of stress affect
the trainee’s comfort zone and engage the trainee to initiate actions to
eliminate the stress.

Learning Objective #3: Identify, Describe, and Explain
the Major Challenges in Creating Successful Online
Training Programs

For trainees, a successful online training program is one where the train-
ees achieve the learning objectives. To achieve the learning objectives
the trainees need to learn the subject matter or demonstrate the skills
required. For learning to occur, the training program designers need to
design a program that engages the trainees in the learning process. To
ensure an engaged learner, there are several challenges that designers need
to overcome.

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162 Designing Online Training Programs

• Designers need to know the learning styles of the trainees and design the
program that appeals to the trainees’ learning styles.

• An engaged learner is an active learner and to engage the trainees the
program needs to appeal to the trainees’ cognitive abilities and feelings of
self-worth (e.g., the program needs to be meaningful).

• Designers need to provide examples of subjects that are useful to the
trainee sufficient for trainees to gain value from the examples.

• A trainer’s communication skills are essential throughout the training
program, but of particular importance when providing feedback to the
trainees. The trainer needs to provide clear, concise, and useful feedback.

• Trainers need to leverage the strengths of the course management system
(CMS) and offset the limitations associated with the use of CMS technology.

• Designers need to include instructional methods most likely to lead to an
engaged learner.

• Customizing the ability to assist individual trainees is a major challenge
because trainees are all different and with different needs. Therefore, the
greater the number of trainees, the greater the challenge in meeting the
needs of each trainee.

• Training by definition involves teaching subject matter that trainees do
not know. There is always some degree of resistance to learning some-
thing new unless the trainees’ motivation to learn exceeds their resistance
to being pushed outside of their comfort zone.

• Time management skills vary among trainees and designers need to
account for this when designing the training program.

• Working with self-motivated trainees is easier than working with train-
ees who need to be motivated. Designers need to account for these two
types of trainees in designing a training program.

• A heterogeneous group of trainees requires that both program designers
and the trainer accommodate the disparate abilities of trainees in design-
ing and implementing the training program.

Learning Objective #4: Identify and Discuss the Reasons to
Focus on Designing a Training Program that Motivates
Trainees

An engaged learner (i.e., trainee) is an individual primed to learn the subject
of a training program. However, designers and trainers cannot always count
on a self-motivated trainee. Designers and trainers need to assume responsi-
bility for motivating trainees. Designers motivate trainees through the design
of the training program. A trainer motivates trainees by their method of
delivering the training program.

A motivated trainee demonstrates three important characteristics. First,
a motivated trainee is engaged intellectually. Cognitive involvement means
that the trainee is intellectually primed to learn. An intellectually committed

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Designing Online Training Programs 163

trainee means that the trainee has already made an emotional commitment
to the training. Emotions or feelings are always the first step in triggering a
motivated trainee. After gaining an emotional commitment, the intellectual
or cognitive commitment follows as the trainee begins to consider how to
commence the learning process and succeed at learning. Finally, the adult
trainee prefers learning within a social context that can include peers. This
insight comes directly from the learning theory of andragogy.

The challenge for both designers and trainers when designing an online
training program and implementing the online training program is knowing
how to engage trainees emotionally, cognitively, and socially.

The starting point in creating an online training program that motivates
is the needs assessment. Knowing the trainee is critical in finding the best
approach to design a motivating online training program. There are several
important issues to consider in this process.

• Trainees’ views on training: the trainees’ views on training are important
because a positive bias means trainees are going to be receptive to train-
ing; a negative bias challenges designers to overcome this perception.

• Subject interest: it is important to know the subject interest of the trainee.
Subjects that trainees show little interest in learning about means design-
ers need to approach covering the subject in a way that encourages the
trainees to want to learn the subject matter.

• Diversity: it is important to learn about the diversity of the trainee group
as a more diverse group of trainees requires designers to develop a pro-
gram that responds to the broader interests of the trainee group. For
example, age is an indicator of potential motivation; the older the trainee
the more self-motivated to want to learn.

• Learning style preferences: it is important to gain insights about the learn-
ing style preferences of trainees. Designers need to consider the optimal
ways trainees prefer learning to ensure that the program appeals to the
learning styles of trainees.

• Readiness to learn: learner readiness to learn the subject is important. A
subject which is too advanced or too simplistic discourages the learner
from actively participating in the training program.

There are three tactics that designers can use to have a positive impact on the
motivation of trainees: learning modules, instructional methods, and assess-
ment methods. Online learning is often impersonal and a trainee’s oppor-
tunity for seeking clarification is limited. The subject of a training program
is divided into parts just as in a textbook with chapter subjects. For online
training purposes, the learning modules (each equivalent to a chapter) are
further divided into learning modules that have a narrower focus. This makes
learning easier because there is less to learn in each module and the coverage
of the information is not as detailed.

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164 Designing Online Training Programs

Instructional methods are the means for facilitating learning. Instructional
methods need to engage the learner to want to learn. Games, contests, goal-
oriented activities, asynchronous activities, extra credit assignments; these
examples represent some of the more engaging forms of instructional meth-
ods. One important concern is to avoid having winners and losers, as the
potential for losing can discourage trainees. Any competitive instructional
method should ensure that everyone has the potential to win. Also, the rewards
must be relevant to the trainee to encourage active participation. Instructional
methods need to be clear and easy to perform successfully.

Finally, assessment is the third important issue the designers need to
consider. Evaluation exercises motivate trainees by creating some degree of
stress associated with being evaluated. Frequent assessments – one per learn-
ing module – mean trainees do not need to learn as much to demonstrate
learning. Also, offering different forms of assessments gives all trainees the
opportunity to excel using a preferred assessment method.

Frequent email exchanges with trainees fills the void where peer interac-
tion is non-existent or limited. Trainers can anticipate trainee needs, respond
to trainee concerns, and answer trainee questions proactively. A proactive
communication approach by trainers aims to provide the social contact train-
ees prefer when participating in a training program.

Learning Objective #5: Identify, Discuss and, Explain, with
Examples, Effective Types of Instructional Methods to Use
in an Online Training Program

With approximately 150 different types of instructional methods available,
the designers of online training programs have a wide range of instructional
methods to choose from. However, there are actually fewer choices because
online training is a different medium from face-to-face types of training pro-
grams. Limited choices and a goal of engaging the trainee makes designing
an online training program more challenging. Designers need to be careful in
the selection of instructional methods.

There are three criteria designers can use in selecting instructional methods.

• Easy to use for both the online trainer and the online trainee.
• Easy to understand because the online trainer needs to be judicious in the

detail involved in explaining a method, as online trainees often speed-read
instructions and frequently do not ask questions before starting an exercise.

• Trainee involvement. The instructional methods must require the trainee
to do something because this pushes the trainee’s motivation button, and
in the process of doing the trainee becomes an engaged learner.

Instructional methods fall into two broad types: synchronous and asynchro-
nous methods. Synchronous methods involve the trainees in doing something

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Designing Online Training Programs 165

in real time. The most common method is a discussion board where all train-
ees are on at the same time. The trainer can lead a discussion of subjects
that includes asking trainees questions and responding to trainee questions.
Trainers can prompt trainee involvement by requiring each trainee to ask
one or more questions about a subject. To ensure a trainee is at the discus-
sion, trainers can record attendance, and to ensure some level of participa-
tion, trainers can assess trainee responses. Frequent use of real time methods
is optimal to engage the trainee but challenging because of finding ideal times
for everyone to meet.

