Final Exa Paper-1000 words

I need 1000 words Paper: See the Instructions file
I attached Module 5, 6, 7 reading in their corresponding file names. I also attached the group paper that I did.
Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7:
What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in terms of health maintenance, protection, and restoration? How consistent are you with your traditional cultural heritage? Did learning about your traditional cultural heritage change your view of your heritage?
Reflecting on Module 6:
What cultural and religious holidays do you celebrate? What other cultural and religious holidays that are interesting to you?
Reflecting on group work (research paper):
Did you learn about your group member’s cultural heritage through the group work? What went well in your group work? What are the greatest challenge you had as a group? How balanced do you feel the efforts of the group members were? What would you change about your group?
Group 5
Lifestyles Conductive to Health and Disease in College Populations in the U.S

Description of the group
A vast majority of college students today are first generation students that come from low-income families. As the first person to go to college in their family, there is a lot of cultural pressure on them. They feel pressured to lift their families out of poverty and have no other option than to focus on their education to achieve this goal. However, what is not really discussed is the lack of support students receive. Today, college students suffer from mental health issues, sexually transmitted diseases, alcoholism, and sleeping disorders. A place meant for learning can also be a place where diseases emerge. The culture of college life is known as a place to socialize, party, and drink. It is seen as the time to make some of the best memories you will have as a young adult. Consequently, there are negative effects of such a lifestyle of a college student. Now, college students are facing a global pandemic, and their experiences may differ by identity (Journal of Adolescent Health, 2021). Those of lower income have been mostly affected by chronic health issues. There are also well-documented mental health disparities by socioeconomic position (SEP), such that lower-SEP students have a significantly higher average burden of anxiety than higher-SEP students (Journal of Adolescent Health, 2021). Moreover, gender also plays a role in how college students are affected by these health conditions. According to the Journal of Adolescent Health, college women reported worse overall well being compared to men. The pandemic has also put more stress on women due to cultural responsibilities increasing. College students deal with a vast amount of responsibilities in and out of the school setting resulting in increased risk for diseases.
Health Issues College Women Are Facing
College can be an overwhelming period for many women and their overall health. More women are becoming more sexually active during their college years. Which is taking a serious toll on a woman’s physical and reproductive health. According to research from the National College Health Assessment, “ 66 percent of students had sex in the past 12 months, compared to 72 percent in the 2000 assessment. This trend holds true for Hopkins students; The News-Letter’s recent survey found that about 67 percent of students are sexually active” (Wooden, 2019). This study was evaluating the sexually active students on college campuses. The research indicated that throughout the years from the early 2000s-2019 there has been an increase in the number of sexually active college students.
Many risk factors come with women and sex on college campuses. Multiple college women are reporting that they have been sexually assaulted. This is a major health concern that the population is being faced with. CDC states, “Approximately 1 in 5 (an estimated 25.5 million) women in the U.S. reported completed or attempted rape at some point in their life, with nearly 52.2 million women reported experiencing some form of contact sexual violence in their lifetime” (CDC, 2021). This is a serious concern, being that women who are sexually assaulted are exposed to STDs, which can cause fertility issues. If an STD is not treated in time, in many cases for women it can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory disease (PID). Also, in many cases, both men and women could be unaware that they have an STD. Without condom usage the transmission of an STD is possible.
How Income Affects The Health Of The College Population
Many college students are considered low-income. There are a growing number of students who can not afford a safe living environment and access to healthy food. The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) indicates, “a greater percentage of low-income students go to college in California (67%) compared to other states (58%). Enrollment gaps between low- and high-income students in California (21 percentage points) are also substantially lower than in the rest of the country (31 percentage points)” (PPIC, 2019). In California, there is a higher number of college students who are in debt. The health of these college students must be evaluated since many of these individuals are not able to access food. That could indicate that those individuals living in poverty who are in college are mainly eating fast food. There are an adverse amount of health risks that come with eating fast food every day. This is affecting one’s weight, cholesterol levels, overall mood, etc. It is important that resources such as SNAP and other food resources for college students who can not afford groceries.
