help with disc (4) and assgn due in 5 days

due in 5 days

attached

novel midterm 

Write a minimum of eight sentences (which must  include a cited and introduced quote). You do not have to submit a works cited page with the midterm.

1. Janie had spent time under a  pear tree in the backyard.” How does she describe this experience? Any ideas what 
this might symbolize?

2.  What does her idea of marriage before she was married herself tell the reader about her?

3. What did she learn from each relationship and how did it change her?

4. How does she use her power?

5.  After finishing the novel, what is  Zora Neale Hurston saying through her novel about “true love”

Week 9 Discussion

Answer BOTH questions in fully developed paragraphs.  Use a quotation from the text to prove your point.
1) Go back to the Terminology Power Point and look up the definition of “Intersectionality.”  How might you apply that principle to Sojourner Truth’s, “Ain’t I a Woman?”

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/sojtruth-woman.asp

2) In “The Destructive Male,” what does Elizabeth Cady Stanton think is the nature of men?  What is the nature of women?  Is this essentialism?

https://awpc.cattcenter.iastate.edu/2017/03/21/the-destructive-male-1868/

Edna St. Vincent Millay Discussion

Answer both of the following questions in well-developed paragraphs, using a line or two from the texts to prove your point.  As always, bonus points may be given for commenting thoughtfully on the posts of your classmates.
1) “Spring” is very much a poem about Millay’s depression.  What is unusual or striking to you about the way she describes/personifies depression?

2) “What Lips My Lips Have Kissed” shows a very different view of women’s sexuality and relationships with men than what we have previously seen.  Contrast this view with how women were viewed or expected to behave in 
Pride and Prejudice or some other writer from the previous modules.

Edna St. Vincent Millay Poems

Read 

“Spring”
 (Links to an external site.)

 here.

https://poets.org/poem/spring-0

Read 

“What Lips My Lips Have Kissed”
 (Links to an external site.)

 here.

https://poets.org/poem/what-lips-my-lips-have-kissed-and-where-and-why-sonnet-xliii

Dorothy Parker Discussion

Choose 
ONE of the following questions to answer in a fully-developed paragraph.  Use a line or two from the text to support your ideas.  As always, bonus points may be given to students who comment thoughtfully on the posts of their classmates.

1) Dorothy Parker is known for her sharp wit and biting sense of humor.  Discuss one or both of the poems and how Parker uses humor to address the serious issues of how men and women relate to each other.

2) Look up “Empowerment.”  How does Dorothy Parker empower herself in her relationships with men?  How does this contrast with past depictions of women/relationships that we’ve seen so far?

Dorothy Parker Poems

Read 

“A Certain Lady”
 (Links to an external site.)

 here.

https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/a-certain-lady/

Read 

“Men”
 (Links to an external site.)

 here.

https://www.poemhunter.com/poem/men-2/

A Jury of Her Peers Discussion

Please choose ONE question below to answer in a well thought out paragraph, including a passage from the story to support your point.  As always, bonus points may be awarded to students who comment thoughtfully on the posts of their classmates.
1) Think of your typical detective story like Sherlock Holmes for example.  How does Trifles take the tropes or rules of detective stories and subvert them?

2) Choose three items in the story that you see as symbolic and describe in detail what they might symbolize. 

297 Susan Glaspell
(1882-1948)
United States

Susan Glaspell bears a unique distinction in American drama of having not only
written but also produced and occasionally acted in her own productions. She

was the cofounder of the influential experimental theater group; the Provincetown
Players, in a wharf theater on Cape Cod in 1915. In addition to writing and producing

·· ~ · number of plays, she was also a prolific writer of fiction, publishing 10 novels and
a number of short stories. “A Jury of Her Peers” is based on (and was written short­
lyafter) the dramatic version, the one-act play Trifles, one of the most frequently pro­
duced one-act plays in the United States. .

Glaspell was bom and raised in Davenport, Iowa. Following her graduation from
Dra11.e University, she became a reporter for the Des Moines Daily News, eventu­
ally writing her own column, “The News Girl.” She soon began to write short fiction,
publishing at least two stories a year from 1903 to 1922-mostly romances that ap­
peared in popular journals like Ladies’ Home Journal.

Glaspell’s marriage in 1913 to George Cram Cook led to a life in Greenwich Vil­
lage and a broadening ofher writing to include playwriting. A number of her plays were
staged by the Provincetown Players and by the actors of the Playwrights’ Theatre in
Greenwich Village, the avant-garde group that she and Cook also founded:

Glaspell herself appeared in the role of Mrs. Hale in the first performance ofTri­
fles at the Wharf Theatre in 1916. Both the play and the short story have received
renewed attention from students interested in female experience as aresult ofGlaspell’s
depiction of distinct domains of language, symbol, and meaning recognized by her
male and female characters .

A JURY OF HER PEERS

When Martha Hale opened the storm-door and got a cut of the north wind, she ran
back for her big woolen scarf. As she hurriedly wound that round her head her eye
made a scandalized sweep of her kitchen. It was no ordinary thing that called her
away-it was probably farther from ordinary than anything that had ever happened
in Dickson County. But what her eye took in was that her kitchen was in no shape
for leaving: her bread all ready for mixing, half the flour sifted and half unsifted.

She hated to see things half done; but she had been at that when the team from town
stopped to get Mr. Hale, and then the sheriff came mnning in to say his wife wished Mrs.
Hale would come too–adding, with a grin, that he guessed she was getting scarey and
wanted another woman along. So she had dropped everything right where it was.

“Martha!” now came her husband’s impatient voice. “Don’t keep folks waiting out
here in the cold.”

A Jury of Her Peers

She again opened th’e storm-door, and this time joined the three men and the one
woman waiting for her in the big two-seated buggy. .

After she had the robes tucked around her she took another look at the woman
who sat beside her on the back seat. She had met Mrs. Peters the year before at the
county fair, and the thing she remembered about her was that she didn’t seem like a
sheriff’s wife. She was small and thin and didn’t have a strong voice. Mrs. Gorman,
sheriff’s wife before Gorman went out and Peters came in, had a voice that somehow
seemed to be backing up the law with every word. But if Mrs. Peters didn’t look like
a sheriff’s wife, Peters made it up in looking like a sheriff. He was to a dotthekind
of man who could get himself elected sheriff-a heavy man with a big voice, who was
particularly genial with the law-abiding, as if to make it plain that he knew the dif­
ference between criminals and non-criminals. And right there it came into Mrs.
Hale’s mind, with a stab, that this man who was so pleasant and lively with all of
them was going to the Wrights’ now as a sheriff.

“The country’s not very pleasant this time of year,” Mrs. Peters at last ventured
as if she felt they ought to be talking as well as the men. ‘

Mrs. Hale scarcely finished her reply, for they had gone up a little hill and could
see the Wright place now, and seeing it did not make her feel like talking. It looked
very lonesome this cold March morning. It had always been a lonesome-looking
place. It was down in a hollow, and the poplar trees around it were lonesome-look­
ing trees. The men were looking at it and talking about what had happened. The
county attorney was bending to one side of the buggy, and kept looking steadily at the
place as they drew up to it.

“I’m glad you came with me,” Mrs. Peters said nervously, as the two women were
about to follow the men in through the kitchen door. . .

Even after she had her foot on the door-step, her hand on the knob, Martha Hale
had a moment of feeling she could not cross that threshold. And the reason it seemed
she couldn’t cross it now was simply because she hadn’t crossed it before. Time and
time again it had been in her mind, “I ought to go over and see MinnieJoster”-she
still thought of her as Minnie Foster, though for twenty years she had been Mrs.
Wright. And then there was always something to do and Minnie Foster would go
from her mind. But now she could come. . . . .

