Government

Instructions attached (Week 13)
discussionweek
ATTACHED FILE(S)
Please share with your classmates the significant findings of your research. How do your findings contribute to the discipline of homeland security? Please provide at least three (3) sources that significantly contributed to your findings. Please include your research question at the beginning of your post!
The other attachment has the research work for this question, (Perspective on Domestic Terrorism through Religion)
· At least 500 works
· With references
2
American Public University
Charles Town, WV
Introduction Comment by Chris Martinez: You need an introduction to your study.Think of it as a background, current situation, or setting the table for your problem, purpose, and question you wan to explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Terrorism has become a significant issue in the United States since the 2001 attack (Wright, 2016). Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle the militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Comment by Chris Martinez: This is an improvement Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Considering the recent growth and increase in the number of radicalized youths by their religions, it is necessary to conduct studies that will examine the causes of radicalization and why many people are embracing religious radicalization. Therefore, the research will focus on domestic terrorism with particular attention to religious radicalization, which supports extreme views, that prompt people to commit terrorist activities.
Statement of the Problem Comment by Chris Martinez: PROBLEM
A problem statement is a broad overview of specific questions that will be addressed in a given area of research. It outlines the description of the issue(s), includes a vision, suggests the method(s) used to solve the problem
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
. The problem that will be investigated in this study is to explore how the government of the United States, in particular, can combat religious radicalization and eliminate domestic terrorism resulting from radicalization. Presently, the world is experiencing many domestic terrorism incidents connected to religious radicalization. However, governments have not implemented the right interventions and policies to curb religious radicalization, especially among the Muslim communities according to Rogers et al. (2007), radicalized people are likely to inflict terror on the masses and destroy national infrastructures as one way of achieving their terrorism goals. Domestic terrorism encompasses violence against the citizens or the national infrastructure.As the number of radicalized youths and people increases, domestic terrorism incidents are likely to increase. For this reason, the authorities have to devise ways to combat religious radicalization in America and worldwide (Smith, 2021). The problem is that many of the policies and interventions implemented in America are perceived to be discriminatory. For this reason, they are not effective in combating religious radicalization (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Through the literature review and evaluation of data and recommendations from different government agencies, the current study will seek to solve the problem by providing advice that can be implemented to combat religious radicalization. This paper presents a research proposal on the perspectives of domestic terrorism through religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: This should be the first sentence and needs to be narrower.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resilved Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who?Cite this
Did you look at the document I sent you on constructing a problem statement Comment by Chris Martinez: Ensure you address this assertions with a citation Comment by Chris Martinez: I will send you a document on constructing your problem statement
Purpose Statement
The current qualitative research study aims to investigate religious radicalization motivating factors. Through a literature review and analysis of other documents on domestic terrorism related to religious radicalization, the study will understand why many youths are opting for radicalization. The study will also provide recommendations on how the government can combat religious radicalization and reduce domestic terrorism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Address this in your next submission or we cannot move forward Comment by Chris Martinez: You have not address this Comment by Chris Martinez: The purpose of the qualitative case study research is to explore…..
Why are you researching the topic Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Research Question
To better understand the significance of radicalization to terrorism, this research develops research questions that will help to answer some of the concerns about domestic terrorism (Smith, 2021). Comment by Chris Martinez: Alignment needed Comment by Chris Martinez: You do not have alignment with problem, purpose, and questions Comment by Chris Martinez: This is better aligned…well done…leave me a comment that you have addressed it.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Issue resolved.
1. What factors enhance youths’ involvement in religious radicalization in the United States?
1. How does religious radicalization contribute to the current rising number of domestic terrorism incidents in the United States?
1. What measures can the United States implement through its different institutions, agencies, and government branches to combat religious radicalization?
Literature Review Comment by Chris Martinez: The meet and potatoes of your document is your literature review and where you will cut your teeth as a researcher.
A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question. It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper, in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge. Part of your review covers the theory you will use to address your problem.
I have provided a few documents which may assist you.
