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Citation Style Quick Guide

Chicago Humanities Style

Last updated: September 2016

What is the Chicago Style?
The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed) provides two distinct citation styles: Humanities style (notes and
bibliography) and Scientific/Social Sciences styles (parenthetical author/date references and reference
list). This handout covers only the Humanitie ss tyle of Chicago. The full manual is available in the
library at: Z 253.U69 2010 and online.

General Rules
 Whe n to Cite ?: You need to cite all sources that you have consulted, even if you present the ideas
from these sources in your own words. “Ethics, copyright laws, and courtesy to readers require
authors to identify the sources of direct quotations and of any facts or opinions not generally
known or easily checked…The primary criterion of any source citation is sufficient information to
lead readers directly to the sources consulted…whether these are published or unpublished, in
printed or electronic form.” (14.1)
 Spacing: Double-space the body of the paper. Single space footnotes/endnotes and bibliographies,
leaving a blank line between entries.
 PageNumbe rs : Every page of your paper must be assigned a page number, including blank
pages, appendices, and bibliography. Use Arabic numerals centered or on the far right at the top of
the page.
 PageNumbe r Ranges: For all numbers less than 100, use all digits (Ex. 3-10; 71-71; 96-117).
For 100 or multiples of 100, use all digits (Ex. 100-104; 1100-1113). For numbers 101-109/ 201-
209, use the changed part of the number only (Ex. 101-8; 808-33). For numbers 110-199, 210-299,
use two digits unless more are needed to include all changed parts (Ex. 321-28; 498-532; 11564-
615). (9.60)
 Type face /Font: Typeface should be easily readable such as Times New Roman in 12pt size.
 Italics: Titles of books and journals in the body of the paper should be written in italics. (14.94;
14.177)
 Capitalization: Capitalize all significant words of a title and subtitle.
 Publis he r Location: When more than one place of publication is listed, document the first one
that appears on the title page. (14.135).
 Block Quotes: Chicago does not provide a specific word count guideline. Long quotes or entire
paragraphs should be quoted in single-spaced, indented blocks of text. (13.20-13.22)
 Titlepage : Include the title, author and date. Do not include page numbers or running head.
Consult your professor regarding their preference for other details.
Need Citation Help?
Ask your question at the Library Service Desk or call 250-807-9107, fill out the Ask Your Librarian form
or chat online using AskAway.

http://resources.library.ubc.ca/page.php?details=chicago-manual-of-style&id=2067
http://library.ok.ubc.ca/about-us/contact/ask-your-librarian/
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In-text Citations: Footnotes & Endnotes (14.38-14.43 / p. 671-676)
Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page within your paper. Endnotes are
numbered citations listed on a separate page at the end of the research paper (before the bibliography
and/or any appendices). Single space within footnotes and endnotes, double space between entries. Indent
the first line of the note (tab once to indent; a tab is 1 inch).

In-te xt Example:
Jones states “‘genocide’ is one of the most powerful words in the English language.” 1

Ins tructions : In MS Word, under the “References” tab, insert a footnote or endnote. MS Word will
automatically make in-text citations into superscript and properly number footnotes/endnotes.
In-text Citations: Shortened Citations (14.24-14.31 / p. 667-670)
If the bibliography includes all of the works cited in the notes, then the notes can be formatted in the short
form, even for the first citation. (14.14, 14.18)

If you do not have a bibliography or if you have only a selected bibliography, then you must provide full
details of the citation in the notes. (14.14)
 The first time you cite a resource, it must be cited in full with the following information: author/s,
title, place of publication, name of publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference.

1. Adam Jones, Crimes Against Humanity: A Beginner’s Guide (Oxford: Oneworld Publications,
2008), 156.

Short form note s / Subsequent notes may be shortened to include: author’s last name, abbreviated title,
and the appropriate page number/s (14.24-14.29).

2. Jones, Crimes, 97.

Ibid – If you cite the exact same resource multiple times, one immediately after the other, you can replace
the normal note format with ‘Ibid’ (Ibid means: in the same place) and the page number/s. (14.29)

3. Ibid., 121.

Bibliography (14.56-14.67 / p. 684-692)
**See Sample Bibliography at end of this guide**
The bibliography appears at the end of your paper – it is a list of all sources cited within your paper. If you
have a bibliography, use the short form of the notes throughout your paper. List entries in alphabetical
order according to the authors’ last names. If no author is provided, then use the title instead; note that the
words the, a, or an are ignored.

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Books – Print and E-Book (14.75-14.167 p. 695-727)
Book – One Author
E-Book
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Jones, Genocide, 112.
Format
2. Last name, Abbreviated Title, page number(s).

Bibliography
Jones, Adam. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. London: Routledge,
2006. http://www.myilibrary.com?id=54893.
Format
Last name, First name. Title of book. City: Publisher, Year. URL if ebook.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Adam Jones, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (London:
Routledge, 2006), 112, http://www.myilibrary.com?id=54893.

Comme nts
For an E-book, the citation includes a DOI or URL at the end of the citation.
A print book citation is exactly the same, except that the DOI or URL is
omitted.

Book – Two or Thre e
Authorsor Editors/ E-
Book
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
2. Bauschke and Combettes, Convex Analysis and Monotone, 42.

Bibliography
Bauschke, Heinz H. and Patrick L. Combettes. Convex Analysis and
Monotone Operator Theory in Hilbert Spaces. New York: Springer, 2011.
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9467-7.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
2. Heinz H. Bauschke and Patrick L. Combettes, Convex Analysis and
Monotone Operator Theory in Hilbert Spaces (New York: Springer, 2011),
42, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9467-7.