The men went over to the stove. The women stood close together by the door. ,
I Young Henderson,the county attorney, turned around and said, “Come up to the

fire, ladies.”
Mrs. Peters took a step forward, then stopped. “I’m not-cold,” she said.
And so the two women stood by the door, at first not even so much as looking

around the kitchen.
The men talked for a minute about what a good thing it was the sheriff had

sent his deputy out that morning to make a fire for them, and then Sheriff Peters
stepped back from the stove, unbuttoned his outer coat, and leaned his hands on
the kitchen table in a way that seemed to mark the beginning of official business.
“Now, Mr. Hale,” he said in a sort of semi-official voice, “before we move things
about, you tell Mr. Henderson just what it was you saw when you came here yes­
terday morning.”

The county attorney was looking around the kitchen.
“By the way,” he said, “has anything been moved?” He turned to the sheriff. “Are

things just as you left them yesterday?”

299 ::;USAN ULASPELL

Peters looked from cupboard to sink; from that to a small worn rocker a little to
one side of the kitchen table.

“It’s just the same.”
“Somebody should have been left here yesterday,” said the county attorney.
“Oh-yesterday,” returned the sheriff, with a little gesture as of yesterday having

been more than he could bear to think of. “When I had to send Frank to Morris Cen­
ter for that man who went crazy-let me tell you, I had my hands full yesterday. I
knew you could get back from Omaha by to-day, George, and as long as I went over
everything here myself~” .

“Well, Mr. Hale,” said the county attorney, in a way of letting what was past and
gone go, “tell just what happened when you came here yesterday morning.”

Mrs. Hale, still leaning against the door, had that sinking feeling of the mother
whose child is about to speak a piece. Lewis often wandered along and got things
mixed up in a story. She hoped he would tell this straight and plain, and not say un­
necessary things that would just make things harder for Minnie Foster. He didn’t
begin. at once, and she noticed that he looked queer-as if standing in that kitchen
and having to tell what he had seen there yesterday morning made him almost sick.

“Yes, Mr. Hale?” the county attorney reminded.
“Harry and· I had started to town with a load of potatoes,” Mrs. Hale’s hus­

band began.
Harry was Mrs. Hale’s oldest boy. He wasn’t with them now, for the very good rea­

son that those potatoes never got to town yesterday and he was taking them this
morning, so he hadn’t been home when the sheriff stopped to say he wanted Mr.
Hale to come over to the Wright place and tell the county attorney his story there,
where he could point it all out. With all Mrs. Hale’s other emotions came the fear that
maybe Harry wasn’t dressed warm enough-they hadn’t any of them realized how
that north wind did bite.

“We come along this road,” Hale was going on, with a motion of his hand to the
road over which they had just come, “and as we got in sight of the house I says to
Harry, ‘I’m goin’ to see if I can’t get John Wright to take a telephone.’ You see,” he
explained to Henderson, “unless I can get somebody to go in with me they won’t
come out this branch road except for a price I can’t pay. I’d spoke to Wright about it
once before; but he put me off, saying folks talked too much anyway; and all he asked
was peace and quiet-guess you know about how much he talked himself. But I
thought maybe if I went to the house and talked about it before his wife, and said all
the women-folks liked the telephones, and that in this lonesome stretch of road it
would be a good thing-well, I said to Harry that that was what I was going to say­
though I said at the same time that I didn’t know as what his wife wanted made much
difference to John-”

Now, there he was!-saying things he didn’t need to say. Mrs. Hale tried to catch
her husband’s eye, but fortunately the county attorney interrupted with:

“Let’s talk about that a little later, Mr. Hale. I do want to talk about that, but I’m
anxious now to get along to just what happened when you got here.”

When he began this time, it was very deliberately and carefully:
“I didn’t see or hear anything. I knocked at the door. And still it was all quiet in­

side. I knew they must be up-it was past eight o’clock. So I knocked again, louder,
and I thought I heard somebody say ‘Come in.’ I wasn’t sure-I’m not sure yet. But
I opened the door-this door,” jerking a hand toward the door by which the two
women stood, “and there, in that rocker”-pointing to it-“sat Mrs. Wright.”

A Jury oJ Her feers

Everyone in the kitchen looked at the rocker. It came into Mrs. Hale’s mind that
that rocker didn’t look in the least like Minnie Foster-the Minnie Foster of twen­
ty years before. It was a dingy red, with wooden rungs up the back and the middle rung
was gone, and the chair sagged to one side.

“How did she-look?” the county attorney was inquiring.
“Well,” said Hale, “she looked-queer.”
“How do you mean-queer?”
As he asked it he took outa note-book and pencil. Mrs. Hale did not like the

sight of that pencil. She kept her eye fixed on her husband, as if to keep him from say­
ing unnecessary things that would go into that note-book and make trouble.

Hale did speak guardedly, as if the pencil had affected him too.
“Well, as if she didn’t know what she was going to do next. And kind of –done up.”
“How did she seem to feel aboutyour coming?”
“Why, I don’t think she minded”‘:”-one way or other. She didn’t pay much atten­

tion. I said, ‘Ho’ do, Mrs. Wright? It’s cold, ain’t it?’ And she said, ‘Is tt?’-and went
pleatin’ at her apron.

“Well, I was surprised. She didn’t ask me to come up to the stove, or to sit down,
but just set there, not even lookin’ at me. And so I said: ‘I want to see John.’

“And then she-laughed. I guess you would call it a laugh.
“I thought of Harry and the team outside, so I said, a little sharp, ‘Can I see John?’

‘No,’ says she-kind of dull like. ‘Ain’t he home?’ says I. Then she looked at me.
‘Yes,’ says she, ‘he’s home.’ Then why can’t I see him?’ I asked her, out of patience
with her now. ‘Cause he’s dead,’ says she, just as quiet and dull-and fell to pleatin’
her apron. ‘Dead?’ says I, like you do when you can’t take in what you’ve heard.

“She just nodded her head, not getting a bit excited, but rock in’ back and forth.
“‘Why-where is he?’ says I, not knowing what to say.
“She just pointed upstairs-like this”-pointing to the room above.
“I got up, with the idea of going up there myself. By this time I–didn’t know what

to do. I walked from there to here; then I says: ‘Why, what did he die of?’
“‘He died of a rope around his neck,’ says she; and just went on pleatin’ at her apron.”
Hale stopped speaking, and stood staring at the rocker, as ifhe were still seeing the

woman who had sat there the morning before. Nobody spoke; it was as if everyone
were seeing the woman who had sat there the morning before.

“And what did you do then?” the county attorney at last broke the silence.
“I went out and called Harry. I though I might-need help. I got Harry in, and we

went upstairs.” His voice fell almost to a whisper. “There he was-lying over the-”
“I think I’d rather have you go into that upst~irs,” the county attorney interrupt­

ed, “where you can point it all out. Just go on now with the rest of the story.”
“Well, my first thought was to get that rope off. It looked-”
He stopped, his face twitching.
“But Harry, he went up to him, and he said, ‘No, he’s dead all right, and we’d bet­

ter not touch anything.’ So we went downstairs.
“She was still sitting that same way. ‘Has anybody been notified?’ I asked. ‘No,’ says,

she, unconceql,ed. .:(·,:rL” ,.Si····

“‘Who did this, Mrs. Wright?’ said Harry. He said it business-like, and stopped
pleat in’ at her apron. ‘I don’t know,’ she says. ‘You don’t know?’ says Harry. ‘Weren’t
you sleep in’ in the bed with him?’ ‘Yes,’ says she, ‘but I was on the inside.’ ‘Somebody
slipped a rope around his neck and strangled him, and you didn’t wake up?’ says Harry.
‘I didn’t wake up,’ she said after him.

JUU vU~I\N · VLI\::J!’l!LL . .