Comment by Chris Martinez: This area needs to be more expansive Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Different scholars and researchers have utilized literature reviews to investigate social issues for many years. Qualitative studies give researchers leeway of using literature or previously published studies to solve prevailing problems on similar subjects. According to Wilner and Dubouloz (2010), terrorism is a global problem affecting developed, developing, and non-developing countries. European countries and the United States have been affected by terrorist activities, both external and homegrown, since the dawn of the 21st century (Venkatraman, 2007; Jones, 2022; Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). The literature review explores the common themes of terrorism radicalization and the various theories and conceptual frameworks applied to explain the current trends in violence. The articles included in the literature review are peer-reviewed. The findings will form a basis for a further research study. Comment by Chris Martinez: Says who? Cite this Comment by Chris Martinez: Please address each track change Comment by Chris Martinez: Like this…well done Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been addressed. Comment by Chris Martinez: explore Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Religious Terrorism
Comment by Chris Martinez: use sub sections to accentuate themes Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Ressolved.
Religious terrorism is common today because of radicalization in the house of worship. Many religious groupings have resolved to religious radicalization as one way of advancing and procuring followers today. According to Rink and Sharma (2016), most scholars associate religious terrorism with psychological trauma, which occurs in their lives as children, youths, or adults (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Rink and Sharma (2016) The authors conducted a qualitative study in Kenya to understand compelling reasons that pushed youth to join religious terror groups, particularly Al-Shabaab. Through interviews, they found that exposure to violence in adulthood and constrained social relationships prominently prompted them to religious radicalization. Similar sentiments were shared by Rogers et al. (2007), who noted that many youths opt for radicalization because they are exposed to strain social relationships in society. Interaction with radical groups or individuals through social media platforms or physically also contributed to participants’ joining radical groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Other scholars also found an association between religion, social relations theory, and rational choice theory. Religious fundamentalism also contributes to domestic terrorism (Rogers et al., 2007). In the United States, Christians are guided by a sense of patriotism and a rising immigrant population. At the same time, the Muslims are outraged by what they perceive as an encroachment on their religious values by Western cultures (Rogers et al., 2007). Thus, the fundamentalism views held by each side can form a basis for religious extremism leading to religious radicalization and subsequent domestic terrorism.
Religious Radicalization and Strain Theory Comment by Chris Martinez: You may want to have a sub section just for the theory you will expore
Comment by Chris Martinez: Have you address this?Without your comments, I don’t know if you have resolved the issue Comment by Ronald Punzalan: The issue has been resolved.
Scholars have also used the social learning theory to investigate the spread of religious radicalization and terrorism in the United States. Shapiro & Maras (2018) studied how women in the United States were radicalized and joined Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terror groups through the social learning theory. Data used was obtained from open-source court cases. The study involved thirty-one participants in assessing how they became radicalized and extremists. They discovered that the women joined terror groups through due social interactions with radicalized individuals (Shapiro & Maras, 2018). Most religious terrorist acts have been associated with the Islamic religion. The connection between Islamic faith and violence is due to an extreme understanding of the Quran and the influence of Islamic Revivalism (Venkatraman, 2007). Consequently, intrinsic sociological and psychological factors compel the Muslim followers to violence as a form of defending their religion and extending it (Venkatraman, 2007). Geopolitical factors influence religious radicalization and the motivation to join terror groups. Indeed, it is clear from the studies mentioned above that the tenets of strain theory can be used to explain why many youths opt for religious radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: spell out all acronyms first time Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Islam and Religious Radicalization
It is not new for the Islamic religion to be associated with religious radicalization and terrorism (Wright, 2016). The question that many scholars seeking to understand is why is Islam associated with terrorism? Scholars have researched why most religious terrorism is associated with the Islamic religion. According to Rogers et al. (2007), one of the reasons is that Muslims show high self-reported fundamentalism compared to adherents of other religions such as Christians. Indeed, most Muslims have strong resilience for their religion, and they will do anything to protect the values of their religion. Religious fundamentalism is where religious followers have fundamental beliefs. Wright (2012) noted that Muslims show a high religious commitment to protecting their religious beliefs compared to other religions. Consequently, they are ready to defend their religion, including violence. The current political landscape, driven by Western ideologies, contradicts Islamic believers’ self-concept and acts as a “push” factor to religious radicalization and terrorism. Whereas it is fundamental to commit to one’s religious beliefs, studies have shown that some Islamic social institutions are extreme, and their teachings radicalize their followers. The Islamic religion is more homogenous than other religions, such as Christians, characterized by many denominations with different beliefs (Wright, 2016). Thus, religious terrorism can be understood by assessing religious-specific factors.
