History ( WW I, Russian Revolution and the rise of fascism in Germany)

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I. Age of Empire
1880-1914: major outburst of European empire building
1875: 10% of Africa controlled by Europeans
1895: 90% under control
By 1914: 4/5 of globe under American or European control
Fueled by industrialization
Justified, normalized by attendant cultural values
Motives for Imperialism
Economic (industrialization): raw materials, markets, strategic positions
Nationalism
Modern, new phenomenon in late 18th, 19th century
“Imagined Community”
Language, territory, culture, history, mythology, customs
Nationalism combined with economic drives and cultural ideologies cultivated a competitive drive for command of globe
II. Social Darwinism
1859, Charles Darwin publishes, On the Origin of Species
Introduces language of “evolution”, “natural selection”, “adaptation”, “progress”
Development of social sciences in 1870s
Erroneously apply Darwin’s theories to contemporary societies in the late 19th century
Natural, scientifically demonstrable, superiority of some groups; justifies inequality at home and imperialism abroad
Herbert Spencer: “Survival of the fittest”
Inferior bound by biology, impossible to fully ameliorate
Racial Science and Eugenics
Arthur de Gobineua: father ofracial science
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (1855)
Distinction between “yellow”; “black” and “white”
Race formed culture; whites had superior culture
Whites had traits to govern and develop world
Blacks: weak intellect, “sensual”
Asians: cruel and deceptive
Ironically de Gobineua opposed the imperialism of his era but his theories were seized by those seeking justification
Eugenics in early 20th Century: asserted traits inherited, certain groups inferior, but also society in decline but able to be redeemed through reforms in line with eugenic “truths”
Tarzan and The Fantasies of Eugenics
III. A New Era: Decline of Spanish Empire
Despite reform efforts, Spain outpaced and in decline in industrializing 19th century
Independence movements in its few remaining colonies
Cuba and the United States in 1890s
Forces driving imperialism in U.S. in 1890s
Industrialization and Markets
Politics
Culture: Social Darwinism and Modern Media
(1898): The Spanish America War, “A Splendid Little War”
American Empire in 1900
U.S.-Philippine War
Filipinos had established government in 1897
McKinley: uplift and civilize and Christianize” the Filipinos
Atrocities committed by American troops (rapes, execution of civilians, torture of prisoners of war, burning of villages)
American troops prosecuted for “water boarding”
Concentration camps—death rates of 20%
General Jacob Smith and the Samar campaign (1901)
War officially spans January 1899 to July 4, 1902
Over 4,000 Americans dead; 16,000 Filipino soldiers dead; 500,000 to 1 million civilians dead
America and Global Ideology of Empire
War and colonization justified by idea of Filipinos as “unfit” for self-government
Role of U.S. as teacher, protector, civilizer
William Howard Taft, first Philippine commissioner in 1901, “fifty or a hundred years” to exhibit “Anglo-Saxon political principles”
Sen. Albert Beveridge argued for America’s divine sanction “the mission of our race as trustees of God is the civilization of the world”
Gods demands we “govern the savage and senile”
I. Themes of 20th Century
Inclusion/Exclusion: nationalism, imperialism, immigration, globalization
Tradition vs. Change
Clashing visions of progress
II. Economic Antecedents: The Industrial Revolutions
First Industrial Revolution begins 1750
Machine Power and Transportation Revolution
Development of Market Economy: surplus sold for consumption by a market
Concentration and Investment of Capital
Urbanization and Concentration of Production
Available Labor Force: Wages and Immigration
The Inventions of 18th and 19th Century
Steam engine
Cotton gin
Mechanical Reaper
Interchangeable parts
Typewriter
Revolver
Daguerreotype
Sewing Machine
Telegraph
Railroads
Telephone
Automobile
Cinema
III. Cultural Antecedents
Faith in Progress and Embrace of Change
1829: “technology” enters English language
Charles Darwin and “evolution”
Louis Pasteur and Germ Theory
Comforts and Pleasures of Market Economy
Einstein: demolished predictable, “clockwork” universe
Freud and Psychoanalysis
IV. Political Antecedents
Traditional Societies
Rural, agricultural
Peasants and Nobles
Power of Tradition, Custom, and Religion
Monarchies, personal rule by divine right
Kinship, blood ties over individualism
Inequality rooted in tradition
Society as a body
Liberalism
Challenge to Traditional Thinking
Emerge in 18th and 19th century: made the Industrial Revolution
Individualism: personal liberty above all
Competition: natural and positive
Work Ethic: thrift, temperance, perseverance
Private Property: sacred right, sign of virtue and worth
Equality: under law, of opportunity; assault on aristocracy and nobility
Liberal Politics
Free speech, civil rights, ex. Bill of Rights
Personal freedomand freedom from interference
Representative government
Equality before law
The Danger: The “Mob”: unpropertied, unfit masses seeking to redistribute wealth; threat of “unworthy”
The Solution: limited franchise, indirect elections, checks and balances, strong executives
Democratic Societies
Democrats and Radicals: The Have-Nots
Concentration of Wealth a Threat to Freedom
Leads to class domination
Rich control society and repress poor
Inequality and Injustice
State should redistribute wealth in interests of all members of society
Democratic Politics: universal suffrage, direct elections, weak executive
Liberal and Democratic Revolutions in 19th and 20th Centuries
How to organize society?
traditional; liberal; democratic
What vision of progress?
