Note submission 7
#5: Making a Mass Movement
After the dead of Emmett Till. Her open a funeral and said “ I want the world to see what they did to my boy” no one went to the trial for this murder because in Mississippi white were not arrested for murder.
She gave the photo to the Jet Magazine; she wants her son back. The two white men who killed was arrested. It was a first time since the reconstruction. The jury find them no guilty.
It was the capital of Alabama. The Churcher was the best protection for black people. “Center of religion”. Black minister was leader in black Community, they were higher respected.
Abernathy and Shuttlesworth were the minister of the 2 big churches in the town.
Nixon was the head of the BSCP.
Robinson was lading a movement to get black people right. Black customer was segregate by the bus company.
Rosa Parks and Highlander school.
She joined the NWACP and was the smarter person in the group. They minimized her job but she helped NWAACP to run.
The Highlander school was a school to learn how to be organized.
Parks was arrested on 12/1/55. Because she did not let a white person to set on the bus. She spent a night in jail but a white couple pay for her to get out.
Robinson tried to make called to Black people to stay off the busses, Also Nixon used his resources to help her.
No black people were on the buses. As the day went on people realize that they have power. Due to the united.
Martin Luther King Jr
He came at Montgomery as a minister. He was deeply expired by Gandhi.
Montgomery Improvement Associations
King was the head of the MIA. Black people tried to used the carpool but it did not work. The longer the boycott goes on the worst white people were mad. The state said that black people was trying to destroy the busses company.
OFF to jail
Rustin arrives, encourages Gandhi tactics
Black church was boomed, also king’s house. Many people come to his house after the boomed and said that the want revenge. He went to his house and see that his wife and kids were okay.He came out and said to the crew to do not used weapon and guns. Asked people to be used nonviolence.
11/56 Gayle V. Browder
The supreme court said that Montgomery violence the 14th Amendment.Rules was only enforced by the Government in Montgomery. Parks face such a threat and she moved and did not come back to Montgomery.
King and others black ministers create the SCLC. He was convicted that minister were able to keep nonviolence. They started to create a campaign but the white supremacy politics said no.
Daisy Bates and the Little Rock Nine 1957
Bates was the leader of the NAACP. The Little Rock agreed to change. First of all, the first year their involved the small group of Black people, those kids became the little rock nine.
Faubus was the Government Arkansas, he was concerned about the election coming. He sent soldier to keep nine kids out of their high school. The Soviet Union show to the world how black people were treated in the US.
Eisenhower called the gov that they have to remove the national guard. Faubus went to the television and said that he releases those kids because of the President, and said after that white people are going to kick them out.
The day after the national guard left, the crew of white people came out trying to kick those kids out.
Eisenhower sent the US army to Little Rock he federalizes the national guard of the state.
In the place where integration was happening, white people were moved to the city to the southern.
Nation of Islam
Elijah Muhammad was the leader of the religion movement. He’s thought was different as Islam around the world. He said that God made people black, he said white people was create by Yakut. White people were the devil of the nation.
“X” was the symbol of their none ancestral
He was born in 1946, raised in Detroit. He’s father died on the road road track.He moved Detroit to Boston. He was a terrible human being. He went to Massachusetts prison were he find the nation of Islam.
He felt that the nation of Islam helped him to became a new person. In the prison he wrote a letter to the nation and Elijah wrote back.
He gets out 1952 to joined Muhammad and become the spoken men to the nation Islam. He well against policy brutality. He called king a fool who being inducted by the Christianity. He said also that people should fight back when someone hit you.
#6: The Path to Freedom
I) Sitting Down and Standing Up
Sit-Ins and SNCC
SCLC was trying to train black people college student and sometimes white college too, on the theory and the practice of non-violence. King believes that non- violence was essential for minority group. He tried to teach everybody that love is the most powerful weapon in the world.
It was the biggest drugs store chain in America. It’s where people get there prescriptions that general merchandise sold a little to some grocery items and in every Woolworths they had a lunch counter. It was a national drugstore chain but in the Woolworths location existed in the south was only whites.