The use of asynchronous instructional methods is more common in online
training and actually represents the preferred type of methods to use because
trainees can decide the best time and circumstances to participate. Within the
limits of the training program’s time constraints, trainees prefer this type of
flexibility. There are three criteria to use in selecting asynchronous instruc-
tional methods.

• Select simple to use instructional methods to encourage the trainee to
participate on a regular basis and not at particular moments during the
training process.

• Use applied types of instructional methods to involve a trainee’s cogni-
tive information processing faculties because trainees need to know how
to apply a subject. A trainee’s emotions get tapped because of the need to
avoid abstract thinking in applying a subject.

• Give trainees a choice of instructional methods and/or subjects if possible
so trainees can select the preferred instructional methods and subjects of
interest (the emotional element applies here).

Varying the types of instructional methods used keeps the trainee interested,
involved, and learning because of the need to meet the program’s expecta-
tions. Variety reduces the use of methods that might be of less interest to
trainees, because chance dictates that some methods will interest the learner
more than others. Varying the methods can also minimize but not eliminate
cheating. Cheating is going to be an issue but should not be a major concern
for training designers. Trainees should want to learn.

Below is a list of examples of asynchronous instructional methods that
work well in an online training program.

• Trainees provide chapter summaries written in their own words to dem-
onstrate understanding of the subject.

• Games tap into a trainee’s competitive spirit, but the games should be
designed to avoid winners and losers. All should be able to win.

• Simulations are an excellent example of modeling an action.
• Extra credit assignments that trainees need to respond to within a day,

where all who respond correctly earn points.

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166 Designing Online Training Programs

• Contests where everyone can be a winner, which tap into a trainee’s
competitive nature.

• Applied projects where trainees select from a list of topics and choose a
topic to write about in an applied way (e.g., select the topic “customer
theft” and design a training program to teach employees company poli-
cies about dealing with customer theft).

• Assessment methods are often just as useful as instructional methods in
engaging trainees, as long as the assessment method involves learning too.
For example, writing a report describing a training program dealing with
customer theft means the trainee needs to learn about company policies
covering customer theft, how to design a training program, and how to
write a report describing the training program.

Learning Objective #6: Discuss and Explain, with Examples,
Formative Assessment Methods to Use in an Online
Training Program

Formative assessments have already been discussed under learning objec-
tive #4 in regard to identifying and describing methods to motivate trainees.
Formative assessments provide evaluative feedback concurrent with the train-
ing program. The purpose of formative assessment is to generate evaluative
information for the trainee to gain insight into how well learning is occurring
and for the trainers to learn if trainees are grasping the subject at a rate that
meets the expectations of the training program designers.

The trainers learn if trainees are “active learners” by assessing the extent
to which trainees are achieving the learning objectives or moving towards
achieving the objectives. The issues associated with the use of formative
assessments in online training programs are similar to face-to-face training
programs. However, because online training basically involves limited direct
contact (if it is a hybrid program then there is some face-to-face contact)
between the trainer and the trainee, and infrequent direct email exchanges,
the trainer needs to use different types of assessment methods and vary the
methods used to avoid complacency. In addition, it is necessary to use short
but frequent assessments to ensure trainees are successful learners, and if not,
to utilize intervention strategies to rectify the situation.

Communication between the trainer and the trainee is always important,
and clear communication is the best but always a challenge. In online training
programs clear communication is a greater challenge because often there is
insufficient feedback between the trainer and trainees. There are two impor-
tant strategies designers can apply to facilitate communication associated
with assessment. Designers can design a structured, objective scoring rubric
that outlines the assessment method and the process for using the assess-
ment method. The second strategy is to design a structured, objective grading
rubric that provides guidance to the trainee on the type of output expected
when using the assessment method. For example, in the use of case analysis, a

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Designing Online Training Programs 167

checklist can be used to identify if the trainee has identified two problems, has
conducted a complete SWOT analysis, and has identified five or more solu-
tions. These represent examples of objective evaluative criteria.

Examples of assessment methods to use during training include the following.

• Open-ended, focused questions requiring trainees to demonstrate in
their own words their understanding of the subject of the question.

• Case analyses, which have no right or wrong answers but can show high
levels of cognitive processing to demonstrate understanding of the sub-
ject of training.

• Applied types of reports represent another means for demonstrating
cognitive information processing abilities that cover a specific subject
and adhere to a structured, objective reporting process.

• Using a physical model or prototypes represents the ability to demon-
strate learning in a 3-D manner.
• Team-oriented assessment can involve requiring trainees to coordi-

nate their efforts in a structured, objective way to demonstrate group
learning and the individual contributions of team members.

• A trainee can create a formal video presentation that conforms to a
checklist of objective criteria (e.g., facing forward, no use of note
cards, voice audible, use of PowerPoint slides, etc.).

• A trainer can create a formal instructional video presentation that
demonstrates what the trainees need to understand about the subject
and for the evaluation use a checklist approach to have the trainees
assess the presentation for content-specific issues.

Learning Objective #7: Identify and Describe Effective
Communication Methods to Use in an Online Training
Program

Communication between the trainer and the trainee in a face-to-face train-
ing program is a challenge for a variety of reasons. Limited time, shy trainees,
trainees not wanting to sound dumb, and trainees not paying attention are
among the major reasons. Communication in an online training program is
even more challenging because the trainer is not present and the trainee must
expend additional effort to reach out to a trainer who is not likely to respond
immediately, and trainees often seek immediate responses.

There are several methods a trainer can use to facilitate the trainer-trainee
communication process short of generating a 100% response rate. Any com-
munication method needs to meet certain criteria.

• Brevity: trainee attention spans vary between trainees but there is always
a limit, especially online.

• PowerPoint bulleted responses: these help increase readability as brief
bullets are easier to follow.

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168 Designing Online Training Programs

• Brevity: short presentations are preferable to encourage reading and lis-
tening if using a video.

• PowerPoint headings: bullet presentations should always use large font
headings with each grouping of bullets so the trainees know the subject
for each group.

• Large font: large font size print is more readable and less intimidating to
the reader.

• Non-technical: written communication must be written using non-
technical terms or use technical terms accompanied by brief explanations.

• Frequent: regular contact between the trainer and the trainee is optimal,
acting as a reminder to the trainee and to keep trainees focused and
involved in the training program.

• Interactive: communication is effective if it requires trainees to respond,
but it should use positive reinforcers to encourage responsiveness, such
as bonus points if there is a contest.

• Clear feedback: feedback to trainees needs to be clear, concise, and
detailed, and it should be organized by following a systematic approach
that is easy for a trainee to follow.

There are several types of communication methods to use within a course
management system (CMS).

• Announcements under the Announcement section. These should follow
the recommended communication criteria.

• CMS programs offer email capabilities. Emails need to adhere to the
communication criteria for optimal results.

• Program handouts provide additional information to supplement infor-
mation embedded in the CMS program. Handouts are easy to copy and
used frequently as reference material.

• Short videos offer another medium to engage the learner. Brief videos
are preferable in order to minimize a trainee’s loss of interest.

• Submitting questions frequently and requiring a trainee response can
help assess trainee involvement and trainee understanding of the subject
matter. Responding to trainees with questions immediately demonstrates
interest in the trainee and reinforces the importance of a quick response
in either direction. Trainers should consider sending the response to one
trainee’s question to other trainees who might have a similar question but
hesitate to ask.

Learning Objective #8: Identify and Describe the Important
Personal Attributes of an Online Training Program Trainer

The personal attributes of a trainer can often represent the difference between
a successful training program and training that minimally impacts trainees and

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Designing Online Training Programs 169

leaves trainees dissatisfied. Trainers can have the training and experience from
conducting prior training programs, but a trainer’s personal abilities are the
differentiators that can make a trainer valuable to an organization. Below are
the more important types of trainer abilities.