· “We may have looked as if we didn’t see how that CQuid be; for after a minute she
said,’l sleep sound.’ . ‘

, “Harry was ‘going to’ask her more questions, but I said maybe that weren’t our busi­
ness; maybe we ought to let her tell her story first to the coroner or the sheriff. So Harry ‘.
went fast as he could over to High Road-the Rivers’ place, where there’s a telephone.” .

“And what did she do when she knew you had gone for .the coroner?” Theattor­
ney got his pencil in his hand all ready for writing. . . .’. .’ .
.’ “She moved from that chaino this one over here”~Hale pointed to a small chair ‘

in the corner-“and just sat therewith her hands held togethe~ and looking dowi\. ·
I got a feeling thad ought to make some conversation; so I said I had come in to see
if John wanted to put in a telephone; and at that she started to ,laugh, and then she .
stopped and looked at me~scared.” .

At the sound of a moving pencil the man who was telling thestot;y looked up.
“I dunno-maybekwasn’t scared,” he hastened; “I wouldn’t like to :say itwas.

Soon Harry got back,’ and then Dr. Lloyd came; and you, Mr, Peters, and so I guess
that’s all I know that you don’t.” . . . ”

He said that last with relief, and moved a little, as if relaxing. Everyone moved a ·..···
little, The county attorney walked toward the stair door. . ‘ .

“I guess we’ll go upstairsfirst~then out to the barn and around there.” .
He paused and ;looked ar’oundthe kitchen. ;
“You’re’ co/winced there was nothing important here?.. he asked the sheriff. “Noth~ .

ing that would-point to any motive?” .’ .
·The sheriff too looked all around, as if to re-GOnvincehmself. .

“Nothing here but kitchen things,” he said,witha littlelaughfor the insignificance ,
of kitchen things. .

· The county attorney was looking at the cupboard-a peculiar, ungainly stru
half closet and half cupboard, the upper partd itbeingbuilt iin :thewalh and the
lower partjusithe old-fashioned kitchen cupboard. As if its queerness attracted him, ..
he got a chair and opened the upper part and looked in. After a moment he drew his .
hand away sticky. .

“Here’s a nice·mess,” he said resentfully. · .
The two women had drawn near’er, and now the sheriff’s wife spoke.
“Oh-her fruit,” she said; looking to Mrs. Hale for sympathetic understanding:

She turned back to rhecounty attorney and explained: “She worried about that when
it turned so cold last night. She said the fire would go out and her jars might burst.”

Mrs. Peters ‘· husband broke into a laugh.
“Well, can you beat the women! Held for murder, and worrying about her preserves!'”
The young attorney set his ‘lips. . .
“I guess before we’re through with her she may have something more serious than

preserves to worryabout;” .
“Oh, well,” said Mrs, Hale’s husband; with good-natured superiority, “women are ‘

used to worrying over trifles.” . .
The two women moved a little closer together. Neither of them spoke. The coun- .

ty attorney seemed suddenly to remember his manners-and think of his future .. :.’
“And yet,” said he; with the gallantry of a young politician, “for all their worries,

what would we do without the ladies?” ..
The women did not speak, did not unbend. He went to the sink and

washing his hands. He turned to wipe them on the roller towel-whirled it for
cleaner place.

. . ” . .

“Dirty towels! Not much of ahousekeeper, would·you say.ladiesl” :’·
.He kicked his foot against some dirty pans.underthe sink. , ” , .’: .’. .

. ~ .: . ‘: ‘·’There’s a great deill ofwork to be doneon,a farm / ‘said’Mrs. Hale stiffly;.. ‘
.. , ”’To be sure; And yet”-with a little bow to.her-:;.’lLknow there are some Dickson
•. County fa’rm-houses that do not,havesuch roller towels..” He gaveit:ii plillto expose

its full length again. · · ‘ ‘; .. ‘ , . ‘; . ,
:., ‘ ”Those towels ‘get dirty,awful.quicbMen’s hands aren’ t:always as cleari~s ‘ they

·imightbe.”. · ‘. ” ” ”
“Ah, loyal to your sex, I see,” he laughed. He stopped and ‘gave hera keen look.

“But you and Mrs. Wright were neighbors. I suppose you Were friends; too.”
Martha Hale shook her head; · . ., . .

·,>”I’ve seen little enough of her of late ‘years. I’ve not ,been:in this house—‘-it’s more
· thana year.” , .• . ” ‘ •” .
‘r>: “And why was that? Youdidn’tlike .herl”,
;’. “I liked her. well enough,” she replied with spirit. “Farmers’ wives have their hands’

‘.full ; Mr. Henderson. Andthen”-She look:ed around the kitchen; ··
“Yes?” he encol.J.raged.. . .. .

‘ j: “It never seemed a very cheerfulplace,” said she, mereta herse1fthanto him.
· ,’ , “No;” he agreed,. “I don’t think anyone woilldcall ‘it·cheerful. I shouldn’t say she.
‘had the home-making instinct.” .

· “Well, I don’t know as Wright had, either;” she muttered. ‘. . .,
.”You mean they didn’t get 6’n very wel11″ he wasqiiicK’toask. : .

‘. “No; I don’t mean anything,” she answered, with decision. As she turned a little
away fram him; she added: “But I don’t think a’place would beany.the bheerfuler for

” John Wright’s bein’ in it.” . . . . .. ; . •
·,.,,, “I’d [ike to talk to you about that a·little later; Mrs. Hale,” ‘he said. “I’ffi ~nxious
· to get the lay of thihgsupstairs now.” ,

‘. ‘.;~ ‘ He moved toward the stair. door, followed by th~ twornen. . ” .
;,;: “I suppose anything Mrs. Peters does’11 be alliight?” the sheriffiriquired. “She.was

·.. totake in some dothesfor her; you know~and a few little things. We left in such a
hurry yesterday.” . . … ‘.
:>i :The county attorney looked at the two’ women whom they were leaving alone
-there among the kitchen things. ‘ . . .’ .’ ” .’ ;. .• ,.. .. . ‘ ., :, ..’

“yes~Mrs. Peters,” he said, his glance ~estingon,the woman: who was not Mrs.:Pe­
, ‘. ters, the big farmer woman who stood behind thesheriWs·,wife: .”Of course Mrs. Pe­

,ters is one of us,” he said, in a mariner of entrusting responsibility. “And keep your ·
,…. eye out, Mrs. Peters, for anything that might be of use. No telling; you women might ‘
“‘ come upon ;a clue tot’he motive….:…c.and that’s the thing we need:” ….. .

, ‘Mr. Hale rubbed his face after the fashion of a show man getting ready .for a
. : pleasantry. ‘. ‘. . ” , . •. . .” ..
‘::, .:”’But would the women know a clue ifthey did come uponitl”he said; and,hav­

,ing delivered himself of this, he followed the others through the’stair door. …. . ‘. .
,:, The women stood motionless and ,silent, lisreningtorhe ‘footsteps,’ first upon the
‘stairs, then in the room above them. , ‘,. . . . .. ‘ . . ;
,. .. Then, as i{releasing herself from something strange, Mrs;,Halebegan to arrange
the dirty pans under the sink, which the county attorney’s disdainful push of the foot

·had deranged: . . .
; · “I’d hate to have men comin’ into my kitchen,” she said testily-:-“snoopin’ round
and criticizin’,'” .’ . . …. . . . . ‘ .

.)U:;AN VLA:;l’ELL

o”Of course it’s no more than their duty,” said theshetjff’s wife, In her manner of
. timid acquiescence. . . . .’ ‘ . ‘.’ , .