Domestic Terrorism and Behavioral Change
Whereas domestic terrorism has been highly associated with The behavioral change approach is also used to explain the spread of religious terrorism, and it can be addressed. The United States, like Europe, has witnessed a growing number of domestic terrorism resulting from religious beliefs. According to the perpetrators, killing other people to defend one’s religion is (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). Subsequently, any religious terrorism is done to protect or expand religious beliefs. The perpetrators are emotionally and mentally motivated with a set of beliefs to orchestrate violence against those they believe oppose their faith. Many varied issues of Islamic violence can prompt them to kill other individuals (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010). A lack of political homogeneity also catalyzes the radicalization process leading to terrorism. People unwilling to fit into the broader political society align themselves with smaller social groups and form a network that grows into homegrown terror groups in the United States (Wilner & Dubouloz, 2010).
Current studies have explored numerous issues explaining domestic violence’s emergence, spread, and occurrence resulting from religious radicalization. Psychosocial trauma and complicated interpersonal relations are some reasons that lead to religious radicalization and violence (Rink & Sharma, 2016). Another cause of violence based on the literature review is extreme interpretations of the Quran that ‘push” believers to become extremists. Also, the existing social media platforms act as a ground for religious radicalization and extremist influence (Venkatraman, 2007). The authors use various theories to explain the occurrence and spread of domestic violence and religious radicalization. The ideas discussed include social relations theory, social learning theory, behavioral change theory, and rational choice theory. Most of the studies are qualitative and quantitative, and thus, there is a need for policy evaluation studies to understand how they relate to terrorism. Again, none of the studies focuses on the strain theory, which can explain why terrorism occurs and the reasons for religious radicalization among various groups (Venkatraman, 2007). Therefore, the focus of the study will be to explore the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorist radicalization. Comment by Chris Martinez: continue to build on what you have created here
Theoretical Framework Comment by Chris Martinez: A theoretical framework consists of concepts, together with their definitions, and existing theory/theories that are used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that will relate it to the broader fields of knowledge in the class you are taking.
The theoretical framework is not something that is found readily available in the literature. You must review course readings and pertinent research literature for theories and analytic models that are relevant to the research problem you are investigating. The selection of a theory should depend on its appropriateness, ease of application, and explanatory power.
The theoretical framework strengthens the study in the following ways.
An explicit statement of theoretical assumptions permits the reader to evaluate them critically.
The theoretical framework connects the researcher to existing knowledge. Guided by a relevant theory, you are given a basis for your hypotheses and choice of research methods.
Articulating the theoretical assumptions of a research study forces you to address questions of why and how. It permits you to move from simply describing a phenomenon observed to generalizing about various aspects of that phenomenon.
Having a theory helps you to identify the limits to those generalizations. A theoretical framework specifies which key variables influence a phenomenon of interest. It alerts you to examine how those key variables might differ and under what circumstances.
Terrorism and religion have been connected for as long as human history can be traced. Civilizations and empires in ancient times are perfect examples of true extremist believers who have engaged in wars to defend, promote, and spread their faith. Rink and Sharma (2016) asserted that the contemporary era is witnessing escalating religious terrorism in its frequency, the scale of violence, and global reach. Indeed, previous studies show that religious radicalization is the genesis of violence justification (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The choice of target is influenced by existing and loose interpretations of religious doctrine or based on defending one’s religious group. Religious radicalization is globalized, unlike ethnic radicalization, and involves sophisticated networks, making it challenging to tackle militia groups (Rink & Sharma, 2016). The United States is not immune to domestic terrorism resulting from religious radicalization. Some authors have found a relationship between religious radicalization and individual-level psychological trauma related to social relations and process-oriented factors (Rink & Sharma, 2016).
A report published by the Center for Strategic and International studies indicated that out of the 893 terror incidents analyzed between 1994 and 2020, 15.6% were committed by religious terrorists (Jones, 2022). The same data showed that religious terrorism significantly increased from 2015 to 2019 (Jones, 2022). Religious terrorism also results in significant fatalities across the United States (Jones, 2022). Several theories have explained why many individuals opt to join radicalization institutions irrespective of their backgrounds and religion. In many instances, radicalizations that are linked to terrorism are religious-oriented. Religious beliefs instigate the principles that are involved in radicalization. However, among the many studies that have been done to investigate the link between religious radicalization and terrorism, a few of them have jointly placed their diverse hypothesis to scrutinize them using empirical data of findings. Lack of knowledge of the different beliefs has created a gap in the literature that serves as an obstacle to studying the subject. Again, the lack of empirical evidence to validate the diverse idea has resulted in a lack of common stance on the issue (Alimi, 2016). Therefore, the current study will use the radicalization theory and the strain theory to synthesize knowledge that can be used to explain the link between religious radicalization and terrorism. Using empirical data from intensive research, the current study will add knowledge to the available literature, bridging the existing gaps on the topic.