The Greensboro Sit-Ins
David Richmond, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair and Joseph McNeilwent to the Woolworths lunch counter and sat down. The manager came out around and told the poor young man to leave or he going to call the police and have them arrested. One of them stood up said to the manager “ we’ll leave sir” but you must understand we will back here tomorrow and the day after until any American get service at this lunch counter.When they went back on the second day 13 students on the third day there were more than 25 by the five there were more than 200 students taking part in the Greensboro cities. After the month of February went on the sit-ins spread to 30 different cities In the south. Young people city after city mobilizes often when old people told them that’s a bad idea and they did it.
Diana Nash and the Nashville Sit-Ins
The sit-ins in Nashville were led by an amazing young woman name Diana Nash. He was from the North, Detroit. She went to integrated schools in Michigan. She mobilized students at fist and they started a sit-in compaign of their own. What made this remarkable was several things, first she organized the first civil right march with them the local people. The march was to confront the mayor of the city. They used songs to organized their protests. Finally she confronted by herself the mayor of Nashville on the steps of city hall.
Boycotts and pickets
In the north black people organized boycott of their local Woolworths. Adam Clayton Powell interviewed by a reporter if he really supported the idea that all black people should stay out of the Woolworths. And he said every American interested in democracy should stay out. Of those Thirty sit-ins in the month of February every one of those cities there were white people who came to joined the protests.
Most of the cities ended with victory that black people can then sit at the lunch counter. The business changed their policy or the local gov change the law. In some of the cities the protesters were arrested effectively. Mississippi did not have protest. Students were driving this incredible change in the south.
John Lewis and SNCC “student non-violence coordinating committee
SNAK “student non-violence civil right group”
Student decided to from their own group. SNCC was formed at a conference in mid-April 1960. They said they were willing to rick their freedom, safety and life for freedom. They want to put their non- violence in the face of the racist. The group was interracial in the beginning and led loose system of leadership by john Lewis, he was a veteran of the Nashville campaign which had been led by Diana Nash.
The election of 1960
Black voters were waiting to see which candidate would give them some sort of indication that they would be better than the other guy. Under FDR true black people who could vote had started voting majority Democratic but then they started to shift back to the Republicans under Eisenhower. Kennedy said if he become president, he would show more leadership on civil right. And the weeks before the election black voters broke towards Kennedy and won against Nixon. Nixon got 35% of the black vote. He was the last republican to get more than 13% of the black vote. Kennedy wanted not to fix the issues but to stop the protest.
Core: The freedom Rides
The core decided to launch the freedom rides in 1961 just as Kennedy began his first term as president.
The supreme court said interstate travel cannot be segregated. But the southern states and localities are still trying to enforce their local law. Rock hill the northern South Carolina their John Lewis was attacked and beaten. Before the get to Alabama every bus stop freedom Rides would get off the bus and go used facilities together.
Bombed in Anniston
When they got town Anniston there was a mob waiting for the freedom Rides. When the bus stops, the mob started to chased them down the road. Somebody threw a bomb onto the bus setting on fire.
Attacked in Birmingham
There was another mob waiting for them at the bus station. Birmingham’s chief of police had arraigned with the Ku Klux Klan. The mob beat people with baseball bats bicycle chain.
The law Appears in Montgomery
The mob chased the freedom rides from the bus station to a Baptist church in Montgomery. They took refuge inside the church. The Soviet Union like these images of what’s happening in the US they said look the real face of America. Kennedy sent federal marshals to Alabama and convinces Alabama to protect the freedom Rides.
Sold out in Jackson
They got the bus station in Jackson and the Mississippi police were waiting for them. There was non-violence. Kennedy sell out the freedom Rides. Core who organized the freedom Rides brought lawyers to defend the freedom Rides to Mississippi trial.
Suffering for freedom
SNCC threw themselves in to try to continue the freedom rides. They announced that they going to send volunteers to Jackson, to try to board the bus and ride as the supreme said they had the rights to do. More then 300 people were jail in Jackson Mississippi.
Enforcing the law
Kennedy started enforcing the law, by 1962 you can board the bus anywhere in the country and ride anywhere, sitting whenever seat you wanted.