‘!’Quty’s:allfight,”‘replied Mrs. Hale blu(flYj”but,lguess that deputy sheriff that’
. corrie6uttomake the fire might have got a ·Iittle of this on.” She gave the roller
,to\yela pull. “Wish I’d thought ofthat sooner I Seems mean to talkabbut her for not
having things slicked up, when she had to come away in such a hurry.” ‘.

‘.· ‘She looked around the kitchen. Certainly it was not “slicked up.” Her eye was
held by a bucket of sugar on a low shelf. The cover was off the wooden bucket, and
beside it Was a paper bag—‘-haIffulI. . ” .

Mrs. Hale moved toward it. ‘.
‘iShe was putting this in there,” she said to herself-slowly; ‘ .
She thought of the flour in her kitchen at home-half sifted, half not sifted. She

had been interrupted and had left things half done. Wharhad interrupted Minnie Fos­
ter? Why had that work been left half dcine?Shemade a move as if to finish it -un­
finished things always bothered her,~and then she glanced around and sa~ that
Mrs. Peters was watchingher’:””:”‘:;tndshe didn’t want Mrs. Peters to get that feeling she
haJgot of work begun and then-for some reason-not finished.

‘,’It’s ashame about her fruit,” she said, and walked toward the cupboard that
the county attorney had opened, and got on the chair, murmuring: “I wonder if it’s
all gone.” .

ltwas a sotry enough:looking sight, but “Here’s one that’s allright:’ she said at last.
She held it toward the light. ‘This is cherries, too.” She looked again: “I declare I be­
lieve that’s the only one.” .

With a sigh, she got down from the . chair, went to the sink, and wiped off the
bottle. . . . ‘ .

“She’ll feel awfulbad; after all her hard work in the hot weather; I remember the
afternoon I put up my cherries last summer.”

She Set the bottle on the table, and, with another sigh, started to sit down in the
rocker. But she did not sitdown~ Something kept her from sitting down in that chair.
She straightened-stepped back, and, half turned away, stood looking at it; seeing the .
woman who sat there “pleatin’ at her apron.” · i .

. The thin voice of ‘ the sheriff’s wife broke il1 upon her: “I-must be getting those
things from the front room closet.” She opened the door into the other room, start­
ed injstepped back. “You. coming with ‘ me, Mrs. ‘ Hale?” she asked nervously. “You­
you could help me get them.”. ‘ .. .. . .

. They weresoon·back-the stark coldness ofthat shut-up room was not a thing to
linger in..· . .

“My!” said Mrs. Peters, dropping the things on the table and hurrying to the stove.
Mrs. Hale stood examining the clothes the woman who was being detained in

town had said she wanted.
“Wrightwasc!osel” she exclaimed, holding up a shabby black skirt that bore the

markS of much making over. “I think maybe that’s why she kept so much to herself.
I s’poseshefelt she couldn’t do her partjand then, you don’t-enjoy things when you
feel shabby. She used to wear pretty clothes and be lively-when she was Minnie
Foster, one of the town girls, singing in the choir. But that-oh, that was twenty
years ago.” .’ .

With a carefulness in which there was something tender, she folded the shabby
clothes and piled them at one corrier of the table. She looked at Mrs. Peters, and
there was something in the other woman’s look that irritated her.

AJUry O]l-1er reers ‘

,
. “She don’t care,” she said to herself. “Much difference it makes to her whether Min­

nieFoster had pretty clothes when she wasagirl.” . . .’
Then she looked again, and she wasn’t so surej in fac~, she hadn’t at anytime been

perfectlysure ·about Mrs. Peters; She .had that shrinking manner, and yet her eyes
looked as if they could’seea long way into things. i. .

“This all you was to take in?” asked Mrs. Hale. .’
“No” said the sheriff’s wifej “she said she wanted an apron. Funny thing to want,”

she ve~tured in her nervous little way, “for there’s not much to get you dirtyin jail,
goodness knows. But I suppose just to· make her feel · more: natural. If you’re used to

wearing an·apron-: She said they were in the bottom drawer of this cupboard. Yes­
here they are .. And then her little shawl that always hung on the stair door.”
“‘ Shetook the small gray shawl from behind the door leading upstairs, and stood a
minute looking at it. ‘.’ . ,

Suddenly Mrs. Hale took a quick step toward the’bther woman.
“Mrs. Peters!”
“Yes, Mrs: Hale?”
“Do you think she-did it?”
A frightened look blurred the other things in Mrs. Peters’ eyes. ·’ .’
“Oh, I don’t know,” she said, in a voice that seemed to shrink away from the

subject. .’. ; ‘ . . . .
. “Well I don’t think she did,” affirmed Mrs. Hale stoutly. “Asking for an apron, and

her little’shawL.Wbrryiri’ about her fruit;” . ‘ ..• . .
“Mr. Peters says-” Footsteps were heard in the roomabovejshe stopped, looked .

up, then went on in a lowered voice: “Mr. Peters says-it/ookS bad for her; Mr. Hen­
derson is awful sarcastic.in a speech, and he’s going to make fun of her saying’she
didn’t-wake up.” . ‘ • .

. Fora moment Mrs. Hale had no. answer. Then, “Well, I guess John Wright didn’t
. wake up-when they was slippin’ that rope under his neck,” she muttered.

“No, it’s strange,” breathed Mrs. Peters: “They think it was such a-funny way to
kill a man.”

: She’began to laughj at sound of the laugh, abruptly stopped; ‘
“That’s just what Mr. Hale said,”saidMrs. Hale, iri aresolutelynarural voice.

“There was agun in the house. He says that’s what he can’t understand.”
“Mr. Hendersoh said, coming Out, that whatwas needed for the case wasa motive.

Something to show anger-or sudden feeling.'” . .
.’ “Well,· I don’t see any signs of angetaround here;” said Mrs. Hale.”1 don’t-”

She stopped. It wasasifher mind tripped on something. Her eye was caught by a
dish-towel in the middle of the kitchen table. Slowly she moved toward the table. One
half of it was wiped clean, the other half messy. Her eyes made a slow, almost un­
willing turn to the bucket of sugar and the half empty bag beside it. Things begun-
and not finished. .

After a moment she stepped back, and said, in that manner of releasing herself:
“Wonder how they’re finding things upstairs? I hope she had it a little more red

up there. You know,”-she paused, and feeling gathered,-“it seems kind of sneakingj
lockingherup in town and coming out here to get her own house to turn against herl”

“But, Mrs. Hale,”said the sheriff’s wife, “the law is the law.”
II s’pose ’tis,” answered Mrs. Hale shortly.
She turned to the stove, saying something about thatfire not being much to brag

of. She worked with it a minute, and when she straightened up she said aggressively:

http:sarcastic.in

.3V’t ::’USAN ULASPELL

“The law is the law-and a bad stove is a bad stove; How’dyou like to ,cook on
‘. this?”-pointing with the poker to the broken lining; She opened th~ oven dooi-and
.started to express her opinion of the oven; but shewas swept into her own thoughts,
thinking of what it would mean; year after year, to have the stove to wrestle with. The

•thought of Minnie Foster trying to bake in that oven-:and the thought of her never
‘. going over to see Minnie Foster-‘-. “” .

. .She was startled by hearing Mrs. Peters say: “A person gets discouraged-and
loses heart.” ‘:. , .

The sheriff’s wife had looked from the stove to the ~ink-‘-to the pail of water
which had been carried in from outside: The two worrien stood there silent; above
them the footsteps of the men who were looking for evidence against the woman
who.had worked in that kitchen. That look of seeing into things, of seeing through
a thing to something else, was in the eyes of the sheriff’s wife now. When Mrs. Hale
next spoke to her, it was gently: ..