Comme nts
For three authors, the conjunction ‘and’ following a comma is used before
the last author’s name (Example: Smith, Heather, James Hudson, and
Marjorie Talbot).

Book – Four to Ten
Authorsor Editors
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Ahmed et al., Uprootings/Regroundings, 9.

Bibliography
Ahmed, Sara, Claudia Castañeda, Anne-Marie Fortier, and Mimi Sheller,
editors. Uprootings/ Regroundings: Questions of Home and Migration. New
York: Berg, 2003.

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Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Sara Ahmed et al., eds., Uprootings/ Regroundings: Questions of Home
and Migration (New York: Berg, 2003), 9.

Comme nts
In the Notes: the first author’s name is listed and subsequent names are
replaced by ‘et al.’. In the Bibliography: all author’s names are fully cited,
unless there are more than ten. If more than ten authors are listed, include
only the first seven in a bibliography and replace the rest of the names with
‘et al.’
Book – Editor,
Trans lator, Compile r in
Addition to Author
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Garcia Márquez, One Hundred Years, 234-44.

Bibliography
Garcia Márquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Translated by
Gregory Rabassa. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude, trans. Gregory
Rabassa (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), 234-44.

Comme nts
The author’s name appears first and the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s),
or translator(s) appear after the title.
The abbreviation (ex. ‘ed.’, ‘trans.’) appears in the notes, but is spelled-out in
the bibliography.
In the Notes: use the abbreviation ‘ed.’ not ‘eds’ and ‘comp.’ not ‘comps.’
even if there is more than one editor or compiler.

Book Chapter –
Anthology or
Compilation
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Almeida, “Value Conflicts,” 257.

Bibliography
Almeida, Onesimo Teotonio. “Value Conflicts and Cultural Adjustment in
North America.” In The Portuguese in Canada: Diasporic Challenges and
Adjustment, 2nd ed., edited by Carlos Teixeira and Victor M.P. Da Rosa, 255-
68. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Onesimo Teotonio Almeida, “Value Conflicts and Cultural Adjustment in
North America,” in The Portuguese in Canada: Diasporic Challenges and
Adjustment, ed. Carlos Teixeira and Victor M.P. Da Ros (Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 2009, 257.

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Journal Article – Print and Online (14.170-14.198 / p. 728-738)
Journal Article– Print
and Online
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Rochlin, “Latin America’s Left Turn,” 1331-33.
Format
1. Last name, “Abbreviated article title,” page number(s).

Bibliography
Rochlin, James F. “Latin America’s Left Turn and the New Strategic
Landscape: The Case of Bolivia.” Third World Quarterly 28, no. 7 (2007):
1327-42. doi:10.1080/01436590701591838.
Format
Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal volume, issue
(year): page number(s). DOI or URL if online.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. James F. Rochlin, “Latin America’s Left Turn and the New Strategic
Landscape: The Case of Bolivia,” Third World Quarterly 28, no. 7 (2007):
1331-33, doi:10.1080/01436590701591838.

Comme nts
For an online journal, the citation includes a DOI or URL at the end of the
citation. A print journal citation is exactly the same, except that the DOI or
URL is omitted. In the Notes: refer to the exact page(s) being cited. In the
Bibliography: provide the entire page range of the article.

Secondary Source – “Citation within a citation” (14.273 / p. 764)
Se condary Source-
“Citation within a
citation”
Note(Include full de tailsin note s whe n citing secondary s ource)
In this example, de Beauvoir’s book is referenced in Butler’s journal article:
1. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex (New York: Vintage, 1974), 38,
quoted in Judith Butler, “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An
Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory,” Theatre Journal 40, no. 4
(December 1988): 519, doi:10.2307/j100575.

Bibliography
de Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Vintage, 1974. Quoted in
Judith Butler. “Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in
Phenomenology and Feminist Theory,” Theatre Journal 40, no. 4 (December
1988): 519-31. doi:10.2307/j100575.

Comme nts
Chicago generally discourages secondary citations as the author is “expected
to have examined the works they cite.” A s hort noteexample is not
provided, as secondary sources should be cited fully in notes.

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Encyclopedia / Dictionary Entry (14.247-14.248 / p. 755-756)
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “power.”
2. Encyclopedia of Homelessness, s.v. “Canada.”
3. Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, s.v. “Dost Muhammad Khan
(1793-1863).”

Bibliography
Daly, Gerald. “Canada.” In Encyclopedia of Homelessness, edited by David
Levinson. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Reference, 2004. Accessed November
17, 2016. http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do? id=GALE|5DVM&v=2.1&u=
ubcolumbia&it=aboutBook&p=GVRL&sw=w.

Hodge, Carl Cavanagh. “Dost Muhammad Khan (1793-1863).” In
Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, edited by Carl Cavanagh Hodge.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “power”, accessed May 30, 2011,
http://dictionary.oed.com/.
2. Encyclopedia of Homelessness, s.v. “Canada,” by Gerald Daly, accessed
November 17, 2010,
http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|CX3452400028&v=2.1&u=ubcol
umbia&it=r&p=
GVRL&sw=w.
3. Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, by Carl Cavanagh Hodge,
(Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2008), s.v. “Dost Muhammad Khan (1793-
1863).”

Comme nts
Well-known reference works are usually cited only in notes and not the
bibliography. In a note, the edition is specified but not the publication details
(See examples: #10 and #12). Reference works that are not well known are
cited in both places (See examples: #11 and #13). A DOI is preferred for
online works. If there is no DOI, include the URL. The abbreviation ‘s .v.’
(sub verbo, Latin for “under the word”) is used in works arranged by
alphabetical order instead of volume or page number. Place ‘s.v’ in front of
the entry/word that you are citing. In the Notes: the abbreviation ‘s.v.’ is
placed near the beginning of an online citation and near the end of a print
citation (See examples: #11 and #13).

