History

The African American Great Migration and Beyond
Who does Tolnay describe as the migrants who left the south and why?
What are some important factors that Tolnay describes as influencing potential destinations of southern migrants?
Where did the southern migrants go? How did they fare in their new home?
Tolnay argues that internal migration and residential mobility had important short and long-term impacts on individual Blacks, the Black community, and American society. What were they?
Why did some migrants begin to return south?
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ATTACHED FILE(S)

The African American “Great Migration” and Beyond
Author(s): Stewart E. Tolnay
Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 29 (2003), pp. 209-232
Published by: Annual Reviews
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30036966
Accessed: 17-01-2017 15:54 UTC

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BLACK MIGRATION AND MOBILITY
Million
Southem-born
12
OTotal in non-South
10
8
6
4
2
0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
Figure 1 Number of African Americans (total and Southern-born) living in no
areas from 1900 to 1990. Data estimated from the Integrated Public Use Micr
available from the Minnesota Population Center (Ruggles & Sobek 2001).
LEAVING DIXIE: WHO WERE THE MIGRANTS AND
WHY DID THEY LEAVE THE SOUTH?
Social scientists have invested much energy in their efforts to establish a pr
of the “typical” participant in the Great Migration. The original and most
ing image of the migrants is that of an illiterate sharecropper, displaced fro
rural South because of agricultural distress or reorganization (e.g., Chicago
mission on Race Relations 1922; Drake & Cayton 1962; Epstein 1918; Frazier
1932, 1939; Mossell 1921; Woofter 1920). This image dominates the many ethno-
graphic studies of black migrants living in northern cities during the early stages
211

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