“Better loosen up your things, Mrs. Peters. We’ll not feel them when we goci~t.”
lv!,rs. Peters went to the back of the room to hang up the fur tippet she was wear­

ing. A moment later she exclaimed, “Why, she was pieCing:a quilt,” and held up a large
sewing basket piled high with quilt pieces. i “. ‘ …. ,

. Mrs. Hale spread some ofthe blocks on the table.
“It’s log-cabin pattern,” she said, putting several ·of them together. “Pretty,

isn’t it?” . ‘ . ‘ .

They were so engaged with the quilt that they did not hear the fciotstepson the
stairs. Justasthe stair door opened Mrs. Hale was saying:’ ‘ ‘ .. ” .

“Do you suppose she was going to ‘quilt itor just knot it?” , .
The sheriff threw up his hlInds; ‘ .
“They wonder whether she was going to quilt it or just knot it!'”

, There was a laughfonhe :ways of women; awarming of hands over the stove; and
then the county attorneY ‘said briskly: . , ‘,:

“Well; let’s go right out to the ‘barnand get that cleared up;” , . ‘
“I don’t see as there’s anything so strange,” Mrs. Hale said resentfullYi ,after the

outside door had closed on the three men-“our ‘taking up’ our timewith ·\ittle
things while we’re waiting for them to get the evidence: I don’t seeasit.’s anything
to laugh about,” .’ ., .”

“Of course they’ve got awful important things on their minds,” said the sheHfPs
wife apologetically. . . . .’

They returned to an inspection of the blocks for the quilt. Mrs. Hale was looking
at the fine; even sewing, preoccupied with thoughts ‘of the womahwho had done
that sewing, when she heard the sheriff’s wife say, ina queer tone: ‘. ;

“Why, look at this one.”
She turned to take the block held out to her.
“The sewing,” said Mrs. Peters, in a troubled way. “All the rest ohhemhave

been so nice and even-but–‘-this one. Why, it looks as ifshe didn’t know what she
was about!” ” . .

. Their eyes met-something flashed to life, passed between them; then, as.if with
an effort, they seemed to pull away frQ\fleach other. A moment Mrs. Hale sat there;
her hands folded over that sewing which was so ·unlike all .the rest of the ,sewing.
Then she had pulled a knot ahd drawn the threads. . .

“Oh,’ what are you doing, Mrs. Hale?” asked the sheriff’s ~ife, startled;
“Just pulling out a stitch or two that’s not sewed very good,” said Mrs. Hale mildly.

AJury dtHer feers
‘ !, . ‘ … …..

:,. “ldon’t think we ought:to.touch thihgs/,;Mrs. :Peterss~id·,’a: litth~helplessly/’ ;.,
:· “I’d ‘just fihishup·this·end,”answered,Mrs, Hale,

· She threaded a needle and started’ to replace bad sewing:with-.good. For,a little
while she sewed in’silence. Then; in:that t\i)in”timidvoice;she’ he~rd: ,· . ….

“Mrs..·Hale!” .’ ……. ;.”,: ;., .’. , :. :i. ·s· .; ” .'”.,,;.:”.’ : ‘ ;:.;. ·.,·i’i T ‘·’ ….. , .•.

. ‘.’ .”Yes,.Mrs. Peters?”: ‘.. . …i'” .’ . :•. ·.i . .. • . ” . ; ‘ . :,

, ‘.~Whatdo you suppose:she wasso~nervous· about?”i(.· ·. i ·:;r.’ . ‘)’; -; . “.: ..:

·i’Oh; [don’t know, “.said Mrs. Hale, asifdismissing a’ thing not important enough
to spend much·time on~’ ”I don’t:know asshewa~~ner:vous. hew awful.queer some- .
times when I’m just tired:” • h .\:··· ”” . ‘,.,’ ,.t:-” …, , ..”.,’. ,.’

· She cut a thread, and out ofthe corner of hereydooKed ,up;at,Mrs;, Peters:The
small, lean face of the sheiiff’s:wife’seemed:tohave tightened up; Her eyes had that
look of :peeriD-gdnto something. ,But’:the next momb’if\~hemoved;· ahd :s~id in,her
thin, indecisive way: ., …. . .. ,’. r·;,;.·.: ,. .,.- ,i. ‘.”” ‘::”{: “”~”; , :

“Well,1 mustget :those.dothes wrapped; They:maybe ,thrQughsooner’ than we
think. ·I wonderwhei:dC:buld findap(ewoft~aper’:””:’ahd string..’ .··.\. :,’ ….. ;.•
. .”In that cupboard, maybe,” suggested Mrs·;(Halejafterl~ glance aroimd.Oile piece

of the crazy sewing remainedunripped~ . Mrs·.;Peters’ hick tumed; tMartltaHale now
~crutinized that piece, compared it wil:h ithe ,daintYiaccuratesewipgofothe other
blocks. The difference:wasstartling. Holding:this: block’made herfeeLqueer, as :Wthe
distraCted thoughtsofthe;woman who had·perhaps; turned,td It ;to try imd quiet her­
self were communicating themselves to her. ·’ . . “: ~ ,.;,”,. ”

Mrs. Peters’ voice !·oused·her. ·’·’ . ‘ …. ; ‘ ..; i :,.’ ..
, “Here’sabird..cagei!~ she said. :”Did she have abirdj ·Mrs )’ Hale!”‘· …. ;’. ,. .. ‘:

“Why, I don’t know whether she did or not.” She :turnedto ilookat the cage Mrs.
Peters was holding’up; I’I!ve not!beenhere ‘in sci’\ong;!’ She sighed. ‘There was aiman .
round last yearsellingcanades cheap”””-‘but I don’t know as she .tookone. Maybe ‘she
did·. She used tosingreaLpie’ttyherself;” ‘, ” “‘. , . ” .

Mrs. Peters lookedaroundthekitchen; : ‘ … . ” ” ..f,:··’ .

‘!'”Seems’kind·of ,funny to.·think of a;bird,here.” She half laughed~ari attempt to ‘
put up a barrier. “But she must have’hadone1-or why would she have a cage?’I;won~
der what happened to iL” : .;. ” ,i ” :” ‘ ” :,”t·· ,:,..,.:’;
. “I suppose maybe the cat got it,” suggested Mrs. Hale, resiiming her sewing. ;'” ”

‘. “No; shedidn’t,haveacat. She’sg6t that feeling some:peoplehiveaboljt :Cats­
being.afraid ofthem. When they brought her to’ ournouse’yesterday, my cat- goUn
.the room, and she was real upset and asked m’e to takeiit out;” :’:: ‘; ‘ ‘ ,.. , ….

“My sister Bessie was like that,” laughed Mrs. Hale; i: . ..• i f , .;.;,”­

The sheriff’s wife did not reply. The silence made Mrs; Hale turn round. Mrs.:Pe- .
terswas examiningthebird..:cage. . … ‘ ,; :., .’;., .. ‘ .. ..

‘ ”Look at this door,” she sald’sI6wly.,”It’s broke..Onehinge:l1as beenpuUed apart;”
Mrs. Hale came nearer. . .” .,’ ,.. ‘ . . ‘..
“Looks as if some one must have been–mugh with it.” … . -, ,.
Again their eyes met-:-startled, questioning” apprehensive: For a momentneither

spoke nor stirred, Then Mrs. Hale, tur~ing away”said brusquely: ‘.’ ••…. “.. . …..
“If they’re going to find any evidence, I wish they’d be about it. I don’t like this

place.” .. ,. ”’.” ,….” …
“But I’m awful glad you came with me, Mrs. Hale\”Mrs. Peters putthe bird-cage

on the table and sat down. “It would be lones6me’for ‘rrie-:-sitting here’alone;”

307 ·uU”fl.N VLA::i!’hLL

i’YeSj invould; wouldn’r Itl.”. agreed Mrs; ~Hale; ‘a certain determined naturalness in
herivoiceiiShe pkked’upthe sewing; but now it dropped inherlapi.andshe murmured
in~different voice: “But I tell you what I do wish, Mrs, Peters. I wish I had come over
sorrj.:etimes: when sne Was here: l wish-‘-‘-lhad.” ,… :…. ,: .. , . ‘. “‘.