Magazine Article (14.199-14.202 / p. 738-739)
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Taylor, “Showdown on Scott,” 30.

Bibliography

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Taylor, Timothy. “Showdown on Scott Road.” The Walrus, September 2009,
30-37.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Timothy Taylor, “Showdown on Scott Road,” The Walrus, September
2009, 30.

Comme nts
If a print magazine article is cited, the citation is the same as for an online
article except that there will be no URL or DOI. Weekly or monthly
magazines are cited by date, not by volume/issue number. A DOI is preferred
for online works. If there is no DOI, include the URL.
Newspaper Article (14.203-14.213 / p. 739-742)
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Globe and Mail, “End of the Beginning.”

Bibliography
Globe and Mail. “The End of the Beginning.” August 24, 2009,
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1843066511&s id
=1&Fmt=3&clientId=6993&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Globe and Mail, “The End of the Beginning,” August 24, 2009,
http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1843066511&s id=1&Fmt=3&clientId
=6993&RQT=309&VName=PQD

Comme nts
Citations for print and online newspapers are identical except that the URL is
omitted for print. Page numbers are not required. If no author is listed, the
newspaper title should be used in its place (See example #16).

Thesis / Dissertation (14.224 / p. 746-747)
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Yakong, “Rural Ghanaian,” 27-29.

Bibliography
Yakong, Vida. “Rural Ghanaian Women’s Experience of Seeking
Reproductive Health Care.” Master’s thesis, University of British Columbia,
2008. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/3805.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Vida Yakong, “Rural Ghanaian Women’s Experience of Seeking
Reproductive Health Care” (master’s thesis, University of British Columbia,
2008, 27, http://hdl.handle.net/2429/3805.

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Film / Online Video (14.279 / p. 768-769)
Note(Include full de tailsin note s whe n citing multime dia)
1. “Fallacies of Hope,” Civilization, directed by Michael Gill, narrated by
Kenneth Clark (London: BBC, 1996), streaming video,
http://whiv.alexanderstreet.com/view/883243.
2. Genocide in Me, directed by Araz Artinian (Montreal:
InformAction/Twenty Voices, 2005), DVD.

Bibliography
“Fallacies of Hope.” Civilization. Directed by Michael Gill, narrated by
Kenneth Clark. London: BBC, 1996. Streaming video.
http://whiv.alexanderstreet.com/view/883243.

Genocide in Me. DVD. Directed by Araz Artinian. Montreal:
InformAction/Twenty Voices, 2005.

Comme nts
If the date cannot be determined from the source, include the date the
material was last accessed.
A s hort noteexample is not provided, as multimedia should be cited fully in
notes.
Website (14.243-14.246 / p. 752-754)
Note(Include full de tailsin note s whe n citing we bsites)
1.“Guide to Copyrights,” Canadian Intellectual Property Office, last
modified September 20, 2009, accessed May 25, 2016, http://www.ic.gc.ca/
eic/site/cipointernetinternetopic.nsf/eng/h_wr02281.html.

2. Barack Obama’s Facebook page, accessed November 22, 2015,
http://www.facebook.com/barackobama.

Bibliography
“Guide to Copyrights.” Canadian Intellectual Property Office. Last modified
September 20, 2009. Accessed May 25, 2016. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/
cipointernetinternetopic.nsf/eng/h_wr02281.html.

Barack Obama’s Facebook page. Accessed November 22, 2015.
http://www.facebook.com/barackobama.

Comme nts
All attempts should be made to include the following: title of webpage,
author of content, owner or sponsor of website, and the URL. If available,
include the publication date. If no date is available or if content is likely to
change, include the access date. A s hort note example is not provided, as
websites should be cited fully in notes and in the bibliography only if
required by discipline/professor.

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Images (14.165 / p. 726 & 14.280 / p. 768-769)
Image s/ Illus trations /
Figure s/ Table s /
Artwork
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Jones, “Grave of Oskar Schindler,” photograph.
2. Dali, “The Persistence of Memory,” painting.

Bibliography
Jones, Adam. “Detail of Grave of Oskar Schindler – Old City – Jerusalem –
Israel.” Photograph. 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/
5676115255/.

Dali, Salvador. “The Persistence of Memory.” Painting. 1931. Museum of
Modern Art. http://library.artstor.org.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Adam Jones, “Detail of Grave of Oskar Schindler – Old City – Jerusalem –
Israel,” photograph, 2011, http://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/
5676115255/.
2. Salvador Dali, “The Persistence of Memory,” painting, 1931, Museum of
Modern Art, http://library.artstor.org.

Comme nts
Basic elements of “image” citation: Name of performer, artist, creator,
author, “Title of Work,” indication of format/medium, running time (if
applicable), publication date, URL or DOI. Citations to works published
previously should also include the original citation information. The
following words can be used to represent various “images” – cartoon,
drawing, figure, graph, map, painting, photograph, portrait, table.
If using Google Images or a similar website, click through to the original
location of the image and create your citation based on that source.

E-mail Correspondence (14.222 / p. 745-746)
Note
1. Jan Gattrell, e-mail message to author, June 21, 2016.

Bibliography
Not applicable.