The Theory or Model to Be Used in The Study Comment by Chris Martinez: Stain Theory…just use this as the subsection title Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
A critique of the recent literature on the use of strain-based theory to explain terrorism drawing from the strain theory has yielded a lot of knowledge relating to the understanding of radicalization. The current study draws from the general strain theory and other research to explain how strain theory tenets relate to radicalization and terrorism. According to Merton’s strain theory, terrorism is likely to occur when people experience collective strains that take the following parameters (Alimi, 2016). The joint strain must be high in magnitude and affects the civilians. Secondly, collective pressure should be unjust, and finally, it must be perpetrated by suggestively more significant others, including ‘complicit’ civilians, with whom associates of the strained collectivity have weak ties. Strain theory explains that collective strains increase the likelihood of terrorism for several different reasons or factors. However, it is imperative to understand that the elements in play here do not lead to terrorism in all cases because their effects are conditioned by different factors (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter.The theoretical framework implemented will adopt the empirical strategy that will compare responses from the Christian and the Muslim respondents.The respondents will have different degrees of religious radicalization exposure to effectively test the hypothesis (Dalgaard-Nielsen, 2010). Other studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances. Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks (Tusini, 2019).Considering the findings of different studies, it is apparent that radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is evident from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework. Comment by Chris Martinez: Ok…this is appropriate Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: Year needed Comment by Chris Martinez: Redundant….change Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved Comment by Chris Martinez: By who…cite Comment by Chris Martinez: Provide a background on strain theory and how it applies to your study Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Statement of Hypotheses
The current study was guided by two hypotheses based on the nature of the study subject or the problem under investigation. Considering the model adopted incorporating strain theory, it was apparent from the definition and explanation of the strain theory related to religious radicalization and terrorism (Tusini, 2019). Focusing on the religious tension between Christians and Muslims worldwide and especially in America, the current study will distill great micro, meso, and macro-level hypotheses that explain the present spike in religious radicalization leading to extremism and terrorism or violence for that matter. Different studies that have adopted a similar framework have revealed that religious radicalization is not predicted macro-level political and economic shortfalls or grievances (Rogers et al., 2007). Again, some have shown that religious radicalization leading to terrorism is strongly linked to individual-level psychological trauma, including historically troubled social relations and process-oriented factors, particularly religious identification and exposure to radical networks. The study hypothesis statement will therefore revolve around the two identified hypotheses. Radicalization theory which assumes a process through which people turn to violence because of radical or extreme beliefs has also been used to explain radicalization.In the current study, the process of religious radicalization in America will be analyzed using the tenets of Merton’s strain theory as an interpretative factor (Borum, 2011). Although many other approaches can be used to test the hypotheses identified in the current study, applying Merton’s theory to this area means selecting to deal with it mainly from a sociological perspective, considering its political, economic, structural, and social features and entrenching the individual tracks within this structure.
Although the strain theory is not directly related to religious radicalization and terrorism involvement, its historical background provides an excellent foundation to study why people opt to be radicalized. Strains theory conceived a means-and-goals pattern which is the central theme of the idea. Strain theory was first used to test some of the factors that encouraged Americans to pursue aims that, in many ways, were related to the American dream (Borum, 2011). This was a dream in which the tenets of the theory were used to measure the success of individual Americans based on material possession and wealth accumulated. To test the current hypotheses using the strain theory tenets, the researcher will hold the idea that people define legitimate goals hypothetically feasible for all regardless of their demographics. As noted in theory, it is easy to test the hypotheses identified herein using the idea because it provides guidelines on variables on which the process can be done. The procedures involve identifying the different combinations of (legitimate and illegitimate) goals and means conformity (pursuing legitimate purposes through socially approved means); novelty (using socially unapproved or eccentric means to obtain customarily agreed goals); ritualism (refusing culturally accepted plans but using legitimate means for achieving more modest goals respect to those socially proposed) (Rogers et al., 2007). Others include retreatism (rejecting both cultural purposes and means, finding a way to seepage from society); rebellion (rejecting or accepting the artistic goals and standards to replace them with a revolutionary change; 1949).