”But of course youwereawftiJbusy,Mrs: Hale; Your house-and your children:'”
, ‘.iI could’ve come,” retorted Mrs. Hale shortly. “I stayed awa:y because it weren’t
, .cheerful-and that’s why I ought to have come. I”-she lookedaround-“:”‘I’venever
: liked this place. Maybe because it’s down ina hollow arid you don’t .see:·the road. I
: donlr-know ,what it is; but it’s a . lonesome place’, and always was. I wish I had come
: bVer to see’ Minnie Foster sometimesdcan see now”;””:”” She did not put it into words.
‘. , ‘.’Well, yoil mustn’t reproach yourself,” counseled Mrs. Peters; “Somehow, we just
don’t see how it is withothedolks till…:.c..somethingcomes up;” ., . .

.’ “: “Not ‘having children, makes less work;” ‘mused Mrs. Hale; after a silence “biltit
: makes aquiet hous~andWrightout to’Workaliday-,-and nocompany’Whe~hedid
come in. Did you know John Wright, Mrs. Peters?” . : , ” , .
; “Not to know him. l’ve seen himih town. They say he was agoodman.”, ,

: ‘ “lfes—:-good,” conced~dJoh~W~ight’s neighbor grimly. “He didn’t ddnk, and kept
.hls word as well as most,. J guess, and paid h is ‘debts. But he was a hard man, Mrs. Pe­
‘ters; Just topass ·:the time ‘Of day withhim~.” She stopped; shivered a little. “Like a
l’aw,windthatgets to the bone;1’HefeyefeUupon the cage on the table before:her,
:and she added, almost bitterly: “I shoLild think she would’ve wanted a birdr’
‘. ” Suddenlyshe,leanedforward,looklng intently at the cage. “But what db you s’pose
wen~ wrong with it?” . ,…. .’

“I don’t know,” returned Mrs, Peters; “unless it got skk and died;” ,
Bilt after shesaidihhe; reached over and swung’ the broken door. Both women

. watehed it as if-somehow heldbyit. “:,’ .. … . . , ‘
I’ !’Youdidn’tkriow,…,”:’herWMi’s. Hale asked, a gentler note in her voice.

” ‘Not till they brought her yesterday,” said the sheriff’s wife: ‘ :.. ” ”
“She-:-come. to, think of it, she was kind oflike a bird herselCReal sweet and pret­

ty, but kmd of tlmLd and-fluttery. How~she-‘:did-“-change.’: , : , .’ , .’
, ;. r That ‘held her for al?[1g’ dm~. Finally; asifstr1Jck with a happy thought and re­

lteve& to get back to everyday things; she exclaimed: ‘ .
i “Tell y.ou,;;hat, Mrs. Peters, why don’t you take the quilt in with you? It might take
up hermmd. ‘ .: .; “.’ ‘ . ‘.

‘. “Why, Ithinkthat’sareaLnice idea, Mrs. Hale,” agreed the shedff’swife, as if she
too Were glad to come into the: atmosphere of a simple: kindness. “There couldn’t
possibly be any objection’ torhat, could there? Now, just what will I take? I wonder
if her patches are in here-and her things.” ‘ ‘:

They turned to the sewing basket.
“Here’s some red,” said Mrs. Hale, bringing out a roll of cloth. Underneath that

was a box.’ “Here,maybe her scissors: are in here-a:nd her things:” She held it up.
“What a pr~ttx boxl I’ll warrant that was somet):ling she had a long time ago-when
she was a gLrl. ‘ :;o.’ “.

She held it in her hand a moment; then, with a little sigh, opened it. .
Instantly her hand went to her nose.
“Why—-!” .

Mrs. Peters drew nearer-then turned away.
“There’s something wrapped up in this piece of silk,” faltered Mrs. Hale.
“This isn’t her scissors,” said Mrs. Peters in a shrinking voice.

Her hand not steady, Mrs. Hale raised the piece of silk;”Oh, Mrs. Peters!”’, she
cried. “It’s-” .

Mrs. Peters bent closer.
“It’s ‘the bird,” she whispered. . .’

,.’ “But, Mrs. Petersl” cried Mrs. Hale. “Look at itl Its neck-look at its neck! It’s
all~other side to.”
. She held the box away from her.

The sheriff’s wife again bent closer.
· “Somebody wrung its neck,” said she, in a voice thatwas slow and deep. •
·And then again the eyes of the two women met-this time clung tOg’ether.in a I~k

ofdawning comprehension, of growing horror. Mrs~ ‘ Peters looked from the dead bIrd
to the broken door of the cage. Again their eyes met. And just then there was, a sound
at the outside door. ‘ ..’ .

Mrs: Hale slippedthebox under the quilt pieces in the basket, and sank·into the
chair before it. Mrs. Peters stood holding torhe table. The country attorney. and .the
sheriff came in from outside. . .’

“Well, ladies,” said the county attorney, as one turning from serious things to lit­
tle pleasantries, “have you decided whether she was going to quilt it or knot it?”

· “We think;” began the sheriff1s wife in· a flurried voice, “that she wasgoingto­
knot it'” . ‘,. .’

· He was too preoccupied to notice the change that came in her voice o~ that last.
“Well, that’s very interesting, I’m sure;” he said tolerantly. He caught sLght of the

bird;cage. “Has the bitdflown?” . ‘ ‘.
· “We think the cargotit,” said Mrs. Hale in a voice curiously even.

He was walking up and down, as if thinking something out.
“Is there a cad” he asked ‘absently.
Mrs. Hale shot a lOok tip at the sheriff’s wife. ‘, .
“Well, not now,!’ said Mrs,’Peters. “They’re supersfitious, you know; they leilVe,”
She sank into her chair;
The county attorney did not heec:l her. “No sign at all of anyone having COme in

from the outside,”, he said to Peters, in the manner ofcontinuing an interrupted con­
versation. “Their own rope. Now let’s go upstairs again and go over it, piece by piece.
It would have to have been someone who knew just the-”

The stair door closed behind them and their voices were lost.
The two women sat motionless, not looking at eath other, but as if peering into

something and at the same time holding back. When they spoke now i~ wa,s as if they
were afraid ofwhat they were saying, but as if they could not help saymg .Lt. ,

“She liked that bird,” said Martha Hale; low and slowly. “She was going to bury it
in that pretty box.” ‘. ‘.

, “When I was a girl,” said Mrs. I>eters, under her breath, “my kitten-there was a
boy took a hatchet, and before my eyes-before I could get ~,here-” She covered
her face an instant. “If they hadn’t held me back I would have -she caught herself,
looked upstairs where footsteps were heard, and finished weakly-“hurt him.”

Then they sat without speaking or moving. .
“I wonder how it would seem,” Mrs. Hale at last began; as if feeling her way over

strange ground–‘-“I1ever to have had any children around?” Hereyes made a slow
sweep of the kitchen, a.s if seeing What that kitchen had meant through all the years.
“No, Wright wouldn’t like the bird,’~she said after that-“a thing that sang. She used
to sing. He killed that too.” Her voice tightened. ,

http:tOg’ether.in

JQ9:~ . :’ .-……·w:
0U:;AN ULASl’ELL AJury ofHer Peers

: Mrs: Peters moved uneasily. .’ ,, : …’ . i;
“Ofcourse we don’t know who killed the bird.” , .
“I knew John Wright,” was Mrs. Hale’s answer.
“It was an awful thing was done in this house thatnight,Mrs.Hale,” said the sher­

. {f(‘swife: “Killing a man while ;heslept~slipping a thing round his neck that choked
” the life out of him.”