• Comfortable using course management systems (CMS) in conducting
online training.

• Organizational skills are essential to keep the flow of the training pro-
gram moving forward and on track.

• Excellent written communication skills, as this represents the primary
method of communication with trainees; the ability to be clear, concise,
and detailed is essential to aid in facilitating trainee learning.

• Self-discipline because it is important to keep focused and ensure that
trainees stay focused on the training.

• Socially oriented is an important quality because the trainer needs to
be comfortable working with people without the benefit of person-to-
person contact.

• Trainees benefit from examples that the designers can include in the pro-
gram. However, these may be insufficient and so the trainer needs to be
able to offer other types of examples to help trainees understand the issue(s).

• Trainers need to be comfortable working with diverse trainee learner
types without the benefit of face-to-face interaction.

• A trainer needs a goal-orientation because training is all about achiev-
ing training goals and learning objectives. The online impersonal form
requires a strong commitment to achieving.

• Learning requires trainees to push outside of their comfort zone. This
often leads to some form of resistance among trainees. A trainer needs
to recognize the signs of resistance and demonstrate the ability to utilize
strategies for overcoming trainee resistance.

• Problems are inevitable, even with the best designed training program. A
trainer needs to be an active problem-solver and adept at responding to
technology and non-technology types of problems successfully.

• A positive attitude is essential for a trainer to fuel trainees with enthusi-
asm for learning.

• A self-motivated trainer is proactive in anticipating the needs of
trainees and provides solutions to meet trainee concerns and training
program problems.

Learning Objective #9: Identify, Describe, and Explain
the Methods to Use to Overcome Trainee Resistance
to Learning in an Online Training Program

The preferred way to dealing with resistance in an online training program is
to begin by anticipating that resistance will occur. Training program designers

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170 Designing Online Training Programs

can expect resistance because learning something new always results in some
form of resistance. This is because learning requires a trainee to move outside
of their comfort zone. What the designers must know is the reason for the
resistance, as the cause(s) can differ under different circumstances. The poten-
tial severity of the problem can vary as well.

By anticipating that resistance will occur, the designers can draft a needs
assessment that includes questions which can provide clues to the potential
causes. Designers need to know the reason(s) for resistance, the severity of the
potential problem without intervention, and possible solutions that trainees
and other stakeholders might provide.

Online training will only exacerbate the feelings of a trainee who perceives
themselves to be a weak self-learner because of the impersonal nature of
online training. Possible solutions include the following.

• Matching a self-doubter with a trainee who views themselves as a
strong self-learner.

• Varying the range of content of the program with a minimum and
maximum amount of information to learn, to match each trainee’s per-
ceived capabilities.

• Design the training program to allow for greater potential but without
the need for contact between the trainer and trainees.

Unfortunately, with the use of CMS, any personal dislike of technology being
used for learning, and the impersonal nature of online learning, can contribute
to resistance to learning. Possible strategies to reduce this include the following.

• Provide a brief tutorial on the use of the CMS program.
• Use instructional methods that minimize the use of technology as part of

the learning process.

Adult trainees dislike learning independently. Andragogy refers to the impor-
tance of learning with others for adult learners. Designers can consider the
following strategies to overcome this cause of resistance to learning.

• Design the training program so that trainees work together at a computer
work station.

• Design the training program to facilitate trainees working together on
projects that they can coordinate among themselves.

• Select instructional methods that require trainees to interact with other
individuals though not necessarily other trainees (e.g., conduct inter-
views, activities that involve contact with people, etc.).

Trainees’ fear of the unknown often results in some resistance to learning
and this feeling becomes exacerbated by participating in an online learning

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Designing Online Training Programs 171

program. Strategies to consider in overcoming extreme cautiousness include
the following.

• Send out a brief letter of introduction to the training to introduce the
trainer and training program along with describing the training pro-
gram goals.

• Begin training with a simple to perform warm-up exercise.
• Start the training program with a short video with the trainer explain-

ing the purpose of the training program and providing an explanation of
what the trainees can expect during the training process.

A trainee’s learning style may challenge the trainee’s ability to achieve the
training program’s learning objectives. Designers can consider the following
strategies to optimize learning and overcome this type of resistance.

• During the needs assessment process attempt to learn the dominating
learning styles in order to then select a variety of instructional methods
that emphasize the use of these learning styles.

• Select a group of instructional methods and allow the trainees to choose
which method(s) to use to learn the subject matter.

Trainee resistance can sometimes occur because the trainees do not under-
stand the subject matter’s relevance. Strategies to consider include the
following.

• Provide the trainee with a brief overview explaining the relevance of the
subject to the trainee prior to the start of the training program.

• Anticipate in advance possible questions trainees can have about the sub-
ject matter and provide responses to these questions.

• Ask the trainees to offer ideas on why the organization selected the sub-
ject matter for trainees to learn.

• Provide examples that show the relevance of the subject matter to
the trainee.

Resistance to learning can occur if trainees consider the subject matter too
challenging for the trainee to learn or the material too easy. If trainees per-
ceive the subject matter to be too difficult, possible strategies to use to over-
come this type of resistance include the following.

• Trainees’ perceptions are often based on false impressions about the sub-
ject matter. Educate the trainees about the subject matter prior to train-
ing to change their perceptions.

• Simplify the training process by creating fewer, less complex learning
modules for each stage of the training process.

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172 Designing Online Training Programs

• Sub-divide the original training program into more learning modules,
covering less material in each learning module.

• Design the training program so the trainee has more control over the
pace of the learning process.

If trainees perceive that the subject matter is too simplistic, designers can
consider the following strategies to modify this perception.

• Design the training program so the trainee can accelerate the training
process to complete the training program more quickly.

• Offer supplemental learning modules associated with the subject matter to
allow trainees to access more information associated with the subject matter.

• Design the training program to incorporate the use of sophisticated forms
of instructional methods that require the trainee to demonstrate a greater
understanding of the subject matter.

Learning Objective #10: Discuss the Application of the RISD
and the RISDP Models in Designing Trainee-Centered Online
Training Programs

The goal in designing an online training program is to create a program
that engages the trainee, leading to successful learning. Success occurs when
trainees achieve the learning objective, which means success in achieving the
training program goals.

The design of any training program originates from the influence of learning
theory, motivation theory, instruction theory, systems theory, and pragmatism.
Theory is insufficient alone because theory requires guidance in the selection of
a theory and knowing how to apply theoretical concepts in designing a train-
ing program. This is important in designing a face-to-face training program.
Designing an online training programs offers a unique design challenge because
of the unusual aspects of online training and the challenges that confront the
trainee in an online training program.

The Ross Instructional Systems Design model (RISD model) and the Ross
Instructional Systems Design Process model (RISDP model) were developed
specifically to guide training program designers, first in identifying the critical
components of a training program, then in how the components fit together
(using the RISD model), and finally the process to follow (using the RISDP
model) in actually designing the online training program (this process can be
followed for face-to-face training programs too). Both models exemplify the
application of the Quality Matters Rubric, which highlights the important
components to include in the design of any training program. Both the RISD
and RISDP models were described in a previous section.

Here we look at the benefits in applying the RISD and RISDP models in
designing an online training program.

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Designing Online Training Programs 173

• Creates a learning process that is easily followed by trainees.
• The guidance ensures that the design of the training program meets

trainee needs and the expectations of decision-makers.
• The program benefits from the influence of theory and experience in

the design.
• The program offers a diversity of instructional methods that leverage

trainee learning styles.
• The models assume an organized approach in designing the training

program.
• All the important components of a training program are included in

the training program and linked together to ensure a comprehensive
approach in facilitating trainee learning.