Analysis of the factors that promote religious radicalization indicates that relative deficiency and unmet prospects are among the imperative push factors involved in radicalization and subsequent terrorism. Studies have already noted or revealed that the social adjacent environment and peer group relationships play a significant role in the religious radicalization pathways (Alimi, 2016). However, while individual and interpersonal ones are undoubtedly essential but variable factors, operational ones seem to have a continuous role in every America affected by the phenomenon of radicalization. When focusing on the pull and push elements, it is essential to investigate religious radicalization concerning Islamic State (IS) and its effective propaganda to radicalize and recruit Muslim youths to join radicalized and terrorist groups. Radicalization, in this perspective, is done by the IS speak to disappoint Muslims with migratory backgrounds in western countries, America included (Borum, 2012). Tents of the radicalization theory, which has borrowed insights from the strain theory, will conclude that most Muslims in Western countries choose to be radicalized because they are second-third generation young born and living in European countries. Their label gives them little chance in life, does not offer them any brilliant opportunity, and disregards them (economically, culturally, socially, and urbanistically).
Again, analysis or testing of the hypothesis leads to socio-economic considerations. The relative socio-economic deficiency translates to a lack of identification. This is very common among the IS, which is perceived by the youths who lean towards the ideologies of the terrorist group. Many believe that the group has something to fill the void: the possibility of acquiring a complete identity by participating in a radical Pan-Islamic political-religious project that restores their humiliated souls (Borum, 2012). Some studies have already tested the study hypothesis because they have revealed that when a political system turns out to be unnavigable on some sweltering public issue, radicalization can be a rational, individual, or collective response. Again, studies have revealed that there is no linear correlation between radicalization and terrorism or domestics. Furthermore, no suicide bomber or terrorist attack would likely have occurred without Islamic State calling. The young Western Muslims’ dissatisfaction would find different channels of expression (Alimi, 2016). Radicalization and involvement in terrorism are not macro-level influenced since they are individual-level process-oriented. Therefore, it is apparent from the analysis that radicalization and the subsequent involvement in terrorism can be well understood using the relational, ideal-driven framework.
Research Design Comment by Chris Martinez: DESIGN
The research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
This paper is qualitative and programs evaluation research that will focus on the common themes in domestic radicalization to terrorism cases. This research aims to advance knowledge on the “real” cause of terrorism and address them appropriately. The variable is terrorism attack, and it will be compared with other variables such as country/state, religion, weapons, targets, and type of the attacks. After identifying the variables, the next stage is the operationalization of variables. In this part, the variables will get measured using various means. The variables will be placed on different scales, with one thing in common, ten survey questions about factors that facilitate terrorism attacks and historical data questions on measures that can be put in place/ government interventions of policies to curb terrorism attacks.Furthermore, the research will assess the influence of strain theory on domestic terrorism radicalization. The study will be a program evaluation of government interventions or policies both within the United States and outside to determine their impacts. After the 2001 attacks, the United States settled on military invasions of Muslim countries to deal with militia groups and end terrorism. However, since sending troops to Afghanistan, terrorists have formed novel militia groups and expanded to other parts of the world, including Africa, North America, and Europe. Terrorism has become more localized and domestic (Drevon & Khalifa, 2021). Because of such developments, the researcher will evaluate American policies and government opinions on Islamic religion to determine if these factors act as strains that prompt the emergence of more terrorist activities domestically. Comment by Chris Martinez: This is background but doesn’t tell the reader how to duplicate your study Comment by Chris Martinez: What are they? Comment by Chris Martinez: You will need IRB approval to do this…see the module on IRB application and dealing with human subjects Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved. Stick to data collections and historical surveys. Comment by Chris Martinez: Ok
Comment by Chris Martinez: The researcher will Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Policy evaluation involves gathering data and analyses to assess policy outcomes or processes. There are various reasons for choosing policy evaluation research over other quantitative and qualitative methodologies. First, countering terrorism is an issue that involves government and its agencies and not individuals. Therefore, it is easier to assess how government policies contribute toward ending or expanding terrorism networks both within and outside the United States (My-Peer Toolkit, n.d). Some groups may perceive some policies as discriminatory or limiting some religious groups from their fundamental beliefs, which is one of the strains that lead to rebellion.

Justification of the Cases Used Comment by Chris Martinez: You will need to remove this Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Removed (Sampling Plan)
The validation will primarily rely on soundness, methodological, and a systematic method for case study design, execution, and analysis and evaluation among the cases used. This research aims to answer two main questions, why and how. First, there are two case studies: experiment and historical studies. The historical studies are more suitable than the experiments study in this type of research because of the conditions of this study. Afterward, two kinds of validity will be done in the studies, internal and external validity. In the inner reality, tests will be done to make inferences from the findings made in the case study (McDermott, 2011). In the external validity, the if problems will be tested. It will be achieved by formulating replication logic for several case studies (McDermott, 2011).