Comme nts
References to conversations (in person, by letter, by e-mail) are generally
referenced in text and in notes and are rarely included in the bibliography.
For electronic mailing lists see 14.223. A s hort noteexample is not
provided, as e-mail should be cited fully in notes.
Blog (14.246 / p. 754)
Note(Include full de tailsin note s whe n citing blogs)

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1. Peggy Olive, “Is There a Cancer Threat from the Oil Sands Industry?,”
Suzuki Elders (blog), April 19, 2011, http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/
suzuki-elders/

Bibliography
Olive, Peggy. “Is There a Cancer Threat from the Oil Sands Industry?”
Suzuki Elders (blog). April 19, 2011. http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/
suzuki-elders/

Comme nts
If the word blog is not part of the title of the blog, then add (blog) in brackets
after the title. A s hort noteexample is not provided, as blogs should be cited
fully in notes and in the bibliography if required by discipline/professor.
Course Sites – Connect (Based on 14.224-14.231 / p. 746-748)
Short Note(Use if including all s ource s in bibliography)
1. Robinson, “Power Point for September 30, 2011.”

Bibliography
Robinson, Jim. “PowerPoint Presentation for September 30, 2011.” PHIL
221 Connect Course Web site at UBC Okanagan. Accessed November 26,
2011. http://elearning.ubc.ca/connect/phil221.

Note(Use only if including a s e lected bibliography)
1. Jim Robinson, “Power Point Presentation for September 30, 2011,” PHIL
221 Connect Course Web site at UBC Okanagan, accessed November 26,
2011, http://elearning.ubc.ca/connect/phil221.

Comme nts
Course sites and other similar online resources are subject to continuous
updates. It is recommended to include the access date and the URL.

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Bibliography

Bauschke, Heinz H. and Patrick L. Combettes. Convex Analysis and Monotone Operator Theory in
Hilbert Spaces. New York: Springer, 2011. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9467-7.

“Fallacies of Hope.” Civilization. Directed by Michael Gill, narrated by Kenneth Clark. London: BBC,
1996. Streaming video. http://whiv.alexanderstreet.com/view/883243.

Jones, Adam. Crimes Against Humanity: A Beginner’s Guide. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2008.

—. Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. London: Routledge, 2006.
http://www.myilibrary.com?id=54893.
Olive, Peggy. “Is There a Cancer Threat from the Oil Sands Industry?” Suzuki Elders (blog). April 19,
2011. http://www.davidsuzuki.org/blogs/suzuki-elders/

Rochlin, James F. “Latin America’s Left Turn and the New Strategic Landscape: The Case of Bolivia.”
Third World Quarterly 28, no. 7 (2007): 1327-42. doi:10.1080/01436590701591838.

Zukofsky, Louis. “Sincerity and Objectification.” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie
Costello, Marianne More: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

SampleBibliography (Figure14.8, p. 686)

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Citation Style Quick Guide

MLA Documentation Style
Sept. 2016

What is MLA Style?

Modern Language Association (MLA) style is one of several styles for academic citations. It is
used in the humanities, especially English. The examples in this guide cover the more
common sources only. For more detailed information, refer to the MLA Handbook, 8th ed.
available in the library at call number LB 2369.G53 2016.
The following pages explain how to acknowledge the sources you use when writing essays.
There are two places in the essay where citations of sources are required.
1. In the body of the essay, you acknowledge your source at the end of the sentence
containing the quotation or reference to another author’s works. We refer to these end-
of-sentence citations as in-text citations.
2. At the end of the essay, after the last page, create a list of all of the sources mentioned
in the essay. When using MLA Style, this list is entitled Works Cited.Do not put
quotation marks around this phrase, and do not underline or italicize it.See last page
of this handout for a sample Works Cited.
3. See MLA web site at style.mla.org for instructions on formatting research papers.

Works Cited

• Double-space the Works Cited.
• Use hanging indentation format. With this format, the first line of each entry starts at
the left margin, but the second and any subsequent lines in each entry are indented
one-half inch from left margin. In MS Word (PC) use Page Layout > Paragraph >
Special > Hanging (MLA Handbook 112).
• Alphabetize entries by the author’s last name or, if there is no author, by title, ignoring
initial articles such as A, An, or The (MLA Handbook 115).
• Reverse the author’s name for alphabetizing, but otherwise give the author’s name as
it appears in the source.
• If there are two or more entries by the same author(s), give the name(s) in the first
entry, and then use three hyphens in place of the name(s) in the following entry or
entries; alphabetize the entries by title (MLA Handbook 113).
• Capitalize the first, the last and all significant words of a title and subtitle regardless of
how they are capitalized in your source (MLA Handbook 67).
• Italicize titles and subtitles for works published independently such as books or
journals; use quotation marks for works published only as part of another work, e.g.
essay in a book or article in a journal (MLA Handbook 68).
• Shorten publisher’s name. Use U for university and P for press (MLA Handbook 97).

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• When giving a URL, copy it in full from your Web browser, but omit http://.When
possible, cite a DOI (digital object identifier) instead of a URL.If DOI is unavailable, try
to find a stable URL or Permalink number (MLA Handbook 110).
• If two or more publishers are named in the source and they seem equally responsible
for the work, cite each of them, separating the names with a forward slash (/) (MLA
Handbook 40).

In-Text Citations (also known as Parenthetical Citations)

1. When you incorporate another’s words, facts or ideas, whether in a direct quotation or
by paraphrasing, you need to insert a brief parenthetical acknowledgement. Give the
author’s last name and page(s) of the source. If the author’s name appears in the
sentence, you may omit it from the in-text citation. For the first mention of the author,
use the full name.Use just the last name in subsequent references.

• Regarding the knowledge of skills of the medication profession in the last eighteenth
century, George Grinnell observes that “disease often outpaced the expertise and
medical techniques in the period (MLA Handbook 32).