Robert Williams and Black Power
He lived in Monroe North Carolina, he was a veteran, when he return to Monroe he was determined to try to change his own town. The NAACP had collapsed and William decided to revive it. he organized the branch of the NAACP in Monroe. He recruited people who did not scare easily men and women. People who work with him armed themselves. When the KKK came to shut their home, members William’s group shot back scare them off. He did not believe in violence but in self-defense. A group of freedom rides came in Monroe to carry out non-violence protests. They wanted to show to William that nonviolence can work but automatically their were attacked by a mob. When he left NY he found out that he was wanted the FBI for kidnapping the white couple. He made his way to Cuba.
Radio free Dixie
Cuba was led by Fidel Castro. William took refuge in Cuba, from there he broadcast a radio program in to the American south. It was a radio call free Dixie. He urged black southerners to arm themselves, to defend themselves.
SNCC and Voter Registration
SNCC was working on voter registration projects in all southern states, until their decided to stop working in Mississippi after Herbert lee was murdered in Mississippi in 1961. He was working with snick to register black Mississippians and murdered in broad daylight by a member of the Mississippi legislature. A white member of the state gov shot Herbert lee in the head in the middle of the street. And then was acquitted by the all-white jury. The law was not working for all black people in Mississippi.
Black resident in the town on gorgia made a movement, they state protesting against segregation and disfranchisement. They reached out to the SNCC. All the majority ofblack people were mobilized.
Laurie Pritchett was the sheriff of the small town. He studied the tactic and strategy movement.
He read every public that King made. So, when the movement came out to his town he can defied, The plan was to overhand the jail. When he arrests people instead of put them in the jail, he used many buses and put them inside and sent them around the town. He used his police to do not be in the Tv camera.
The protest drags on for months, when king come in town, he joined the movement and got arrested. But Pritchett pay his bill bail.
Birmingham – Project “C “confrontation”
All tree groups coordinate to work together. “SNCC, COR, SCLC”
Connor, shift of police has a terrible reputation of brutality. They have also the KKK with them. They knew the mob will come the Birmingham; he tries to copy Pritchett.
James Bevel and Diane Nesh
She thought that children should be in the protest. She bushing her husband to do it. they urged students to skip classes and joint the movement. Bevel said to children that they have to remain non-violence. They went to park to protest. People who really pissed off Connor was the kids. The police tried to clean the part they used the fire hose and dogs.
Kennedy called the leader of Birmingham and give a threat. It was to deal with the group if not he going to pull up the army.
Victory May 7
They announced the deal, the city agreed to integrate everything school, buses and all business.
Business started to hide black people; it was a biggest victory. More than thousand protests in the country said no more Birmingham.
Coming around 63
JFK point out the 1963, it was one hundred years since civil right bellow to anyone.
He said he is going said the civil right act to the congress.Same night when Kennedy gave his speech. Medgar Evers was assassinated in Mississippi; he was the leader of NAACP. He was the lawyer who helps James Meredith to integrate the law school. “ole Miss”
The university of Alabama was the last state to integrate. The department of justice said to Wallace if he does not integrate the university he is going to be arrested.
II) Victory may come later
To past the bill they need 51 votes. They need 67 senates to vote and have a vote. The Filibuster was a tour for the white supremacy during the vote.
The big six try to organized the march on Washington. All the civil right work together and coordinate the March. On August 1963, every business was close. TH garden of the national mall was attacked by a quarter of million of people. 23% of people were white. No women were allowed to give speech.
King speech was about how the nation has to threat black people. The signification of “I Have A Dream”
Was the integration and equality. They were non-violence during the March. He said of worth “we show our best face to the world.
After the march, the church were kids organized the mob. A terrorist boomed the church. 4 little girls dead.
JFK Assassinated 11/22/63
JFK was assassinated in Dallas at point that the civil rights was growing up. His was replace by Johnson his vice president senate from Texas. The vast majority of the country was devasted.
Malcom X gave a speech after his dead interpreted that Kennedy got what was coming through.
Muhammad forbite Malcom X to speech in public. Elijah becomes jealous, he questions Malcom loyalties. When Malcom knew that Muhammed had sex with women who was working in the organization, he was disgusting.