• The designers use the models to ensure the engagement of the trainees’
cognitive processes.

• Because adult learners can profit from asynchronous instructional meth-
ods, designers can easily incorporate these methods within an online
training program.

• Online training programs benefit from using different types of asyn-
chronous instructional methods sequenced in ways to ensure that certain
types of trainee responses follow.

Questions

1 Identify and briefly describe the major benefits of online training programs.
2 Identify and briefly describe three factors that contribute to the success of

online training programs.
3 Identify and briefly describe the major challenges that can lead to an

unsuccessful online training program.
4 What are synchronous and asynchronous instructional methods? Which

type is best to use in online training? Explain.
5 Identify and describe three personal attributes of a trainer of online

training programs. What makes these important to the success of
online training?

6 Discuss the use of RISD and RISDP models in creating online train-
ing programs.

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practices/finalreport : 1–73.

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practices-create-effective-online-training-tutorials.

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Swan, K., Day, S.L., Bogle, L.R., & Matthews, D.B. (2014). A collaborative, design-based
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https://elearningindustry.com/best-

Chapter 5

Learning Objectives

Achieving is the sign of successful learning.

Chapter Five Learning Objectives

Readers will achieve the following learning objectives after reading
Chapter Five.

1 Define learning objectives and explain the benefits of using learning
objectives in training programs.

2 Describe and explain the relationship between training program
goals and training program learning objectives.

3 Identify and describe the four major components of a learning
objective.

4 Identify and explain the levels of learning objectives based on
Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning.

5 Identify, describe, and compare the difference between cognitive-
based learning objectives, skills-based learning objectives, and abilities-
based learning objectives.

6 Describe the relationship between the needs assessment and learning
objectives.

7 Describe the relationship between learning objectives and instruc-
tional methods.

8 Describe the relationship between learning objectives and the subject
matter of a training program.

9 Explain the relationship between learning objectives and assessment
methods.

10 Identify and explain the reasons non-homogeneous groups of trainees
require different types of learning objectives.

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Account: s4264928.main.eds

Book: Stanley C. Ross. (2019). Training and Development in Organizations: An Essential Guide For Trainers.
Routledge.

Link: https://eds-s-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.umgc.edu/eds/ebookviewer/ebook?sid=8ba61b60-aa87-4a2e-a911-705283260beb%
40redis&ppid=pp_51&vid=0&format=EB

52 Learning Objectives

Learning Objective #1: Define Learning Objectives and
Explain the Benefits of Using Learning Objectives in
Training Programs

A training program learning objective represents a statement of what the
trainee will know or be able to do by the end of the training. Learning objec-
tives provide a focus for the trainee and trainer. Both the trainee and trainer
know the expectations and their roles to achieve the learning objectives.

Learning objectives need to have a narrow focus to avoid creating any
possible confusion that can obfuscate the purpose of the objective. The
intent in creating a successful training program is to begin by creating learn-
ing objectives that present observable and measurable behavioral outcomes.
Behavior is measurable (and described using verbs such as “demonstrate,”
“explain,” “perform,” etc.), whereas concepts are non-measurable and open
to misinterpretation of the results (and described using terms such as “create a
positive environment,” “learn the concepts,” “be satisfied,” etc.).

Learning objectives are similar to SMART goals. SMART goals share
many of the same characteristics as a well written learning objective.
SMART goals are: S(specific), M(measurable), A(achievable), R(realistic),
and T(time-limited). Specificity is important to ensure that the objective
is concise, because learning objectives shape other important components
of the training program (e.g., instructional methods, subject matter, etc.).
Measurement is important because of the need to assess success. Training is
always time-limited and the training program designers need to write learn-
ing objectives that are attainable, realistic, and achievable during training if
the program is to be successful. Because training is time-limited, learning
objectives cannot be so ambitious that the trainee is likely to fail. Failure
in achieving the learning objectives is antithetical to designing and imple-
menting a successful training program.

In writing learning objectives, the author(s) needs to understand that the
underlying principle in writing them is to create learner-centered learning
objectives that are simple, measurable statements which contribute to trainee
success and to achieving the training program goals.

Well-designed learning objectives offer several important benefits.

• Trainers and trainees keep focused because the learning objectives repre-
sent the agenda for training.

• Successful achievement of learning objectives serves as a form of intrin-
sic reward for the trainees and can result in extrinsic rewards from
the organization.

• Successful achievement of the learning objectives often contributes to
boosting trainee self-esteem (Ross, 2015) which contributes to more
productive employees.

• Success in achieving the learning objectives reinforces the values associ-
ated with the training program and the organization’s culture at large.

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Learning Objectives 53

• Successful achievement of the learning objectives benefits the organiza-
tion’s efforts in accomplishing the training program goals and the overall
goals of the organization.

Examples of poorly stated learning objectives include:

• Trainees learn the organization’s policy on sexual harassment.
• Trainees learn how to provide good customer service.
• Trainees are able to order supplies.
• Trainees can create an organized work area.
• Trainees learn the new

hiring process.

Examples of well written learning objectives include:

• At the completion of training, trainees can state the five major parts of
the organization’s sexual harassment policy.

• At the completion of training, trainees can define the organization’s pol-
icy on providing good customer service.

• At the completion of training, trainees can list the sequence of steps in
the supply ordering process.

• At the completion of training, trainees can list and describe the five major
characteristics of a work area.

• At the completion of training, trainees can label, describe, and explain
each of the steps in the new hiring process.

Learning Objective #2: Describe and Explain the Relationship
between Training Program Goals and Training Program
Learning Objectives

Learning objectives originate indirectly from an organization’s efforts to bring
about change within the organization’s operations. Organizations develop
strategic goals that represent targets to accomplish to realize the organiza-
tion’s long-term vision. An organization’s strategies are a catalyst for the type
of changes the organization identifies as representing the best ways to achieve
the strategic goals. Strategic goals and the strategies have an effect on the
choice of operational goals. One category of operational goals is training
goals. Training goals are necessary for the people responsible for implement-
ing the changes initiated by the strategic goals and strategies, because where
there is change, employee job descriptions can change, requiring employees
to perform in new ways. Figure 5.1 shows the series of cause and effect rela-
tionships that evolve from the vision and strategic goals.

Vision
Strategic

Goals
Strategy

Training
Goals

Training
Strategy

Learning
Objectives

Figure 5.1 The Relationship between an Organization’s Vision and Learning Objectives

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54 Learning Objectives

Learning objectives and training goals communicate performance expec-
tations which provide the focus for the training programs. Training goals
can directly and indirectly benefit the organization’s efforts at achieving the
strategic goals. For example, a direct benefit is training that covers the stra-
tegic plan, roles of key personnel, new responsibilities, etc. Training that
provides an indirect benefit could cover a new hiring process, sexual harass-
ment policy, new performance appraisal process, etc. Indirect benefits focus
on creating a work place free of distractions and disruptions that can interfere
with employee performance.

Success in achieving the learning objectives contributes to success in
achieving the training goals. Learning objectives are a necessary comple-
ment to training goals because learning objectives differ from training goals.
Training goals represent broad statements of purpose that are often stated in
measurable terms. Below are several examples of training goals.

• Training supply-chain managers on how to increase cost savings
from suppliers.

• Training sales managers on how to improve sales force sales.
• Training leads to more positive employee attitudes.
• Training results in an improved work environment.
• Training achieves the goal of strengthening the new product develop-

ment process.