Paraphrase – with and without author’s name in sentence.

• In the late eighteenth century, there was a lack of knowledge about the illnesses that
physicians were called upon to treat (Grinnell 32).

• Grinnell notes that doctors of the time were unaware of the causes and treatments of
many diseased that affected their patients (32).

Place the in-text citation “when possible, where there is a natural pause in the text. A
parenthetical citation that directly follows a quotation is placed after the closing
quotation mark” (MLA Handbook 54).

2. For web resources, unless the pages or paragraphs are numbered, use only the
author’s last name. If no author is indicated, use the first word of the title (56).

3. “If you borrow more than once from the same source within a single paragraph and no
another source intervenes, you may give a single parenthetical reference after the last
borrowing” (MLA Handbook 124).

4. In citing classic verse, plays and poems, omit page numbers and cite by division (act,
scene, canto, book, part) and line, with periods separating various numbers. Titles of
famous works are often abbreviated such as (Ham. 1.5.35-37).

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3

The Core Elements

MLA’s system of citing allows you to cite any source you use during your research assignment.

Each entry in the Works Cited is made up of some elements, such as author, title, and publication
details, given in a certain order. There are optional elements that may be included in the Works Cited
entry depending on what information is provided by the resource being used.This may include volume
and issue numbers for journal articles or the URL for a web site.

When the source forms part of a larger whole, the larger whole can be thought of as a container that
holds the source.Examples of containers include a book that is a collection of essays, a periodical
which holds articles, or a website that contains articles and postings.

A container may be nested in a second container such as a Database that contains journal holdings or
Netflix which contains a television series.

Elements appear in the order shown by the template below. Not all of the template boxes need to be
filled.Elements are omitted if not relevant to work being documented.Elements are followed by the
punctuation mark shown.End the citation with a period.

THE CORE ELEMENTS (TEMPLATE)
1 Author.
2 Title of source.

Container
1
3 Title of container,
4 Other contributors,
5 Version,
6 Number,
7 Publisher,
8 Publication date,
9 Location.

Container
2
3 Title of container,
4 Other contributors,
5 Version,
6 Number,
7 Publisher,
8 Publication date,
9 Location.

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Journal Articles
Core Elements: Author. Title of Source. Title of Container, Number, Publication
Date, Location. Title of 2nd container, Location.
Journal article:
Retrieved from
database
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,
volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), Publication Date (month as
well as year if available), Pages of article. Database, Location (URL).

In-text citation: (Author Last Name Page Number or Numbers)

Example:
Lovesey, Oliver. “Divine Enthusiasm and Love Melancholy: Tristram Shandy and
Eighteenth-Century Narratives of Saint Errantry.” Eighteenth-Century
Fiction, vol. 16, no. 3, Apr. 2004, pp. 373-399. Academic Search
Complete, search.ebscohost.com/
login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=12953711&site=ehost-
live&scope=site.

In-text citation: (Lovesey 375)

Notes:
v For Location, use DOI if available.If not, try to locate the stable UR
(sometimes called the Permalink).
v Title of book within the article title is italicized.
v In the in-text citation, do not put a comma between author name and page
number.

Journal article:
Retrieved from
internet.No
page numbers.
p. 48

Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,
volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), Publication Date (month as
well as year if available), Location (URL)

Example:
Keyes, Daniel. “Whites Singing Red Face in British Columbia in the 1950s.”
Theatre Research in Canada, vol. 32, no.1, Jan. 2011,
journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/tric/article/view/18572/20164.

In-text citation: (Keyes)

Magazine article:
Retrieved from
internet
p. 48
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,
Publication Date (day & month as well as year if available), Location
(URL).

Example:
Linden, Shannon. “Coffee with Christy.” Okanagan Woman, 14 Mar. 2016,
www.okanaganwoman.com/#!Coffee-with-Christy/ c1rcn/
56e797b30cf2d686649aee35.

In-text citation: (Linden)

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Journal article:
Print
p. 30
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,
volume number (vol.), issue number (no.), Publication Date (month as
well as year if available), Location (pages of article).

Example:
Jefferess, David. “To Be Good (Again): The Kite Runner as Allegory of Global
Ethnics.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing, vol. 45, no.4, Dec. 2009, pp.
389-400.

In-text citation: (Jefferess 390)

Newspaper
article: Retrieved
from internet
p. 48
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial (if available). “Title of Article.” Title of
Newspaper, Publication Date (day and month as well as year), Location
(URL).

Example:
“Readings and Arts at Woodhaven Eco Centre.” Kelowna Capital News. 10 June
2015, www.kelownacapnews.com/entertainment/306804941.html.

In text: (“Readings”)

Note:
v If no author, use first word or two of title for in-text citation.

Newspaper
article: Print

Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial (if available). “Title of Article.” Title of
Newspaper, Publication Date (day and month as well as year), Location
(pages of article).

Example:
Seymour, Ron. “Riders Raise Thousands.” Daily Courier, 15 June 2015, p. A1.

In-text citation: (Seymour A1)

Government
Publication:
Retrieved from
internet
Format:
Author (city or country, Dept. name).Title of Report. Publisher, Publication
Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Example:
Kelowna. Planning and Development Services Dept. Kelowna Population
Statistics. City of Kelowna, 1999,apps.kelowna.ca/CityPage/
Docs/PDFs/Strategic%20Planning/1996%20Census%20info.pdf.
Accessed 21 July 2016.

In text: (Kelowna Planning and Development Services Dept.)