In march 1964
Malcom left the nation of Islam, but still Muslim. But Muhammad was furious about it.
He wants to Saudi-Arabia and there he prays with white people. He realized on this trip that white people are not devil. But many people in America did devil things. When he returned to the US he want to work with King.He changes his name to Malcom with the X.
Bob Moses and Freedom Summer
SCNN announced the campaign name freedom summer in Mississippi by Moses. The idea was to let some brave white people to protest.The plan was to recruit people to the north especially white people. Thousand people volunteers, the majority of people come from the college.
The volunteers went to training for freedom.
SCNN try to told them that Mississippi is scaring. They told them that they can be arrested or killed. None of the volunteer quick. Third of the volunteer were women. The project was to work in small team, spread across the state. The role was to register people to vote. Summer school to black kids who attend the worst school called freedom school and investigate crime. They were living with black family. 3 of them were missing Chaney a black Mississippian, Goodman and Schwerner white from the north.
Civil Rights act
The law was signed by John in the begin of July, the law had Forth separate important part.
As a black family all that you have to do is too send a letter to the court justice.
Everything opens to the public, theater, restaurant, hotels. They cannot discriminate base of Race, Religion, National Origin
· Staff that the Gov does
Public Park, public pool, community center. The south violates public pool
Title VII (employment)
In employment, employer cannot discriminate base on Race, sex, religion, national origin. It was a grant victory woman.
The law creates the EENOC
In august the body of 3 men was found. The police called the Klan and put then in the mob. They gave their live for the Civil rights.
Thousand of them was arrested and couple were murdered. The 3 men become the freedom summer of murder.
The 3 biggest announced to work together again. They protest in Selma outside the court house. During the march Jimmie Lee Jackson was killed by the police.
Malcom in Selma
Malcom said he is here to urged the white of Selma. He’s was telling people to listen to King because if they don’t listen to him to going to have to deal with him. Malcom said if the right to vote is not gotten, the way that king wants to get it, some other faction will come along but one way or another it will be gotten.
Malcom left back to Harlem and was promptly assassinated. People said from the beginning that they believed the gov was involved in his death. Many weird things that allowed them to believe was that it was later revealed in that crowded ballroom were armed federal agents. Malcom become more important to the movement in death. His autobiography was a huge hit for young people in the movement. The gov was never alarmed about him than when he was killed.
Selma to Montgomery
SNCC announced plans for march, from the town of Selma to the state capital of Montgomery. The plan was to carry jimmy lee Jackson’s corpse and deposit he dead body on steps of gov Wallace’s mansion. They alabama would not give them permission to walk down a highway. SNCC announced they going to march anyway even without legal permission to do.
Several hundred people SNCC volumteers and local people marched through the down of Selma headed for the bridge that leads out of town. Inothers side if the bridge Alabama state tropers who had been sent by Governor Wallace, simple instructions was to do not let them leave Selma. The troopers attacked the groups, 60 people were hospitalized they were beaten so badly. It was again international news.
March 9 king returns
King was there leading the marches. They were more of them than two days earlier and it was the same pattern they would through the down to the Edmund Pettus bridges and the state troopers was waiting for them. When they approached the state trooper’s kind said to one of the troopers can we kneel down and pray and they did it.when they come back across the bridge, SNCC openly called what king had done a silent. SNCC said to reporters King sold us out . they didn’t even know that king had arranged this ahead of time.
James Reeb Killed 3/9
A group of white teenagers came from behind and clubbed him in the back of the head and killed him.
Johnson said that he was going to send a voting Rights Act to Congress. A powerful law that would finally make real the spirit of the fifteenth Amendment. Couple day later the Alabama courts finally lifted their injuction and they have now had legal permission to walk down a road. They left Selma on March 20 crossing the Edmund Pettus bridge and not getting clubbed by the state troopers.
Five day March
It was a five day walk to Montgomery, along the way the marchers were carrying American flags, and the president just used the slogan of the movement and they felt like they are about to finally win. They set up car pool to bring people back to Selma and one of the people driving participants back with a white housewife named Viola Liuzzo.