Hierarchy and order; individualism; equal societies
I. Germany (1918-1933):
Ripe for Radical Change
National Collapse: Military defeat, wounded national pride
Economic Collapse: Inflation, Depression, unemployment
Government Paralysis: Weimar Republic, “candle burning at both ends”; Strong sense that the system has “failed”
Revolutionary Atmosphere: Threat of communist revolution
Psychological Malaise
II. Nazism as Ideology
National Socialist German Workers’ Party founded shortly after World War I
Disgruntled army veterans
Ultra-patriotic
Popular among unemployed, veterans
Emphasis on organization, charisma of messenger (Hitler), and appeal of message of change
What did Nazis Believe?
Restore glory of Germany: ultra-nationalistic
Racist: “Aryan”, Teutonic superiority; blood not class unites and divides “the people”
Anti-Semitic: Jews as alien to nation; responsible for all Germany’s ills
Anti-communist: Class struggles divide the people; Jewish conspiracy; appeals to middle-class
Anti-democratic: parties, parliament divide the nation; worthless bureaucrats
Anti-rich: against Big Business; emphasis on Volk
The Appeal: Struggle, Action, Protest
Contradictions: Society not pure, Jews small population, both communists and capitalists?
Struggle: Conflict is natural; survival of the fittest; might makes right
Action: “Do something”; contradictions melt away
Protest: Depression, Communism, Greed, Foreign Powers===The Jews
Meaning, Identity, and Redemption
III. Adolf Hitler
Austria born, 1889
World War I veteran
Early leader of National Socialist Party
Failed coup in 1923
Mein Kampf (1924)
Charisma, consistency
Belonging; tribalism
Modern media: radio, film, staged rallies, book burnings
Appointed Chancellor in 1933
IV. Fascism: Marriage of Powers
1932: Fascists and Communists earn 50% of votes in Germany
“Junker” establishment: army, bureaucracy; industrialists fear revolution; Communist viewed as worse; Hitler as lesser of threats
Feb. 1933 Reichstag Fire: blame communists and socialists
March 1933: ban all parties except Nazis
Junkers, elite, wealthy side with Hitler
Needs financial support; stops talking social revolution; tones down anti-capitalist rhetoric
Revolution Solidified
1934: Hitler seized power; purged dissidents; integrated establishment
Courts middle class
Begins rapid rearmament
Ends Depression; back to work
Escalation of persecution of Jews
Challenges Versailles Treaty: right to an army, right to lost territory
“secure for the German people the land to which they are entitled”
Fascism and Communism in Comparison
Both anti-liberal
Both one-party regimes
Both one-man dictatorships
Both use secret police, terror against population
Both have radical, transformative ideology
Both have scapegoats
Fascism: focus on race, protected elites, ultimately pro-capitalist
Communism: focus on class, destroyed elites, ultimately anti-capitalist
I. Russia as Traditional Society
Ruled by hereditary monarch: Tsar Nicolas II; Romanov family
Tradition of autocracy: rule by one
Small land holding aristocracy
Majority are peasants
Russia behind politically, economically
1905—Duma created; comprised of loyal and wealthy
Attempt to create industrialization through autocracy
II. Early 20th Century Russia: Social and Political Discontent
Industrialize by bringing in foreign investment
Fast, influx of best technology
But leads to popular discontent
85% of peasants own half of land; 3% of nobles own other half
Peasant land hunger; Miserable working conditions
No political remedy: absolutism, no constitution, no real parliament, no democracy, no real reform,
Worker strikes; radicalization of unions; use of troops to quell discontent
Russian troops firing on Russian people to protect interests of foreigners
No political remedy—violence as means to change
Role of World War I
4 million Russians conscripted
Wages fixed, strikes outlawed, real wages fall 15% to 45%
Bolsheviks Party outlawed but continue agitation
Food shortages, rationing, prohibition of alcohol
Military defeats and stalemates
February 1917: Tsar Nicholas at Front
Coldest winter in decades
Massive food and fuel shortages
670,000 strikes across Russia, mutinies, civil unrest in capital
“Bread, Peace, Land”
Police fire on crowds, the people shoot back
Who is to blame? Nicholas II abdicates
Provisional Government
Attempt to create new, constitutional, democratic government; enact reforms
The work of liberals in Duma; members of middle class
Just as unpopular as tsar; unable to restore order; insisted on continuing World War I
Returning soldiers and workers formed soviets (councils) who would govern local affairs and form new government; rival to Provisional Government
Enter Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Child of middle class; early revolutionary; conspired to kill tsar and exiled in 1900
Interpreter of Karl Marx
Hoped to bring revolution from top down; short circuit process to go feudalism to communism
Nationalization of land
Single national bank
Create the world’s first Marxist state
Returns in April 1917 to undermine Provisional Government