Notes:
v MLA suggests including a long author name in the text rather than using an in-
test citation.Example below.
v According to the statistics provided by Kelowna’s Planning and Development
Services Dept., the city’s population was 89,465 in 1996.

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6
Books, Book Chapters, & Related Items
Core Elements: Author. Title of Source. Publisher, Publication Date.
Book: 1 author
p. 26
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication
Date.

In-text citation: (Author Last Name Page Numbers)

Example:
Grinnell, George C. The Age of Hypochondria: Interpreting Romantic Health and
Illness. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

In-text citation: (Grinnell 32)

Book: 2 authors
p. 21

Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial, and Author First Name or Initial Last
Name. Title. Publisher, Publication Date.

Example:
Chambers, Ruth, and Jan Gattrell. Okanagan History Vignettes: Readings for
Adult Literacy Students. Okanagan University College, 2001.

In-text citation: (Chambers and Gattrell 52-53)

Note:
v Arrange the authors in the order in which they are presented in the work.

Books: 3 or more
authors
p. 22
Format:
Last name, First name Middle name or initial, et al.Title of Book. Publisher,
Publication Date.

Example:
Gillis, Sander, et al. Grammar of the English Language. Random, 1987.
In-text citation: (Gillis et al. 27)

Note:
v Only the first author’s name is included.Et al. takes the place of the rest
of the authors’ names.

Electronic Book
from the internet

(This example
shows a chapter
in Google Book)
p. 34
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. “Title of Chapter.” Title of Book, Other
Contributor (editor), Version, Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages
of chapter), Internet Site, Location (URL).

Example:
Clarke, George Elliott. “What was Canada?” Is Canada Postcolonial: Unsettling

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Citation Style Quick Guideshttp://library.ok.ubc.ca/citation-style-guides

7
Canadian Literature?, edited by Laura Moss, Wilfrid Laurier UP, 2003, pp.
27-39. Google Books, books.google.ca/
books?id=MuR0CwAAQBAJ&pg1257.

In-text citation: (Clarke 28)
Electronic book
from a database
p. 34
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. Title. Publisher, Publication Date, Title of
Container (Database), Location (URL).

Example:
Lawrence, Sean. Forgiving the Gift: The Philosophy of Generosity in Shakespeare
and Marlowe. Duquesne UP, 2012. Project Muse,
muse.jhu.edu/book/13511.

In-text citation: (Lawrence 53)

Note:
v UP is abbreviation for University Press.

Edited book/
Editor as Author
(This examples
has multiple
editors)
p. 23
Format:
Editor Last Name, First Name or Initial, editor (or editors). Title. Publisher.
Publication Date.

Example:
Carne, Mark, et al. editors. Shell Games: Studies in Scams, Frauds, and Deceits.
Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies, 2004.

In-text citation: (Carne, et al. 142)

Notes:
v This is a source with three editors. They assembled the book.
v The in-text citation does not include the word editors.

Chapter in an
edited book
p. 27
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. “Title of Chapter.”Title of Book, editor (or
editors), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages).

Example:
MacArthur, Janet. “Imaginary Homelands and Thoughts Abroad: Dennis Brutus’
Hybrid Modernism.” Critical Perspectives on Dennis Brutus, edited by
Craig W. McLuckie and Patrick J. Colbert, Three Continents, 1995, pp.
70-85.

In-text citation: (MacArthur 70)

Notes:
v Editors’ names are both arranged in first name last name order.
v Sometimes you will need to cite an item that has another title as part of
the title.In this case, the book title Thoughts Abroad is italicized within
the chapter title which is printed in regular type and enclosed by quotation
marks.

Book with no
author or editor
Format:
Title of Book. Version (if applicable). Name of Publisher Publication Date.

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8
(This example
shows an edition
number)
p. 24

Example:
MLA Handbook. 8th ed. The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

In-text citation: (MLA Handbook 117)

Corporate
Author
p. 25
Format:
Author. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Example:
Okanagan Writers’ League. A Few Loose Feathers: An Anthology. Sabre, 1994.

In-text citation: (Okanagan Writers’ League 65)

Poem in an
Anthology
p. 39
Format:
Author Last Name, Author First Name or Initial. “Title of Poem.” Title of Anthology,
editor (or editors), Version (if applicable), Publisher, Publication Date,
Location (pages).

Example:
Page, P.K. “Images of Angels.” The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, edited by
Richard Ellmann and Robert O’Clair. 2nd ed., Norton, 1988, pp. 941-43.
In-text citation:
When describing angels, Page writes, “Perhaps only a dog could accept them
wholly, / be happy to follow at their heels / and bark and romp with them in the
green fields” (59-61).

Notes:
v When inserting poetry in an essay, use a forward slash at the end of each
line of poetry. If quoted line in poetry starts with a capital letter, leave it in
upper case, even in the middle of the sentence.
v If the book is a second or revised edition, place this information after the
editors, or after the title if no editors.

Dictionary entry:
Print
p. 38

Format:
Author (if applicable). “Title of Entry.” Title of Book.Version (if applicable),
Publisher, Publication Date, Location (page).

Example:
“Ideology.” Gage Canadian Dictionary. Revised ed., Gage Educational, 1997, p.
758.

In-text citation: (“Ideology” 758)

Notes:
v If published electronically, include URL after page number.

Entry in an
online reference
work
p. 35

Format:
Author (if applicable).“Title of Entry.” Title of Book, Other Contributors (such as
editor if applicable), Version (if applicable), Publisher, Publication Date,
Container (Title of Online Resource), Location (URL).