Even if a training goal is measurable, such as “training will lead to a 10% decline
in supplier costs within six months,” these training goals are broad statements of
intent. Learning objectives provide the focus and specific outcomes associated
with achieving the training goal. There are three categories of learning objec-
tives. First, there are informational learning objectives that focus training on
providing trainees with needed knowledge. Second, there are skills-based learn-
ing objectives. These objectives focus on getting trainees to be able to perform
some action. Third, there are learning objectives that emphasize developing a
trainee’s abilities. Abilities development emphasizes such personal attributes as
problem-solving, analytical abilities, categorizing, identifying important issues
among an assortment of issues, value development, etc.

Examples of learning objectives can illustrate how learning objectives
evolve from a training goal. Using the training goal of training supply-chain
managers to increase cost savings from suppliers as an example, below are
some examples of possible learning objectives.

• Knowledge-based learning objectives

a Trainees are able to cite major contract terms.
b Trainees are able to define the policy on offering early shipping

terms to suppliers.

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Learning Objectives 55

c Trainees are able to identify and describe the new supply-chain
negotiating process.

• Skills-based learning objectives

a Trainees are able to demonstrate how to use the new order entry
system.

b Trainees are able to document the major

supplier costs.

c Trainees are able to input supplier data using the new order entry system.

• Abilities-based learning objectives

a Trainees can cite the benefits associated with reducing supply costs.
b Trainees demonstrate the use of cost-saving strategies.
c Trainees demonstrate negotiating abilities associated with reducing

supplier costs.

Achieving learning objectives strengthens the talents of employees, which ben-
efits the organization and the organization’s efforts at achieving strategic goals.

Learning Objective #3: Identify and Describe the Four Major
Components of a Learning Objective

Learning objectives need to be precise because the purpose of training is to
enable trainees to learn about a subject that benefits the organization and the
trainee. All other components of the training program, i.e., the instructional
methods, subject matter of the training program, and assessment methods, are
selected to accomplish the learning objectives. Precise learning objectives are
essential for a training program to be well designed.

There are four elements that define an effective learning objective. Action
verbs represent one element of an effective learning objective. An action verb
expresses an action towards a subject. A subject could either be a cognitive
activity or a physical activity.

Examples of action verbs include:

Achieved Documented Produced
Advised Encouraged Reduced
Briefed Formed Revised
Consulted Generated Selected
Contributed maintained Tested

Passive verb use describes the action and minimizes the active role of the
subject in a statement. Examples of passive verb use include:

Will be watched To be documented Was shown
Will be closed Is fragmented Are always answered

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56 Learning Objectives

Another element of an effective learning objective is the subject of the objec-
tive. There are three categories of subjects. These are: cognitive subjects,
skills (psychomotor), and abilities (affective). The cognitive basis for the
subject originates from Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning. Bloom’s
taxonomy of learning and the relationship with learning objectives is covered
under learning objective #4.

Content is the focus of the learning objective subject. Subject issues need
an exactness in phrasing to ensure that the designers of the training program
cover that specific subject. Examples of each category of subject follow.

Cognitive Subjects

• Policy on bullying
• Hiring process
• Promotion process
• Policy on dealing with angry customers
• Accounts receivable policy

Skill Subjects

• Operate hydraulic lift
• Assemble computer box
• Cut granite counter tops
• Lay down a tile floor
• Install light fixtures

Abilities (affective)

• Problem-solving
• Value creation
• Value development
• Analytical skills
• Categorizing
• Process management

The third element of an effective learning objective is performance criteria.
Performance criteria refer to how well trainees need to know or do some-
thing. Performance criteria reflect the expectations trainees need to meet.
Performance criteria are commonly phrased in quantitative terms. Examples
of performance criteria follow.

• Trainees will know all the important parts of the sexual harassment policy.
• Trainees will gain 70 or higher in the Series Seven exam.
• Trainees need a score of 90 or higher to pass the exam covering basic

accounting subjects.
• Trainees need to solve 9 out of 10 problems on the test covering the new

hiring process.

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Learning Objectives 57

• Trainees are able to identify 8 out of 10 problems on the problem
identification test.

The last element of an effective learning objective relates to the conditions
or circumstances that trainees need to accommodate in order to demonstrate
results. The examples mentioned in describing the third element cover con-
ditions as well as numeric performance criteria. “Will know,” “will earn,”
“need a score of,” “need to solve,” and “are able to identify” are all examples
of conditional-type statements conveying to the trainee the expectations for
successfully achieving the learning objective. The conditions, along with the
performance criteria, represent what trainees need to do to show they have
achieved the learning objectives.

Learning Objective #4: Identify and Explain the Levels of
Learning Objectives Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Cognitive Learning

Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning offers a paradigm for understanding
adult learning and the associated levels of learning that are possible. Levels
refer to the range of cognitive complexity associated with learning. An indi-
vidual’s intellectual and physical limits represent constraints to learning at
higher levels, though individuals can underperform as well.

Conceptualizing the learning process using levels of learning as the basis
for developing the trainee’s learning process is a useful paradigm because levels
provide a framework for dividing the learning process into blocks of learn-
ing. Each block uses the preceding block(s) to advance the trainee’s learning
capabilities. Maximizing learning is always the trainer’s goal. Levels of learning
offer the designers of the training program a conceptual framework for organ-
izing the learning process into homogeneous learning blocks, each block asso-
ciated with a qualitatively different form of intellectual thinking.

Another way to understand the purpose of Bloom’s taxonomy of cogni-
tive learning is to think of levels as levels of competencies. Competency
does not imply incompetency, so much as whether the trainee’s ability to
understand a subject in a particular way is limited or non-existent. Training
is meant to build competency in some subject. A training program might
have no restrictions on understanding subject matter prior to the start of
training, or there may be pre-requisites prior to entering a training program.
For example, students may need Principles of Management as a pre-requisite,
to take an advanced course such as Organizational Behavior. The Principles
course had no pre-requisite course because the course is introductory and
the emphasis is on knowledge acquisition. Knowledge acquisition is the basic
level in Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning.

Learning objectives can and should follow the model of levels of intellec-
tual thinking presented in Bloom’s taxonomy, with the achievement of each

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58 Learning Objectives

objective(s) functioning as a building block to the next level. After all, an
individual learning how to swim does not begin by swimming immediately.
There are prior stages to the learning to swim process to build on as the indi-
vidual moves towards the swim stage. This learn to swim program can serve
as a basic building block to achieve an advanced level of swimming. Bloom’s
taxonomy helps to understand how the model can apply within a program
and among several related programs (e.g., advanced swimming, special swim-
ming techniques, etc.).

Bloom’s taxonomy encompasses three categories of learning, referred to as
domains. These are the cognitive domain, the psychomotor skills domain, and
the affective domain (which is referred to as the abilities domain to provide
a clearer understanding of the subject matter associated with this domain).

Tables 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 provide details describing each of the domains
covered in Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning, with brief explanations

Table 5.1 An Overview of the Cognitive Domain Using the Strategic Management
Course as an Example

Level Ranking1 Focus Example

Knowledge 6 Basic concepts Pre-requisite courses
Comprehension 5 Explain basic concepts Tell what concepts mean such as

the term “strategy”
Application 4 Demonstrate use of

concept
Use concepts in correct context

Analysis 3 Interpret the use of
concepts in a real-life
situation

The organization needs to
pursue a growth strategy in an
expanding domestic economy

Synthesis 2 Combine concepts within
a larger category

Conduct comprehensive
industry study

Evaluation 1 Make assessments or
evaluations

Draw conclusions from a
comprehensive industry study

1 Low to high.

Table 5.2 An Overview of the Psychomotor Skills Domain Using the Renovation of a
Bathroom as an Example

Level Ranking1 Focus Example

Imitation 5 Copying someone Apprentice to a plumber who
renovates bathrooms

Manipulation 4 To control with some skill To perform basic bathroom
renovations independently

Precision 3 Accuracy of work is
important

The ability to do detailed work
with few errors

Articulation 2 The ability to show or
direct others

Explain to subordinate apprentice
the work to do/give directions

Naturalization 1 Demonstrates mastery The ability to design and renovate
a bathroom with no guidance

1 Low to high

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Learning Objectives 59

describing each level along with examples to demonstrate how each level
forms and evolves.