Mrs. Hale’s hand went out to the bird-cage. ” .:;-” .
“His neck. Choked the life out of him.”
“We don’t know who kitled himj”whispered Mrs. Peters wildly: “We don’t know.”
Mrs!Hale had ,not inoved; “1fthere had been years and years6f-‘-nothing, then a

bird :to sing to you i itwould beawful-‘-stillLafter the bird wasstilU’
. ·!twas as ifsomethirig within her not herself hadspoken, and it found inMrs~ Pe:.

ters something she did not know as herself. .
, “l :kndw what stillness, is,’: ‘shesaid;in aqueer,monotonous voice. “When we

homesteaded in Dakota, ‘andm¥firstbcibydied–:”‘after he was two years old.:-…a’nd me
with no other then-” ., .

Mrs; Ha:lestirred., ” ‘
“How;soondo you’ suppose they’ll be throughlobkin’g for:evidence?” ‘,” … .. ”
“I know what stillness is,”‘repeatedMrs. Peters, iri: just the same way. Then’she’too

pulled back. “The law has got to punish crime, Mrs. Hale,” she said in her ·tight lit­
tle way~ . ; .’~. ;. :”,” i ” . . , ‘.

, . “LWishyou’dseeniMinnie FOster;” was the answer, “when she wore a white dress
with blue ribbons, and stood up there in the choir andsang.'”

The picture’of that girl” the fact that she had’ livedheighbbr to that girl for tWen­
ty years, and had let her die for lack of;li’fe;was suddenly more:than she could bear.

“Oh, I wish I’d come over here once. in a while!” is\1e )cried. “That. was a crime!
That was a crime! Who’s going to punishi:hat?'” ,,; .;
. “We mustn’t take on,” said iMrs.Peters;,wlth afrightehedlook toward the stairs.

“I might ‘a’ known she needed help! I tell you, It’s queer; Mrs. Peters: We live dose
together; and we live far apart:We,.all;.go through the saine things-‘-it’s all just ‘adif­
fererit kind of the same thing! If it weren’t .why .dQ you and 1understand?Whydo we
know-what We know this minute?” !,;:··.;, . . . .

She dashed her hand across her.eyes’.Then,seeingrhe j~r of fruit on the table, she
reached oudor it and choked olit:’· , – ;'” ‘

“If! was you I wouldrt’ttellher hedruitwas gone! Tell hetit ain’t: Tell her it’s all
right-aU of it; Here’—take this in to prove it to her! She-‘-s\1e may never ‘know
whether it ‘wasbroke or not;”· …. .,., . , .

,She turned away. .:: .
Mrs, Peters reached out for the bottle of fruit as if she were glad to take it~asif

touching a familiar thing; having something to do, could keep her from something
else. She got up, looked about for somelhlng to wrap the·fruit in, tooka petticoat from
the pile ofclothes she had brought from the front room, and nervously started Wind”
ing that round the bottle. ‘. . . . . ‘. ‘

“My!” she began, in a high, false voice, “it’s a good thing the men couldn’t hear
us! Getting all stirred up over a little thing like a~ead canary.” She hurried over ‘that.
“As if that could have anything to dci :with-with-=My, wouldn’t they la1,l.gh?” .

Footsteps were heard on the stairs. ” . ‘ ;..
“Maybetheywould,” muttered Mrs. Hale-“rrtaybe they wouldn’t.” . ,.
“No, Peters,” said the county attorney incisivelYj”it’s all perfectly dear, except

‘.~

…..,.

the ‘:reason for ,doing ;it. But,you know jurieswhen (it:’cbrries :towomend£,there ‘:,:,as
some definite thing~s6mething ~oshow; Somethfngtomake’ astory:about. Athmg
that would connect up with this’clumsy,wayofdoing it.” :”, “J’·.”.’; ‘.”‘J;’ ‘;: ” , ‘,:0 , ;;., ‘t:.
. . 1hacovert way Mrs;, Hale·looked at Mrs; rPetersnMrs.Perets,wi\s lookih’g,ather.

Quickly they ‘looked awayfrbm,each.other; , ~The , outer dobr;~peqe~<\p.dMr' : H.ale: came in. ' .' .. ;": ".~ ' r :: ·,·~ ~"; ..~ ".) ',- .: ; .'.):-;.' r·.y~ !·~ '.~~: ~~~-::\!. L. :\ H :1~ ' ," ,.~:.d'·/ .

. “I’ve got the team round now,” he said. “Fretty;coHout/there;~’i <. .;; ..'.•"'.' . .; . ,"lim. going to stay here awhile by myself," the county attorney suddenly announced. "You can send Fra.nk out for me, can't you?" he asked the sher~ff. "I want to go over everything; I'm not satisfied we can't do better." ·' . .. . . . .

Again, for one brief moment, the ~owo~~r’s eyes found one another.
The·sheriff came up to the table. . . . . . , .
“Did you wantto;see,wha~M,r{isiPet~rs ” wa~ going totak:e,.in?;\ ., ,,’ , ~”
. ;i

The county attorney P~<;:k~911Prhe aprpn" FI,~ !~llgpe~~ .: ," ;;'; ,': .. '", ii, . . . "Oh,! guess they're not .ve~y ,d~ngerous .thil}g~'lthe ~l;:l¢le~h\lve P!c;kedqut. . Mrs. Hale's hand was on the sew'ing ba.ske:t in.,whic;h,the bo~:,:<;vascon~ea.led. She

felt .that ,she ought .to .takeher.hal1cloff,~9.eJ;>ask,~~ : ;She,did, n()t,~e~tI): a);>k ,t9.B,ejP~(;ked .
. up ~n~ ~f the quiitblocks which ~he)}a~piled:Qnto, <;:()venhe; hox, Ji.erJ!yesfe,lt like

fire ..She had ,a.feeling tha~;if4e took ;up’ ,tpe, ba~ket .s>he(‘wquld~rl<~~l:h : lt ; f.rop:~:hlm. But,he did nottak;e' it I;lp. Withanothe(:!itdelaughi ·he tume9,..aw~y" ,saWl,lg: . "NojMrs. 'Peters does!1't:need .superVising\;ror.that , matt~r,a , sheriff>‘s . wife ; is mar­

ried to theJaw. Everthink qf it tha.t way, Mr~., :P~ters?:’ , :, i; . /,<{,;-,., ;1:. ;,::.:;:' " . Mrs. Peters was standing beside the table.:Mrs.,HaleshQtalook iup at her;but

she could not see her face. Mrs~ Peters hadtumed away. When she spoke, her voice
was muffled.

.”Not-just that way,” she.said. . . . ” ‘. . ‘ .
“Married to the law!” chuckled Mrs. Peters’ husband. He moved toward the door ·

into the front room, and said to the county attorney: . ‘ . • .
“I just want you to come in here a minute.. George. We ought to tfike a look atthese

windows. . … .. . . .:. . ..
“We’ll be right out, Mr. Hale,” said the sheriff to the farmer, who was still waiting

by the door. ‘ . .. . . .’ .’ ‘. ‘.’ . .
Hale went to look after the horses. The sheriff followed the county attorney mto

the other room. Ag~in-forone moment—“:’the two women were alone in that
kitchen. .” . . ‘. .’

Martha Hale sprang up, her hands tight together, looking at that other woman,
with whom it rested. At first she could not see her eyes, for the,sheriff’s wife had not
turned back, since she turned away at that suggestion of being married to the law: But
now Mrs. Hale made her turn back. Her eyes made her turn back. Slowly, unwill­
ingly, Mrs. Peters turned her head until her eyes met the eyes of the other, wom~n.
There was a moment when they held each other in a steady, burning look Ln which
there was no evasion nor flinching. Then Martha Hale’s eyes pointed the way to the
basket in which was hidden the thing that would make certain the conviction of the
other woman-that woman who was not there and yet who had been there with
them all through the hour. . .. .. .