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9

Example:
“Keats, John.” The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature, edited by
Margaret Drabble and Jenny Stringer, 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2007, Oxford
Reference Online, www.oxfordreference.com/ view/10.1093/acref/
9780199214921.001.0001/ acref-9780199214921-e-
3350?rskey=dRJKya&result=3349.

In-text citation: (“Keats, John”)

Notes:
v In in-text citation, give full title if brief or shortened version of one or two
words.
v The title of the online resource is an example of a 2nd container.

Entry from
Oxford English
Dictionary
(Online)
Format:
“Title of Entry.” Specific definition indication. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication
Date, Location (URL).

Example:
“Passion.” Entry 1, def. 6a. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford UP, 2016,
www.oed.com/ view/Entry/138504?rskey=AyOUOQ.

In-text citation: (“Passion,” Entry 1, def. 6a)

Thesis or
Dissertation:
Retrieved from
Online
Repository.
(example on MLA
web site)
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. Year of Pub. Title of Thesis. Date of
Publication. Publisher, Description of Work. Container (Name of
Repository), Location (URL or DOI).

Example:
Eikenaar, Jannik Haruo. The (Im) Proper Name of Salman Rushdie: Hybridity,
Migrancy, and the Rushdie Persona. 2015. U of British Columbia, PhD
dissertation. cIRcle, dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0165805.

In-text citation: (Eikenaar 65)

Note:
v Example of DOI as a location.

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10
Graphic Novel
p. 37
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. Title of Book. Other Contributors (such as
Adaptation or Translator if applicable).Series Number (if applicable),
Publisher, Date of Publication.

Example:
Yoshida, Akimi. Banana Fish. English adaptation by Matt Thorn and Cari Gustav
Horn. Translated by Matt Thorn, Vol. 19, Viz, 2004.

In-text citation: (Yoshida 121)

Custom Course
Materials
Reprinted from
another source

Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial.“Title of Article.” Title of Book, other
contributors (such as editor), Publisher, Publication Date, Location
(pages).

Example:
Scudder, Samuel. “In the Laboratory with Agassiz.” Custom Course Materials:
Engl 112, edited by Shirley McDonald. U of British Columbia Okanagan,
2010, pp. 1-3.

In-text citation: (Scudder 3)

Government
Report: Print
p. 117
Format:
Author (city or country. Dept. name).Title of Report. Publisher, Publication Date.

Example:
Canada. Health Canada. Best Practices: Early Intervention, Outreach and
Community Linkages for Women with Substance Abuse Problems.
Health Canada, 2006.

In text: (Canada. Health Canada 12))

WEB DOCUMENTS
Core Elements: Author.Title of Source.Title of Container, Publisher,
Publication Date, Location. Optional Element – Date of Access.
Web page as part
of Web Site
p. 28
p. 53 (Date of
access)

Format:
Author. “Title of Web page, posting or article.” Title of Web Site, Publisher (if
applicable), Publication Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Example:
Rader, Matt. “Archives.” Matt Rader: What I Want to Say Goes Like This, 2016,
mattrader.com/?page_id=255/. Accessed 30 July 2016.

In-text citation: (Rader)

Note:
v Include date of access for online resources.They may move or change.

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11
Web page with
no author
Format:
“Title of Web page, posting or article.” Title of Web Site, Publisher (if applicable),
Publication Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Example:
“CBC Poetry Prize.” CBC Books. CBC/Radio Canada, 2016,
www.cbc.ca/literaryprizes/poetry. Accessed 30 August 2016.
In-text citation: (“CBC Poetry Prize”)

Blog posting Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial (or Username). “Title of Blog Post.” Title of
Blog, Publication Date, URL. Date of Access.

Example:
Fleming, Anne. “About Anne.” Anne Fleming, 2016, annefleming.ca/. Accessed 24
August 2016.
In-text citation: (Fleming)

MEDIA
Core Elements: Author.Title of Source.Title of Container, Publisher,
Publication Date, Location.
Streaming video
(such as
YouTube)
p. 44

Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). “Title.” Internet Site,
Publisher (if applicable), Publication Date, (2nd container if applicable),
Location (URL).

Example:
Grekul, Lisa. “Relevance of Literature.” UBC’s Next Big Thing, Media Centre UBC
Okanagan, March 2016, YouTube, www.youtube.com/ watcch?v
=PjHrUKKU04.

In-text citation: (Grekul)

Audio clip (such
as a podcast]:
Retrieved from
the internet
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). “Title.” Internet Site.
Publisher (if applicable), Publication Date, Location (URL).

Example:
“New Eco Books: Feature Interviews with Margaret Atwood.” Alternatives
Environmental Ideas and Action. 4 June 2010, rabble.ca/
sites/rabble/files/audio/MA%20feature%20interview%2045m05.mp3.

In-text citation: (“New”)

Social Media:
Facebook
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). “Title.” Internet Site.
Publisher (if applicable), Publication Date.

Example:
UBC Okanagan Library. “We [Heart] Poetry.” Facebook, 23 July 2013.

In-text citation: (UBC Okanagan Library)

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12
Social Media:
Twitter
p. 24
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). “Title.” Internet Site.
Publisher (if applicable), Publication Date, Location (URL).

Example:
Thorne, Laura. “Can your social media activities get you in trouble?” Twitter, 18
April 2013, 9:09 p.m., twitter.com/LauraThorne14
/status/325038376610844672.

In-text citation: In the main text of the essay, a tweet is cited in its entirety.

Film: Writing
about film in
general
p. 24
Format:
Title of film. Other contributors (if applicable), Distributor, Date of Release.

Example:
Hamlet.Directed by Franco Zeffirelli, performance by Mel Gibson, Warner Bros,
1990.