Data Collection/Sources Comment by Chris Martinez: remove
The primary data sources will be participants’ views. As such, in-depth interviews and focused group discussions will be used. During interviews, participants will be asked questions related to the area of interest, and they will be required to give immediate responses. On the other hand, the participants will be placed into groups during focused group discussions. The interviewer will converse with the group individuals regarding their opinions, perceptions, and attitude toward the terrorism topic. Comment by Chris Martinez: In order to interview participants you will need APUS IRB approval which can take time.I suggest you stick with historical data and analyze the data based on your purpose and questions
Summary of Analysis Procedures
After the data from the participants are gathered, they will be compared with one another. Those that have the same view will be grouped. Afterward, they will be compared against those who give the opposite opinions. Also, the findings will be compared against the initial studies conducted by other researchers.
Limitations
Limitations for the studies will mainly come from the data collection methods. For example, during the interviews, the respondents will be required to give an immediate response. They are not given enough time to think of the most underlying course and reliable proposals. Accordingly, the methods do not guarantee that the respondents will provide honest opinions, which can compromise the validity of the research (John et al., 2010).
Findings
Domestic militants in the United States of America appear to be radicalized by individual-level causes and processes. In comparison to the overall number of participants, 24 individuals (or 29% of cases) exhibited signs of individual-level radicalization. Individual mechanisms differ according to circumstance. Others had a history of abuse and neglect, resulting in serious challenges with self-esteem and identity. Certain radicals were diagnosed with formal mental diseases, while others had a history of abuse and neglect. Only a few individuals exhibited mild vengeance or narcissism. Comment by Chris Martinez: Take a look at the link I will send you on tables and figures
Also look at APA 7th edition
You need to introduce the figure and add a reference
Grupal dynamics is the most effective approach in the United States for radicalizing both converts and non-convert homegrown militants, and both groups employ it. According to the study’s findings, 77 of 83 participants, or 93 percent of the cases, demonstrate signs of group-level radicalization. As the episodes show, group radicalization can take place in three ways: top-down radicalization by movement recruiters, top-down radicalization via internet intermediaries, and horizontal radicalization via social media. Comment by Chris Martinez: See APA on presenting numbers
Discussion
It confirms and extends past findings. Pre-radicalized Al Muhajiroun members, Wiktorowicz believes, had “cognitive apertures.” Wiktorowicz thinks illness or loss of a loved one can inspire “religious longing.” Radicals are more likely to “identify with a religion or need profound significance.” Rather than a single incident, a series of events frequently leads to radicalization. Many radicalized people have had horrible life events or mental health issues. Extremist Islam can help persons like Jamie Paulin-Ramirez. “In class, everyone picked on Jamie,” Paulin-mother said (Kleinmann, 2012). (Ramirez) A family friend claims she had a hard life. She said she was lonely after three abusive marriages (one undocumented Mexican immigrant, two who battered and mistreated her). She read about Jihad on a radical Jamie met his Algerian wife online before conversion. Pauline-Ramirez married and relocated to Ireland. 5 Michael Finton seems to have benefited from radical Islam. Finton’s troubled past includes foster care, robbery, and violence. Those who admired him thought him “an idiot and an eccentric.” Finton “made earnest efforts to build a bond” with Muslims, says a Muslim friend. Finton proclaimed his hatred for “permissive” American society and desire to be a martyr in his ramblings. Finton was charged with attempting to detonate a bomb. It’s unclear how individual-level mechanisms relate to radicalization. Daniel Boyd’s father abandoned his mother and brothers. Boyd later led a radical gang plotting to attack the Quantico Marine base in Virginia. Victimization by the Marines could explain Boyd’s radicalization. “Loner” Mohammad Reza allegedly tried to run over schoolchildren (Kleinmann, 2012). He sneered at his lecturers, bragged, and drove recklessly in public. The college newspaper received roughly 30 critical emails from Reza. Maybe you crave attention or are a risk-taker. This study’s findings appear to contradict widely held beliefs regarding terrorist logic. Terrorists are violent intellectuals, according to set’s Terrorism specialist Bruce Hoffman. The Hezbollah and left-wing German organizations rarely face axis I and II challenges (Schizophrenia or Antisocial Personality Disorder). For example, Hoffman and others say many local Sunni radicals are mentally sick or have low IQs. The US Army found him “disturbed” and rejected him. Mohamad Alessa, who has been seeing a therapist since he was six years old; Matin Siraj, who has an IQ of 78; is “analytical. There are no rational political activists or aggressive lecturers pursuing idealism (Kleinmann, 2012). Like these folks, many suicidal or low-IQ persons may seek pathological behavior or causes they cannot control. However, similar personal behavior among American Sunni extremists is rare in general culture. The NIMH defines BPD as “insecure in oneself and others… However, only 1–3% of persons have an antisocial personality disorder (Kleinmann, 2012). Comment by Chris Martinez: What is it? Comment by Chris Martinez: Citation needed Comment by Chris Martinez: Minimize the use of quoations…synthezise and cite Comment by Chris Martinez: Is this a discussion on your findings?