Learning Objective #5: Identify, Describe, and Compare
the Difference between Cognitive-Based Learning Objectives,
Skill-Based Learning Objectives, and Abilities-Based
Learning Objectives

Cognitive-based learning objectives emphasize the intellectual development
of the trainee. Table 5.4 identifies and describes the primary cognitive com-
petencies that serve as the foundation of the cognitive domain referred to in
Bloom’s taxonomy of learning. Intellectual cognitive learning objectives are
achievable based on the ability of the learner to learn how to use these capa-
bilities along with the relevant instructional methods.

Table 5.3 An Overview of the Abilities Domain (Affective Domain) with Examples for
Understanding Its Development

Level Ranking1 Focus Example

Personal 3 Talent, expertise or mastery
that comes naturally

Organizing, problem-solving,
communicating

Professional 2 Talents, expertise or
mastery that comes
from being proactive in
self-development

Taking courses, specialized
workshops, unique
instructional methods all
intended to develop abilities to
strengthen work performance

Ethical 1 Active development and
extension of moral code
of conduct

Creating personal code of
conduct or moral compass
through value-creating or
value-building activities

1 Low to high

Table 5.4 Primary Cognitive Capabilities and Important Themes Associated with these
Capabilities

Cognitive Capabilities Theme

Perception • Awareness using senses
Attention • Focus on a subject
Memory • Process of storing information, categorizing and

retrieving information
Language • Communication functions
Visual and spatial processing • Intellectual capability to process information by

manipulating and differentiating visually, and thinking
about objectives multi-dimensionally

Executive functions • Goal-oriented with the ability to plan and implement
the plan to achieve the goal

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60 Learning Objectives

Table 5.5 identifies and describes the primary skills that serve as the basis
for psychomotor domain skills. Skills-based learning objectives emphasize
one or more of these skills. Higher-order skills-based learning objectives are
achievable only if the trainee has the capacity and motivation to learn the skill.

Table 5.6 identifies the personal abilities of the learner and the focus of
each ability. These are merely examples, as there are others. Learning objec-
tives that emphasize the development of the individual focus on these types
of abilities.

Cognitive capabilities, skills, and personal abilities are presented separately
to illustrate each domain’s unique characteristics. However, there is often
an interdependency among the three areas that training program designers
expect when creating the learning objectives. Learning objectives can empha-
size cognitive learning, skill learning or abilities development, but each type
of learning objective depends on the other categories for support to enable
the trainee to achieve the objective. In short, learning is mutually supportive
among the three categories, even if the focus of an objective is just one of
the categories. For example, if the focus of training is to learn how to design
a new bathroom, the trainee needs analysis and synthesis learning objectives,

Table 5.5 Primary Skills Capabilities and Important Themes Associated with These Skills

Skills Theme

Communication skills • Listen, process information, and respond
Capacity to learn1 • Intellectual and psychological factors
Team skills • Work with others to coordinate
Planning skills • Identify a project to complete and identify the

process or sequence of steps to follow
Dexterity of fine motor skills • Use of small muscles to perform tasks that require

hand-eye coordination
Dexterity of gross motor skills • Use of major muscle groups to perform tasks that

require successful use of these muscles
1Though not a skill, capacity represents the extent to which a learner can develop advanced skills.

Table 5.6 Examples of Personal Abilities and Important Themes Associated with These
Abilities

Abilities Theme

Intellectual capacity • Native intelligence to learn and conceptualize in abstract terms
Values • Learned factors that influence behavior
Psychology • Development of sense of self-worth
Communication skills • Native ability to listen, process information, and respond
Self-motivation • Ability to achieve through self-initiative
Dexterity
• Fine motor
• Gross motor

• Native ability with hand/eye coordination
• Natural muscular strength

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Learning Objectives 61

articulation learning objectives, and problem-solving and communication
skills learning objectives. Trainees need to know how to break down the
project into stages in a process, linking the stages in sequence, and then pre-
sent a model of the finished product by writing a proposal with a diagram(s).

Learning Objective #6: Describe the Relationship
between Needs Assessment and Learning Objectives

A needs assessment and learning objectives represent important steps in the
training program design process. These are important because each contrib-
utes to achieving the training goals linked to the organization’s strategic goals.
Decision-makers initiate the process by indicating that employees or a sub-set
of employees need to advance their development to further the interests of
the organization. As described previously, the first step in the design process
is to conduct a needs assessment. A needs assessment can either be a formal
or informal process, as determined by the circumstances. However, what
is essential during this step is the necessity to know all about the audience
for training purposes, the learning requirements, and the capabilities of the
trainees. Learning requirements refer to the types of instructional methods to
use during training. Capabilities refer to the intellectual capacity, skill level,
as well as prior experiences that serve as a foundation to build upon during
the learning process. For example, if knowledge is lacking and knowledge
is a necessary pre-condition for further learning, then providing the knowl-
edge is a necessary pre-condition for further learning. If a skill is lacking,
then developing rudimentary skills is a necessary pre-condition to advance
skill development. Personal abilities often are present in some form with the
learner, but the need to understand how to build on or advance that ability is
a necessary pre-condition for advanced training sessions.

After successfully completing the needs assessment, the next stage in the
design process is to identify the training goals that decision-makers expect
the training program to accomplish. Achieving the training goals is impor-
tant because these goals benefit the organization in directly or indirectly
enabling the organization to achieve its strategic goals. Training goals,
broad in focus, directly influence the selection of learning objectives, which
is the next stage in the design process. The learning objectives provide the
focus that the training program designers and trainers require to achieve the
training goals.

The remaining steps of the training program design process include identi-
fying the instructional methods to use, developing program content, selecting
the assessment methods to use to assess whether the trainees have achieved all
of the learning objectives, as well as post-training reflection for the design-
ers and trainers to use in evaluating the program. Reflection should focus on
program strengths, areas for improvement, and to determine the extent to
which the program achieved the training program goals.

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62 Learning Objectives

Learning Objective #7: Describe the Relationship between
Learning Objectives and Instructional Methods

The next step in the training program design process following the selection
of the learning objectives is the step for choosing instructional methods. Two
primary factors influence the selection of instructional methods. Andragogy, the
theory on adult learning, describes adult learners as individuals who learn best
through the use of particular instructional methods. The second important factor
is to match the instructional methods with learning objectives that enable trainees
to achieve the learning objectives. The instructional methods selection process
is the logical next step for identifying ways to achieve the learning objectives.

Instructional methods facilitate the achievement of the learning objectives.
Because of the important role of instructional methods, training program
designers need to be aware of how the adult learner learns best. All adult
trainees need to be motivated in particular ways during the training process
to ensure trainees work to learn the subject matter. Identifying the instruc-
tional methods best suited to motivate trainees is a vital contributing factor in
trainees achieving the learning objectives.

Adult learners prefer to draw from their personal experiences as a connect-
ing bridge to learning something new. The use of instructional methods that
draw on personal experiences is the preferred way for adults to learn. Adult
learners also prefer learning new subjects through the process of identifying
and solving problems. Working with problems is a familiar process to the
adult learner, who has experienced numerous work-related types of problems
in the past, solved these problems, and developed a problem-solving process
to use in future situations.