She was one of those people with seen bloody Sunday on her tv screen. She’d seen people’s skulls cracked by nights days and she said to her husband I have got to helps. She got their big old car and drove to Alabama. She was driving civil rights marchers back to the town of Selma. She gave her lives for the voting rights Act.
The voting Rights Act, 8/6/65
When the civil rights Act enforced the Fourteenth Amendment, the voting Rights Act would enforce the 15th Amendment. The voting Rights Act first outlawed the remaining disfranchisement Schemes. The most provision of the voting rights Act was to allowed black people in the south to request that the federal gov come to their county and register them to vote. That was more important than any other facet of the law because it means that in Alabama or Mississippi or anywhere else black people can could turn to federal gov and said we need help, and the justice department would send federal official who then would register black people to vote.
The pole indicates not everybody were happy with the pace change. They asked Americans right after the voting rights Act passed.40% of Americans were saying that a hundred years since the end of slavery was too fast. Only 13% think that it not fast enough.Black people felt like it was not fast enough.
Five days after the voting rights act August 1965
In the city of Los Angeles Black people had been moving. Outside the south black people were kept in certain neighborhoods withing each big city. In Los Angeles, that neighborhood was Watts they were 98% black. They are in the same sort of economic state as the country in the Great depression. in watts the unemployment rate was close to 30%. They were always suffering from inadequate health care facilities, inferior public education system and high rate of crime. On the night of August 11th, the police were harassing black driver, they pulled him over and his mother actually came around and yelling on the police. A crowd gathered and started yelling of the police. That night black people attacked and smashed the windows of those store and took merchandise inside. The national guard had to be called in. they were 34 for dead more or the thousand injured more than 4 thousand people arrested, thousands of buildings destroyed. The total of damage was 40 million dollars.
Progresse and unsolved problems
People star to question the country and it institution
I. The rise of black power
The march against fear
1966 Stokely Carmichael (SNCC: student Nonviolent coordinating committee ) and Floyd Mckissick (CORE)
Both elected new leader
Core since 1960 always been interracial form in ww2 inspired by Ghandi,
Both group kick out their white members because
1. black wanted to win their freedom by their own and didn’t want it to look like white people were doing
2. Blacks people didn’t like the fact that white people couldn’t be just ally and wanted to run the movement too
June 1966: The March Against fear
James Meredith (integrated the UNI of Mississippi) was local hero and wanted to show to other blacks people there was nothing to be afraid of and decide to walk from Memphis to the state of mississippi but unfortunately was shot and survived but the klansmen who shot him was congratulated, photographed and even aquitted on trial
despite the voting Rights Act
The march continue
A movement dividing
The deacons for defense
SNCC, CORE and SCLC all announce they will continue the march were Meredith was shot.
It»s was clear that the movement was divided and S.Carmicheal insisted on bringing a new brigade called the Deacons of Defense ( an armed group of Louisiana) that believed in self defence and not calling for violence
Mississippi start to get more interest in SCNN new leader Stokely Carmichael
A report ask to M.L.KING about non violence and he plain like he always
But S.CarMicheal did not agree and explain that it’s mean to racist that can attack and I won’t do a thing
They continue marching and the police of Mississippi start arresting them for whatever reason and S.CarMicheal was one of them
When he got back was so mad saying it’s 27 time being arrested and they had to take over and start saying «BLACK POWER»
BLACK POWER became the new slogan but white people even ally became nervous about it
Black Power didn’t mean less power for White people or reverse racism
Rejecting alliance with white people
Calling for self defense Floyd McKIssick head of CORE say that 1966 was the year were they won’t be called negros but black people and in fact did happen
CarMicheal insisted on the fact that black people had fight for their own
Chicago campaign 1966
King brought SCLC to Chicago and see if their method work in a Northern urban community but black people wasn’t has receptive has in the south like Alabama
And white people there were very hostile and even attack King directly with a brick screaming «we want king»
There were more hatred in Chicago then in the south
The summer of 1966 40 cities were burning
King became a big critic on the economic system and the government became more alarm by him
1966: The case of Richard and Mildred LOVING
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