Some extremists use movement recruiters to meet and radicalize others. However, five stand out due to the enormous radicalization. Then came two internet recruitments. The Taliban recruited one of five young men from Northern Virginia after Ahmed Abdullah Minni made provocative remarks on YouTube in 2009 (Kleinmann, 2012). Prisoner arrests in Pakistan. Invade Pakistan,Syed Haris Ahmed and Ehsanul Islam Sadequee appear to have met with two other known terrorists online, including Younis Tsouli (Irhabbi007). Those who wished him harm’ motivated’ him. Recruiters appear to have taken these individuals to meet other terrorists. They radicalized them all in person, usually at a mosque. Ali Al Timimi met 11 guys who had studied under Osama bin Laden’s spiritual mentor in Falls Church, Virginia (Kleinmann, 2012). Al-Timimi motivated the men. One man went to Pakistan to join LTT. IDM (LeT). So did Afghan mujahidin Kemal Derwish in Lakawana, NY. Derwish’s teachings sent six guys to terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. Habis Abdulla Al Saoub, a Jordanian terrorist. Our findings mirrored previous social movement studies on radicalization. Jett Klausen discovered a shared network linking four sheiks. These five recruiters account for radicalized Sunni militants. Donatella Della Porta and Quintan Wiktorowicz argue that social connections to movements and leaders are essential for radicalization. Social media exposes extreme groups. Al-Timimi and Derwish’s testimonies demonstrate they attracted recruits. Toxic top-down radicalization might be aided by Only incidents of radical clergy or violent propagandists online. The radicalizer and the priest rarely interact. Usually, the radicalizer downloads media. It’s dubbed “self-radicalization” since the cleric is passive. The result of militant propaganda is radical websites. Anwar al-Awlaki enflames American Sunnis. Like Paul and Nadia Rockwood and Hassan Nidal. The non-converts also need horizontal radicalization. Persons were radicalized by family or friends. This study has a lot of horizontal radicalization. A social networker often radicalizes friends or family before radicalizing outsiders (Kleinmann, 2012). JIS and Newburgh Four radicalized independently. Comment by Chris Martinez: Capitalization? Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Removed Capitalization
Lessons from the US domestic terrorist war are both optimistic and disheartening. As a result, authorities’ options for dealing with radicalization are restricted. Combating radicalization requires understanding that it is often the result of movement recruitment or radical relatives. America’s war against terror is challenging. Confusion develops when violent radicalization resembles ideological radicalization. Actions precede thoughts. The US Constitution protects that. We need less extreme beliefs and behaviors. Many people are enraged. It is legal in the US to watch and sympathize with terrorist attacks. Terrorists must be anticipated by law enforcement and intelligence agencies. Policy actions may dissuade converts to extremist groups. Others seem driven by a desire to belong or be respected. However, as this study shows, individual motivations are insufficient for radicalization. Group procedures also afford additional radicalization options. Police-Muslim community interactions are being actively investigated by La Sheriff’s Muslim Community Affairs Section. Los Angeles’ Muslim youth confront discrimination and gang brainwashing. Comment by Chris Martinez: This is discussion
The Muslim community is wary of cops. Efforts like these can educate the public on radicalization symptoms, outside recruiters, and how the public may aid.
Other US intelligence and law enforcement activities inform Muslim leaders. Others have condemned terrorism and reported suspected behavior. A.G. Eric Holder claims Muslim-Americans thwarted 16 terrorism plots by May 2010.