The adult learner is inherently practical, and this practicality means that
learning is strengthened when the subject matter is relevant to the learner’s
job and career. The choice of instructional methods serves as the “best” means
for maximizing learning in regard to the learner’s self-interest. Instructional
methods perceived as serving the interests of the trainee motivate the trainee,
whereas those perceived as not useful are shunned or resisted.

Adult learners enjoy learning with and from others, preferably peers.
Adults relate better with other adults perceived as having similar types of
experiences. In short, they know that each peer shares experiences with-
out really knowing each person personally. Furthermore, adults are open to
learning from other adults because they believe that other adults can share
strategies that worked in similar situations and/or can offer insights on how a
learner can deal with a problem or situation differently.

Adult learners prefer to learn through the use of a variety of instructional
methods, in particular methods where the trainee is an active participant
involved in the learning process and not in a passive learning role (e.g., the
use of lectures). Chapter Six identifies and describes different instructional
methods and provides numerous examples of the instructional methods pre-
ferred by the adult learner. Designers need to be cognizant of the importance

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Learning Objectives 63

of selecting a variety of relevant instructional methods to keep the attention
of the adult learner, motivate the adult learner to want to learn, and represent
the best ways to maximize learning by the adult learner.

Learning Objective #8: Describe the Relationship
between Learning Objectives and the Subject of
the Training Program

The next step in designing the training program is the content or subject
matter step. The subject represents the content for the trainees to learn and
achieve the learning objectives. Designers need to be alert to the time con-
straints as well as other constraints when developing the content. At the same
time, the designers need to ensure that the range and depth of the subject mat-
ter is sufficient. Trainees need to be able to achieve the learning objectives.

Excess information discourages trainees because of the perceived and felt
stress associated with too much information. Insufficient information is equally
stressful for trainees, knowing that this negatively impacts their job performance.

Table 5.7 provides an example of the association between a number of
learning objectives linked with the goal of re-designing the hiring process,

Table 5.7 The Relationship between Learning Objectives and the Subject Matter for a
Training Program Covering a New Hiring Process

Learning Objectives Subject Matter

1 Trainees are able to demonstrate
the correct method for using the
Prospective Employee I.Q. test

• Purpose of the I.Q. test
• Process for administering the I.Q. test

2 Trainees are able to explain
and interpret the Prospective
Employee I.Q. test

• I.Q. test score interpretation and the pass
rate required

• Sub-categories test scores interpretation
• Limitations of test score

3 Trainees are able to describe
the process for conducting the
Telephone Role Play test

• Process for using the Telephone Role Play test
• Providing directions for using the Telephone

Role Play test
• Practice administering the Telephone Role Play

test
4 Trainees are able to cite and

explain the purpose for using
a formal process for checking
references

• Trainees review the reference check questions
• Trainees review the process to follow in

asking references to answer the reference
check questions

5 Trainees are able to describe
and demonstrate the new hiring
process

• Trainees review the process and form for
presenting the responses from the reference
check process

• Trainees learn how to objectify the resume
screening process

• Trainees learn how to objectify the
information generated during the interview
process

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64 Learning Objectives

and the specific subjects associated with each learning objective. Aiming to
fill financial advisor positions through recruitment, the financial service firm’s
HR department introduces use of the Prospective Employee I.Q. test, the
Telephone Role Play test, standardized reference check questions, and the
reporting process to follow when presenting the responses from references.
Finally, trainees learn about the new process designed to implement the mod-
ified hiring process.

The subjects covered need to match against the learning objectives to
ensure that the trainees receive the information needed to achieve each of
the learning objectives. Lack of coverage or insufficient coverage can lead to
results that fail to meet expectations.

Learning Objective #9: Explain the Relationship between
Learning Objectives and Assessment Methods

The assessment step of the training program design process is important
because assessment determines if the trainees have achieved the learning
objectives. Achieving the learning objectives is simple if achievement is
defined as either all or nothing. For example, “trainees are able to identify
and describe each step in the new hiring process.”

However, there are variations within learning objectives, in terms of
whether achieving defined levels of performance are associated with achiev-
ing the objective, or whether there is a minimum pass rate that indicates what
is necessary to achieve the learning objective. For example, a learning objec-
tive might state that “trainees are able to demonstrate the ability to assemble
a 3-speed bicycle within 30 minutes or less.” This is an example of a level of
performance. The same learning objective can be used to state that “trainees
must demonstrate the ability to assemble a 3-speed bicycle within 30 minutes
or less to become certified as a bicycle assembler.” This is an example of a
required pass rate. The examples show how to write a level-of-performance
learning objective and a required-pass-rate learning objective.

There are two broad categories of assessment methods: informal types of
assessment methods and formal types of assessment methods. There are no
narrowly defining criteria that guide program designers in terms of select-
ing methods from one or the other category, or both. Often, when train-
ers require immediate feedback, the preference is for informal methods, and
some of the most common informal methods include Q&A, taking train-
ees aside to question them, an unplanned quiz, or contests used to motivate
trainees but which also serve the purpose of providing feedback on whether
trainees are learning the subject matter.

Formal assessment methods are necessary if quantifiable forms of feedback
are necessary. One of the circumstances where formal methods are neces-
sary occurs when the learning objectives follow a sequence. Trainers need to
complete the basics so as to move forward to advanced levels. Trainees need

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Learning Objectives 65

to demonstrate or show performance proficiency prior to moving forward
towards achieving the next learning objective(s). The objectives incorporate
performance criteria because of the need for quantifiable feedback. Trainers
need to learn if the trainees are performing relative to the expectations framed
by the performance criteria of each learning objective. Formal assessment
methods that generate quantifiable information to be used also help to justify
the value of a training program to the organization. The organization needs
to know if the training goals have been achieved.

Learning Objective #10: Explain the Reasons
Non-Homogeneous Groups of Trainees Require
Different Types of Learning Objectives

Trainees are often grouped together for practical reasons, but the grouping
typically encompasses a heterogeneous mix of individuals. The problem with
this approach is that many trainees’ motivation will vary, because the mixed
grouping constrains learning the subject matter, since the information pre-
sented is either too advanced or repetitive. Expediency is therefore offset by
less than optimal training results.

It is important for designers to understand how trainees can differ. First,
aptitude or capacity for learning is an important differentiator because each
trainee’s learning ability is constrained by their capacity limitations. A second
issue is prior experience. Trainees with lots of experience need advanced
training, while those with less experience require training commensurate
with their level of experience. Finally, trainees can differ according to varia-
tions in their personal abilities. These include personal values, physical capa-
bilities, psychological abilities, and social skills.

In designing a training program for a heterogeneous group of trainees,
information from the needs assessment provides the designers with fore-
knowledge of the group’s differences so as to design the program to meet the
needs of all the participants.

Designers can identify universal learning objectives that apply to the entire
group, and learning objectives for each of the sub-groups identified prior
to training. Designers need to screen trainees during the needs assessment
process, directly or indirectly, to learn if the group of trainees is sufficiently
different to warrant designing a training program organized to focus on each
sub-group of trainees.

Other stages in the design process are equally impacted by a heterogeneous
group of trainees. Instructional methods need to be relevant for when train-
ees are disaggregated into sub-groups. Likewise, the subject matter needs to
be relevant for each sub-group along with the choice of assessment methods
used to evaluate trainee learning. Training can succeed with a heterogeneous
group of trainees, but the designers need to understand that designing a pro-
gram for a heterogeneous group requires a complex training program.

