Genesis, 1-3

Genesis, 1-3

Without blaming serpent, Eve or Adam, what do you think is the crime which gets Adam and Eve thrown out of the garden? To say it another way, what is this knowledge which God wants to keep human beings from having?

Eusa Story (Blackboard)

What is Eusa’s crime?

In what way does his story retell the shut-down of the Garden of Eden?

Galileo (Blackboard and Copernicus film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zHUWP9zu4W8)

On the night of January 7, 1610, Galileo has a new “superlative instrument.” He writes, “When I inspected the celestial constellations through a spyglass, Jupiter presented himself.”

p. 64—What does Galileo see when he looks up at Jupiter?

p. 65—Why does he decide, on January 8, to look at Jupiter again?

p. 65–What does he see, on that second night (January 8) when he looks at Jupiter again?

pp. 65-85—Between January 8 and March 1, 1610, what does Galileo do every night that the weather is clear?

p. 85—What does Galileo know for certain by March 1, 1610?

(film) Briefly describe Galileo’s scientific achievement

(film) Briefly describe Galileo’s trial for heresy

(film) Briefly describe the advance of science since Galileo’s day

GALILEO’S OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOON

1—1610: What was happening in your home country at this time?

2—Is Galileo the 1st to create a telescope?

3—With his own self-made telescope, how close is he able to make the moon appear?

4—How far is the moon, actually, from the Earth? How many “terrestrial diameters?”

5—On the 4th or 5th day after “conjunction,” the moon appears to have horns. Explain. See page 40.

6—On Earth, when the sun rises and its light catches the peak of a mountain, what light reaches the valleys on either side of the mountain?

7—How well-lit are the valleys when the sun rises high in the sky?

8—If the surface of the moon is covered with mountains, why does the moon appear to be almost perfectly round? See page 49.

9—Galileo believes that the moon, like the Earth, has an atmosphere. Is he right? See pages 50—51.

10—Even when the moon is dark, it isn’t perfectly dark. It’s as if some faint light is shining on it. Where does this light come from? See pages 53—56.

11—Based on your general knowledge, in what way or ways can you imagine that Galileo’s observations may get him in trouble with the Catholic Church?

The 6th Extinction ppt slides

#6 Describe the trajectory of human population from 4000 BC to 2100 AD (projected)

#9 How does Darwin explain extinction?

#15 How does E. O. Wilson explain extinction?

#19-20 How long have there been human beings? How long have there been ginkgo trees?

#21 What is the relationship between megafauna extinctions around the world and the spread of human beings?

#28 Karl Marx almost seems to admire the “subjection of Nature’s forces to man” which has happened during the brief “rule” of the bourgeoisie. Explain.

The 6th Extinction (text)

Chapter 1—Why are the golden frogs dying? What change in the world is causing the frogs to die?

Chapter 2—pp. 27-28 What does Jefferson write about “the economy of nature,” and what does he expect Lewis & Clark to find on their expedition to the West?

p. 29 How does Cuvier arrive at the conclusion that the bones of a mastodon belong to an “espece perdue (lost species)?”

p. 44 “The thread of operations is broken,” Cuvier writes. Explain.

Chapter 3 pp. 48-52 Lyell, like Darwin, is a “uniformitarian.” Explain.

p. 69 How does Darwin explain extinction?

Chapter 4 pp 74-78 in 1977, Walter Avarez sends soil samples to a colleague, Frank Asaro. In 1980, Walter Alvarez and his father, Luis Alvarez, publish a paper, “Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction.” What is their theory? What is their evidence ?

p. 91 Paul Taylor says about the death of the ammonites that, in certain moments, “the rules of the survival game” abruptly change. How is this a restatement of Cuvier’s idea that “the thread of operations is broken?” How does this theory put a major dent in Darwin’s theory of how extinctions take place?

Chapter 5 pp. 107-108 Paul Crutzen argues that the Earth is now in a new phase of extinction which he calls the Anthropocene. Name 5 geologic-scale processes which people are now causing.

Chapter 6 p. 113 How much CO2 will there be in the air by 2050? What global warming effects can be expected?

pp. 113-114 How much of this CO2 finds its way into the world’s oceans? How much more acidic will the oceans be than they were at the start of the Industrial Revolution?

pp. 116-117 How do the underwater CO2 vents along the sides of the Italian island, Castello Aragonese, offer scientists an “underwater time machine?”

pp. 121-124 How does ocean acidification increase “the cost of calcification?”

Chapter 7 pp. 128-130 How do coral reefs get built? How do they change the world?

pp. 136-137 With ocean acidification, what will happen to the world’s coral reefs? What will happen to their “tenants?”

Chapter 8 pp. 151-153 Imagine walking from the North Pole to the equator. To what degree are there more species in the tropics than anywhere else? Describe 3 theories to explain this difference.

p. 161 According to Darwin, how do species respond to temperature change?

p. 167 Describe 2 different predictions for the % of species loss by 2050, based on temperature change alone.

Chapter 9 p. 176 How much ice-free “wildlands” exist today?

p. 177 what is a “fishbone” pattern of deforestation?

p. 186 As a result of tropical deforestation, how many insect species are being lost every year?

p. 189 Describe the “dark synergy” between fragmentation and global warming.

Chapter 10 p. 197 What is meant by word, “Pangaea?”

pp. 204-205 just as golden frogs and other amphibians are being wiped out by chytrid fungus, little brown bats are being wiped out by white nose syndrome. How are human beings to blame?

pp. 205-208 What is an “introduced species?” How can it be argued that human beings are causing a “New Pangaea?”

Chapter 11 p. 221 Human beings “have brought (the Sumatran rhinoceros) so low that it seems only heroic human efforts can save it.” Explain.

p. 226 “What happened to all these Brobdingnagian animals? Cuvier, who was the first to note their disappearance, believed they had been done in by the most recent catastrophe: ‘a revolution on the surface of the earth’ that took place just before the start of recorded history.” Explain.

p. 234 It appears that the Anthropocene era does not begin with the Industrial Revolution, but with the dispersal of human beings around the earth. Comment.

Chapter 12 pp.246-247 Neanderthals are gone, but something like 4% of our genes today are, in fact, Neanderthal genes. Explain.

p. 249 Human children do not seem to be brighter than ape children except in one regard. What is it?

Chapter 13 p. 260 What is the Frozen Zoo?

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