For a moment Mrs. Peters did not move. And then she did it. With a rush forward,
she threw back the quilt pieces, got the box, tried to put it in her handbag. It was too .
big. Desperately she opened it, .started to take the bird out. But there she broke-she

. could not touch the bird. She stood helpless, foolish.

http:totak:e,.in

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SUSAN GLASPELL
” ,I Nikolai Gogol ‘

!’: There iwasthe’soundbf a’knbbtutning inthdnnerdoor. Martha Hale snatched (1809-1852)
!the ~b}FfrOrri :theshetiff’swife,and got ifinthe pocket of her big coat just as the sher­ Russia)iff ar).d the countyattCimey came’back into the’kitchetl. ‘. ,’ ” ” . • .
: :: “~WeH/ Henry;”said the cdtinty.attomey facetiously, O’~at least we found ·out that i~~~\”

. .rshe’was:riotgb’ing:to:quilt it. She wasgoingto.,.;:….what is it you caJl it, ladies?'”
; Mrs. Hale’s hand was against the pocket of her coat. :. ‘
. “We call it-:-kriotitiMr; Henderson.” ” .
; ‘!. “j .::, …. . ” ‘ : :” • . ” I., ,

, I ” ,C”-:” (19171

: :., -“;

“. . Questions .’ ‘:. ;”

L How do Mrs. Hille arid Mrs. Peters discoverMiririie’ Wri~ht’s hl,otive for murder? .
l· 2. Mrs. I~et~rs insists that”the’ia\V i~:the law;’; what eve!),ts~ persua

ochangesthatocclii in her ahdMrS.Haler ~, , < . ; ' . ' ' ,':) : ;Cb~sidei){ciwieach'of the 'fo1l6wlnKdemertrsof the s~oiy ~ilrries a double Illeaning: ,.

;, ‘;: k1lQt; stranguUitifm; Crimej/aw, ‘evidencei motive,:jury: ‘ .’; . ‘ ” , ‘ .
.4: i What’d6e~·t~esto~imply.{nexpreS~ingdiffe[ennvays ‘in whiCh’men and wofuen

Jnterpreteventsahd even objectsiiri’ anenvirOnmentl Are these differences ‘exag;
c’;, , geratedlHowdoesthNeader become a participantin intetpretationand judgment?

, 5. What is t~e signiflc~nceofthe” titlei What conflicting vle~s of the law are eic~ .
i . ‘ presse~ in ‘thestorylAre theyresolvedl ,.’ .

. :, ,”:;

‘ j .’

. ,.’ ,I .. ‘;’

….N~~::~::~~:~c~:1~t~:n~:Co;~:;;:;~dd~~~:1 ~;J~Z:;~~~ho°~i~d :;;;:’
ing Nikolai’s ~hildhood. · Gogol’s mother was .only 15 whenNikblaitiias born; s~e ‘ .
wehion io bear 11 morechildren. Steeped in folklOre, .’she was 4n: important source
of the folk I.egeruis and supersti tiOns ofUkrainian life inGogol’sedrly stories. ,

Gogol hadhopesiif being anaetoT,bUt his highly nervoilsnatu,re aridh~ fear’of peo­
ple made it difficult{arhim to sUcceed at that or most other professiOnS. His defeats were ‘
exaggerated for him because of his high sense ofpUrpose ..He tri~dseveral jobs ,inclUding
the civil service, arid eventually acquired a position for which hehadabsolutdy no qual­
ificatiOris, as aprofessor ofmedieval history at the University ofSt. Petersburg. His dis­
astrbus performance soundS like a situation he might haveinv~ted for oneafhis stories . .

Event1’i!:llly Gogol tried writing fiction baSed ori Ukrainian fairytald, legbuls’ arid
romantichdriortales; the first volume, Evenings on aFarmNear Dik:mka (1831),
made his success arid name immediately .He also Wrote severa/plays ,’the best known
of whiCh, The Inspector Geheral (1836), exposed the posturings arid foibles ofa
crbsssectionof Russian tQwnspeople . His masierpiece, Dead Souls .(J 841) ,.sati~ .
rizes the gree4 and corrUption ofRussian ldndowners with epic ‘sweep arid humor. .

. Although itmight seem as if Gogol were a radical social critic,’ in fact hewaspoliti~
.cally cOrJervative; he .intended for Dead Souls'(whiCh he never corripletid) to erid with
.his herb Chichikov’srefarm andche salvation of traditiimal RUSsia. …. . . . .. .

.Gogol’s mastery of the “cprri.icgTotesque”~the juxtaposition ofhumbriino. ho+ror­
is one of his unique contributions to narrative f6mLHis mingling of the commOnplaCe .’
with the uncanny orsupernatural, as in “The Overcoac,” artahis mastery ofcaricature
are e!eTnents ()f his indelible style. Moreover, hisp6ignant sioriof the plight ofthe little
man marked ci turhing P9int in Russian literature: ‘the d!a.raetiroithe underdog Or so~ ..

. Cial misfit is understood not as anuisance or afigure to be mocked but asa human being
who is ehtitledw his share of happiness. However, ‘he may not fi7U!that haPPiness, as

. ·Gogolhimselfdid ilot:Split betweeri his artistic gifts .and his mdraL ce;t[li’nties, Gogol even­
tually died ofmelancholy, mental angUish, arid selFstarvation anhe age of41. ‘.
. Gogol’s fnjIitenceon Russian literature waSprofouiUi; he is’regarded as the fat.her

of “Russian realism~” Dostoevsky remarked , “We all emergedfromtJ:efolds ofGogol’s
overcoat.” The Russi(In writer Vladimir Nabokovobserved the following in his Lec­
tures on Russian Literature: ‘ . .. .

“The Overcoat” is a grotesque and grim nightmare’making bUick holes in the dim pat- .
. tern of life . .. . After readil1g Gogol one’seyes may become gogolized and one is apt to

see bits of his. world in the most unexpected places . … [S]omething .like Akaky
Aka/4evich’s overcoat has been the passionate dream of this or that chance acquain­
tance who never has heard about GogoL .

“The Overcoat, “in its u~ique fusion of humor and suffering arid in itsstarkren­
dering of the absurd universe that lurks just beneath, the commonplaCe one, is unar­
guably one ofthe world’s great rnasterpieces of short fiction . .’

.. ~.’
311

Women’s Literature

Terminology for the Semester

1. Literary Canon:

a body of books, narratives and other texts considered to be the most important and influential of a particular time period or place
2. Empowerment:
the process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one’s life and claiming one’s rights.

3. Essentialism:
the assumption that people or things have a fixed “nature,” as well as the generalizations that grow from such assumptions (women are more nurturing than men; men are more rational than women)

4. Gazes:
the filter through which we see things based on our gender, or the gender through which art is intended to be seen (usually the gender of the artist) (male gaze, white gaze, straight gaze, etc)

5. Gender Roles:
a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

6. Intersectionality:
the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.

7. Madonna/Whore Complex:

In sexual politics the view of women as either Madonnas or whores limits women’s sexual expression, offering two mutually exclusive ways to construct a sexual identity

8. Metanarrative/Master Narrative
the notion of one historical narrative being central, involving the exclusion or marginalization of oppressed groups
9. Phallocentrism
centering the masculine in construction of meaning, or defining maleness as the center.

10. Patriarchy
a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it.

11. Matriarchy
a system of society or government ruled by a woman or women.

12: Sexism

prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex.

13: Feminism
the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes.

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