In text citation: (Hamlet)

Film: Focusing
on contribution
of person.

Format:
Title of film. Other contributors (if applicable), Distributor, Date of Release.

Example:
Gibson, Mel, performer.Hamlet.Warner Bros, 1990.

In-text citation: (Gibson)

Visual Art: Image
retrieved from
the internet
Format:
Creator’s Last Name, First Name or Initial. Title of Work. Internet Site, Publication
Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Example:
Lee, John S. Y.Globe Theatre, London. Flickr, 30 May 2009,
www.flickr.com/photos/johnsylee/3580043416. Accessed 2 May 2016.

In-text citation: (Lee)

Visual Art:
Image retrieved
from a database
Format:
Creator’s Last Name, First Name or Initial. Title of Work. Title of Database,
Publication Date, Location (URL).

Example:
Monet, Claude. The Haystacks, End of Summer, Giverny. ARTstor, 1891,
http://library.artstor.org/library /iv2.html?parent=true.

In-text citation: (Monet)

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Visual Art: Image
retrieved from a
web site
Format:
Creator’s Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). Title of Work. Internet Site,
Publication Date, Location (URL). Date of Access.

Example:
Blake, William. A Prophecy. The New York Public Library Digital Collections.
1794. http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-b620-a3d9-e040-
e00a18064a99. Accessed 23 August 2016.

In-text citation: (Blake)

Visual Art: Image
Exhibited in
Gallery
Format:
Creator’s Last Name, First Name or Initial (if available). Title of Work. Publication
Date, Location (Name of Gallery).

Example:
Johnston, Byron, and Bryan Ryley. Here and There II. 2006, U of British Columbia
FINA Gallery.

In-text citation: (Johnston and Ryley)

PERSONAL COMMUNICATION & NOTES
Interview
conducted by
researcher

Format:
Last name First Name or Initial.Type of Communication.Name of Receiver.
Date.

Example:
Milton, Paul.Interview.By S. Jones.15 Dec. 2015.

In text citation: (Milton)

Telephone
Conversation

Format:
Last name First Name or Initial.Type of Communication.Name of Receiver.
Date.
Example:
Stouck, J.Telephone Conversation.J. Gattrell, 10 Feb. 2016.

In-text citation: (Stouck)

Note:
v Personal communication may be cited in the running text of your paper
instead of using an in-text citation (“In a telephone conversation between
Dr. Stouck and the author on June 22, 2016…”

UBC Okanagan Library MLA Documentation Style
Citation Style Quick Guideshttp://library.ok.ubc.ca/citation-style-guides

14
PowerPoint
Posted to
Connect
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. “Title of PowerPoint.” Container,
Publisher, Publication Date, URL, Optional Element – Descriptive Term.

Example:
Reeves, Margaret. “Images and Context for Rachel Speght’s
A Mouzell for Melastomus.” Eng. 349A 001 Seventeenth Century Studies:
Seventeenth-Century Women’s Writing, U of British Columbia Okanagan,
2014, PowerPoint file.

In-text citation: (Reeves)

E-mail Message
p. 29
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. “Title (subject line of e-mail.” Name of
receiver, Date sent.

Example:
Shearer, K.“Public Poetry Reading Aug 1.” J. Gattrell, 7 July 2013.

In-text citation: (Shearer)

Class Lecture
p. 52
Format:
Author Last Name, First Name or Initial. “Title of Lecture.” Title of Class, Date,
Location.Optional Element – descriptor.

Example:
Senger, Lainie. “Historical Backgrounds to Beowulf.” English 153. Reading in
Narrative.27 May 2009, U of British Columbia Okanagan. Lecture.

In-text citation: (Senger)

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15
Works Cited

Eikenaar, Jannik Haruo. The (Im) Proper Name of Salman Rushdie: Hybridity, Migrancy, and the
Rushdie Persona. 2015. U of British Columbia, PhD. Dissertation. cIRcle,
dx.doi.org/10.14288/1.0165805.
Grekul, Lisa. “Relevance of Literature.” UBC’s Next Big Thing, YouTube, Media Centre UBC Okanagan,
March 2016, www.youtube.com/ watcch?v =PjHrUKKU04.
Hamlet.Directed by Franco Zeffirelli, performance by Mel Gibson, Warner Bros, 1990.
Jefferess, David. “To Be Good (Again): The Kite Runner as Allegory of Global Ethnics.” Journal of
Postcolonial Writing, vol. 45, no .4, Dec. 2009, pp. 389-400.
Johnston, Byron, and Bryan Ryley. Here and There II. 2006, U of British Columbia FINA Gallery.
Kelowna. Planning and Development Services Dept. Kelowna Population Statistics. City of Kelowna,
1999,apps.kelowna.ca/CityPage/ Docs/PDFs/Strategic%20Planning/
1996%20Census%20info.pdf.
Lawrence, Sean. Forgiving the Gift: The Philosophy of Generosity in Shakespeare and Marlowe.
Duquesne UP, 2012. Project Muse,
muse.jhu.edu/book/13511.
Lee, John S. Y.Globe Theatre, London. Flickr, 30 May 2009, www.flickr.com/photos/johnsylee/
3580043416. Accessed16 August 2016.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed. The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
Okanagan Writers’ League. A Few Loose Feathers: An Anthology. Sabre, 1994.
Page, P.K. “Images of Angels.” The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, edited by Richard Ellmann and
Robert O’Clair. 2nd ed., Norton, 1988, pp. 941-43.
“Readings and Arts at Woodhaven Eco Centre.” Kelowna Capital News. 10 June 2015,
www.kelownacapnews.com/entertainment/306804941.html.

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