Relationships between the government and the Muslim community must be improved. Local Muslim leaders can spot terrorist recruitment. For example, moderate Muslim leaders’ counternarratives have kept terrorist recruiters out of some neighborhoods. Muslim leaders can thereby counteract radicalism. And they’re inexpensive and easy. Most community outreach projects do not require as many highly educated specialists as deradicalization or counter-ideology programs.
US policy repercussions of simple mass-level impact are enormous. Nobody is poor or oppressed. Parity among citizens is good for society but not always for preventing radicalism. Spending money on targeting extremist networks and recruiters is a waste.
Reference List Comment by Chris Martinez: You have 4 of 5 peered reviewed journal articles on this list this is a good start…strive for 80 percent.
Also, each reference needs to be cited in the document or removed.Continue to add references exponentially as your research grows…heavily cite your document while synthesizing what others have said.
Look at APA 7th edition…remove the word “list”
Comment by Ronald Punzalan: Resolved
Alimi, E. Y. (2016). The relational context of radicalization: The case of Jewish settler contention before and after the Gaza pullout. Political Studies, 64(4), 910-929. DOI: 10.1111/1467-9248.12226.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001
Borum R. (2012), Radicalization into Violent Extremism I. A Review of Social Science Theories, «Journal of Strategic Security», 4, 4, pp. 7-36. DOI: 10.5038/1944-0472.4.4.1
Borum, R. (2011). Radicalization into violent extremism I: A review of social science theories. Journal of strategic security, 4(4), 7-36.
Dalgaard-Nielsen A. (2010), Violent Radicalisation in Europe: What We Know and What We Do Not Know, «Studies in Conflict and Terrorism», 33, 1, pp. 797-814. DOI : 10.1080/1057610X.2010.501423
Drevon, J., & Khalifa, D. (2021, June 16). They are exploiting disorder: Al-Qaeda and the Islamic state. Crisis Group. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/exploiting-disorder-al-qaeda-and-islamic-state
John, F. A. S., Edwards-Jones, G., Gibbons, J. M., & Jones, J. P. (2010). Testing novel methods for assessing rule-breaking in conservation. Biological Conservation, 143(4), 1025-1030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.01.018
Jones, S. G. (2022, March 7). The escalating terrorism problem in the United States. The Escalating Terrorism Problem in the United States | Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved February 23, 2022, from
https://www.csis.org/analysis/escalating-terrorism-problem-united-states
Kleinmann, S. M. (2012). Radicalization of homegrown Sunni militants in the United States: Comparing converts and non-converts.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism,35(4), 278-297. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2012.656299
McDermott, R. (2011). Internal and external validity. Cambridge handbook of experimental political science, 27-40.
Merton, R. K. (n.d.). Crime causation: Sociological theories – strain theory. Strain Theory – Delinquency, People, Money, and Engage – JRank Articles. Retrieved February 24, 2022, from
https://law.jrank.org/pages/814/Crime-Causation-Sociological-Theories-Strain-theory.html
My-Peer Toolkit. MyPeer Toolkit RSS2. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from

Types of evaluation


Rink, A., & Sharma, K. (2016). The determinants of religious radicalization. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62(6), 1229–1261.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002716678986
Rogers, M. B., Loewenthal, K. M., Lewis, C. A., Amlôt, R., Cinnirella, M., & Ansari, H. (2007). The role of religious fundamentalism in terrorist violence: A Social Psychological Analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(3), 253–262.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260701349399
Shapiro, L. R., & Maras, M.-H. (2018). Women’s radicalization to religious terrorism: An examination of isis cases in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42(1-2), 88–119.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610x.2018.1513694
Strain. Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2022, from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/strain
Tusini, S. (2019). Reading religious radicalization by Merton’s strain theory. Quaderni di Sociologia, 81(81-LXIII), 47-69. https://doi.org/10.4000/qds.3498
Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 229–248.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100600781612
Wilner, A. S., & Dubouloz, C.-J. (2010). Homegrown terrorism and transformative learning: An interdisciplinary approach to understanding radicalization. Global Change, Peace & Security, 22(1), 33–51.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14781150903487956
Wright, J. D. (2016). Why is Contemporary Religious Terrorism Predominantly Linked to Islam? Four Possible Psychosocial Factors. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(1), 19–31
Data Collections
participants Individual level radicalization did not display individual level radicalization 2.9 7.1
Data Collections
participants group-level radicalization did not display group level radicalization 9.3000000000000007 0.7

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