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66 Learning Objectives

An example will help the reader understand the issue associated with
learning objective #10. Financial firms employ financial advisors. There are
novice financial advisors, experienced financial advisors and sophisticated
financial advisors: three primary groups of advisors. If the subject matter of the
training program is sales training, then novices require a more basic form of
sales training that is equivalent to a college introductory course. Experienced
financial advisors require the equivalent to coursework beyond the intro-
ductory course. Finally, sophisticated financial advisors benefit most from a
graduate-level course equivalent to advanced sales training. The training pro-
gram needs to meet the needs of each sub-group to provide the foundation
for a successful training outcome.

Questions

1 Describe the link between learning objectives and a training program.
2 What is the source of learning objectives? Explain.
3 Identify and describe the three types of learning objectives.
4 Explain what is meant by levels of cognitive learning.
5 Identify and describe the four attributes of a learning objective.

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http://www.businessperform.com/workplace-training/writing_learning_objectives.html

http://www.businessperform.com/workplace-training/writing_learning_objectives.html

http://TeachArchives.org

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/bloom.html

http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/bloom.html

http://www.csu.edu/CTRE/pdf/developingclear­outcomesandobjectives

http://www.csu.edu/CTRE/pdf/developingclear­outcomesandobjectives

http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Constructing-student-learning-outcomes.aspx

http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Constructing-student-learning-outcomes.aspx

Learning Objectives 67

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guidelines-to-design-training.htm. 1–11.

Michelon, P. (2006). What are cognitive abilities and skills, and how to boost them? Sharp
Brains Virtual Summit (online). Available at: https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2006/12/18/
what-are-cognitive-abilities/.

Osters, S. & Tiv, F.S. (2013). Writing measurable learning outcomes. 3rd Annual Texas
A&M Assessment Conference. Available at: http://www.gavilan.edu/research/spd/
Writing-Measurable-Learning-Outcomes .1–10.

Park, C. (2004). Writing quality learning objectives (online). Available at: Captain Park.
edu. 1–7.

Ross, S. (2015). The Road to Self-Leadership Development: Busting Out of Your Comfort Zone.
Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

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Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics GME Office. Available at: https://www.uwhealth.
org/files/uwhealth/docs/pdf2/GME_Core_Toolkit . 1–7.

Wong, H. & Wong, R. (2011). Learning objectives: The heart of every lesson. Effective
Teaching. 1–11.

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How to Design Your Personal and Professional Development Program

How to Design Your Personal and Professional Development Program

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https://sharpbrains.com/blog/2006/12/18/what-are-cognitive-abilities/

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https://www.uwhealth.org/files/uwhealth/docs/pdf2/GME_Core_Toolkit

CRITERIA TO EARN 100%

image1

1

Cyber Security Training Program Memo

Student’s Name and Number

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Number

Instructor’s Name

Assignment Due Date

Present-day cloud computing programs allow staff members’ unequaled flexibility, including the capacity to share, store and access documents in any part of the globe. Nevertheless, cloud computing has seen a simultaneous rise in cybercrime, regardless of installing high-end firewalls, antivirus protection programs, and numerous other cybercrime safety-related protocols, since cyber criminals weave new means of breaching networks and gaining access to private and confidential data (Ross, 2019). Therefore, cyber security is important for all organizations operating on digital platforms. Such organizations should prioritize developing and adopting a proper training program that addresses the challenge within the company’s employees and across the business infrastructure. 

Data is precious to an organization, and if lost, it can lead to a waste of time and revenue; therefore, it is essential to invest appropriately in comprehensive cyber-security training programs (Ross, 2019). Outlined below is a proper plan that can be deployed as a cyber-security training program;

a.
Promote Cyber Security Awareness Within the Business Organization. 

To begin with, the organization executives should ensure that there is cyber security awareness amongst the staff members by carrying out regular cyber security awareness programs, passive reminders, and use of other awareness techniques that can contribute to enhancing the employees’ realization of the value of data held within the company, and effect or impact of data breach to the company, partners and victims (Ross, 2019). Creating cyber security awareness among the staff members can play a key role in lowering the risks of cyber-attacks and saving on resources. At the same time, the organization should consider investing heavily in quality security programs.

b.
Offer Cyber Security Training.

It is crucial for organizations to offer regular cyber security education to both new and existing employees. Cyber security awareness should include a digital security education course that informs all company employees on utilizing various tools effectively and the best practices that employees can utilize to ensure that the business organization is not exposed to any cyber-attack vulnerabilities (Saylordotorg, 2012). These education programs highlight different security concepts that staff members should remain vigilant on, such as data theft, social engineering, and data categorization. Staff members should be educated on detecting and avoiding malware, especially downloading such programs onto any of the organization’s system of networks (Simplify Training, 2022). As an employer, there are various modules of courses that employees can be enrolled in depending on their roles, interests, and hierarchy in the organization. Alongside taking the education courses, the organization should consider maintaining up-to-date technology with updated security features certified by the respective industry.

c.
Establish Security Policies and Procedures.

Upon enrolling the staff members in these courses, the company should establish and adopt a new set of security policies that must be followed when handling company-related data. To begin with, the company can opt to limit access to potentially harmful sites properly (Indeed Editorial Writers, 2020), control the installation of unauthorized software by the company management, and interdict staff members from connecting external storage spaces to the company system network. 

d.
Evaluate and Assess Employees with Regular Security Tests.

Executive security training ought to be made a regular routine amongst the company employees, which can prove advantageous and effective to an organization. It can be attained through structured workshops where the organization may invite security professionals to notify and sensitize the company’s staff members on security-related aspects such as best practices and their benefits and essentiality to the organization and its environment. In addition, the organization can organize exams and tests for their employees on a regular basis in order to evaluate and assess their preparedness in countering any form of a security breach. These exam tests and seminars can help the organization identify its vulnerabilities and sharpen its skills to strengthen its weaknesses at the same time. They can also assist in realizing the future potential threats and inform on early preparedness (Ross, 2019). For a digitally connected business organization to work effectively and efficiently, developing a well-structured cyber-security protocol and intervention plan as a contingency plan is essential. The contingency plan ensures that all personnel roles are clearly defined, thus, putting the organization at an advantage, in terms of response, in case of a data breach.

e.
Establish a Cyber Security Department.

For the organization to have a better opportunity of countering any potential cyber-crime threat before its occurrence, the company should consider setting up a team of cyber security experts. This team can effectively recruit and train new and existing employees on the digital platform work culture and protocols and orient their processes in accordance with the upcoming cyber security processes and best practices (Saylordotorg, 2012). The number of experts typically depends on the nature and size of the business organization, whereas a small organization may require a relatively small number of experts. On the other hand, a large organization may require a huge number of security experts in order to manage daily operations. 

References

Indeed Editorial Writers. (2020, December 10).
What Is On-the-Job Training?. Indeed. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from

https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/starting-new-job/what-is-on-the-job-training?mna=5&aceid=&gbraid=0AAAAADgc-H76O3DwgG3QLsuHxdmW9Vaee&gclid=Cj0KCQjw3eeXBhD7ARIsAHjssr9dtVv-st2lGxHxdOA8IUP8HrWXWJVD8iElM-xLLZSvlWw9Wqlr6HwaAn_oEALw_wcB

Ross, S. C. (2019). 
Training and Development in Organizations: An Essential Guide for Trainers. Routledge.

Saylordotorg. (2012).
Training: Not Like It Used to Be. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from

https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_human-resource-management/s12-training-and-development.html

Simplify Training. (2022).
Creating a Custom Training Plan for Your Organization. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from

https://simplifytraining.com/article/creating-a-custom-training-plan/

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