The October Revolution
Lenin agitates for armed takeover; soviets have right to takeover
Peasants want land
Soldiers want peace
Workers demands: 8 hour workday, higher wages, price controls, worker management of industry
Provisional government tells all to wait
October 1917: soldiers loyal to Lenin seize Petrograd
Soviets purged of moderates; loyal to Lenin and committed to revolution
Bolsheviks overthrow Provisional Government; establish new state to be led by Communist Party
Withdraw from World War I in March 1918; Romanov family executed in July 1918
Revolution in Russia
Crisis of World War I
Futility of Provisional Government
Weakness and discrediting of moderates
Bread, Peace and Land as popular slogan
Bolsheviks put themselves at head of revolution already under way
End of traditional society
New mode of governing: one party rule, rapid industrialization directed from party, redistribution of wealth, use centralized authority to consolidate power and purge dissidents
I. Causes of “The Great War”
“The Long Fuse”
Nationalism: Inclusion/Exclusion
Imperialist Rivalries in Africa, Asia, Europe
Industrialization
Militarism: German vs. British naval race; European Powers double spending, 1890-1914
Causes Continued…
Internal Dissent
France (1906-09): massive strikes held; massive electoral gains for Left in 1914
Germany: 1912 Socialists largest group in Reichstag
Russia: 1912-1914 massive wave of violent strikes
**war to calm social tensions and build unity; need our own “splendid little war”
And Yet More Causes….
Rigid Alliance system
Security in alliances—makes cost of aggression high as attacking one means attacking their allies
But only works if aggressor true fears, and makes a small war into a big war
Technology and Mobilization
Complicated schedules of troop movements
Once started, hard to stop
Fear your foe is doing so too
II. War Begins: The Long Fuse Explodes
June 28, 1914
Franz Ferdinand
Austria mobilizes against Serbia
Russia mobilizes against Austria
1914: Central Powers vs. the Entente Powers
III. The Course of the War
Both sides believed it would be a short war
Schlieffen Plan: overrun Belgium and France and return back to Germany to defeat Russia
Counterattack at Battle of Marne and speedy Russian defenses thwart ambitions
1914-1917: war would devolve into brutal, costly and futile trench warfare
(1916)Battle of Verdun each side lost over 300,000 soldiers without a conclusive victory
Battle of Somme: 500,000 die an British gain a few square miles
A Modern War
Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins
Bigger, more accurate cannons
Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas
Targeting of civilian populations
10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians
20 million wounded
58% casualty rate
Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)
1917: Turning Points
United States Enters War: Ethnic Identities, Propaganda, Economics, Submarine Warfare
Woodrow Wilson: “Make the world safe for democracy”
Russia withdraws; signs Brest-Litovsk treaty
German sailors mutiny; German economy collapses and Kaiser flees
November 11, 1918: Germany signs armistice agreement
I. A Modern War
Use of machine guns, airplanes, tanks, submarines, zeppelins
Bigger, more accurate cannons
Barbed-wire, phosphorous shells, mustard gas
Targeting of civilian populations
10 million soldiers die; 7 million civilians
20 million wounded
58% casualty rate
Massive influenza epidemic kills 50 million more worldwide (3% of global population)
II. Domestic Impacts of The Great War
Greater Power for Executives
Boon to Certain Industries and Corporations
Further Decline for Landed Aristocracy
Gains For Labor Unions
Great Migration in United States
Debt, Inflations, Taxes
Women in Workforce; in Political Causes of the War
Propaganda
Committee on Public Information
April 1917Woodrow Wilson creates Committee on Public Information (CPI), headed by George Creel
75 million pamphlets distributed
Ads, Posters, Movies
Four-Minute Men
Represented U.S. as beacon of freedom, juxtaposed with tyranny of Germany
Targeted war protestors, represented Germans as animals
Function of unpopularity of war and possibilities of the new mass media and technology

III.Paris Peace Conference (1919)
Immediate Impacts:
*Germany Humiliated, Punished, Forced to Accept Blame
*Loses its Colonies
*Self-Determination in Europe: Create New States (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary)
*League of Nations Created But Weak
* Mandates Established in Middle East
*Japan shut out of negotiations
*Ho Chi Minh Ignored
Versailles Treaty: A Shameful End to a Shameful War
Europe After World War I
Middle East after World War I
Question of Russia…
Not present at Paris Peace Conference
Viewed as threat to global order
Communist
Anti-imperialist
Refused to honor Russian treaties or debts
The World War I Era
Causes
Course of the War
Domestic Impacts
Impacts Geopolitically
“A World Safe for Democracy”
The Lost Utopia….

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