Major Health Issues
Many students dream of living the college life which can be exciting and adventurous. As challenges begin, students become at risk for major health issues and concerns. According to the article,“Unhealthy behavior clustering and mental health status in the United States college students,” a high percentage of college students do not meet health recommended guidelines.It mentions that in the areas of smoking, lack of exercise, binge drinking, substance abuse, and poor eating habits, college students are at a high rate for each category. Close to 25% of college students said they had used tobacco products frequently, and nearly half of those surveyed said they didn’t satisfy the minimum physical activity requirements. Over a third admitted to binge drinking in the previous two weeks, over a quarter of respondents said they had used marijuana in the previous 30 days, and more than three-quarters of students said they didn’t eat the required five or more cups of fruits and vegetables per day in the previous month (Jao, Robinson, Kelly, Cieccierski, Hitsman, 2019).
Mental health problems are a major health risk affecting college students across the country.The CDC (Center for Disease Control) describes mental health as psychological, emotional, and social well being. College students face many stress related triggers that can affect their mental health. The pressures for students can be extremely difficult; exams, grades, deadlines, finances, andrigorous courses can lead to feelings of depression, anxiety, and poor sleeping cycles. Studies have shown a direct correlation between mental and physical health. These factors affect how we act, feel, and how we think. According to the CDC, depression and anxiety have been shown to increase risks of heart disease, thyroid disease, stroke, diabetes, obesity, weakened immune system, high blood pressure, and gastrointestinal issues. (CDC, 2021).
Another health issue prevalent in college populations are sexually transmitted dieases. According to the article “STD on a University Campus,” statistics mentioned the screening of sexual transmission of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) and Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) infections are still a major problem among teenagers and young adults. In 2012, there were over 78 million new cases of gonorrhea worldwide, with over 130 million new cases of chlamydia. In 2015, 1,526,658 chlamydia infections were recorded in the United States, an increase of over 6.0 percent over 2014, with the southern area reporting the most cases (Myers, McCaskill, Van Ravenstein, 2017). It is critical to educate students on sexual health and safe sexual practices, as this will aid in the prevention and control of STD’and possible life threatening diseases such as HIV and Syphilis which can affect other parts of your body including your brain and heart.
Alcoholism is an extremely serious disease affecting college students. In many cases before students even enter college, they are peer pressured into using alcohol. But once the college experience begins, drinking becomes part of a regular social and stress relieving routine. Many students will eventually develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) when they drink frequently, The consequences of alcohol abuse and binge drinking include injury, sexual abuse, assault, and in some cases, even death.This is a significant public health concern and that has taken a toll on the intellectual and social lives of students on college campuses across the country. “Roughly 20% of college students meet the criteria for having alcohol use disorder AUD, close to 60% of college students between the ages of 18 and 22 admitted to drinking in the past month. Nearly two out of every three college students binge drink. Each year around 2,000 college students at the age of 18 to 24 die as a result of unintended alcohol related injuries”(, 2022). Serious health issues that are affected by drinking include liver damage, high blood pressure, inflammation of the pancreas.. Nearly two out of every three college students binge drink.
Sleep deprivation is a significant health issue for many college students. Irregular sleeping schedules and lack of sleep cause extreme fatigue, irritability, difficulty focusing, and mood changes. This can cause harmful effects on the body by lowering the immune system, causing weight gain, increasing blood pressure and sugar levels, and triggering hormonal imbalances. According to the article “Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students,” “70.6% of students report obtaining less than 8 hours of sleep, 4% are obtaining at least 7 hours of sleep at night; the average sleep duration was 5.7 hours with 2.7 all-nighters (Hershner, Chervin, 2014). There is an increased risk of accidents among college students, as lack of sleep limits the ability to react quickly, make decisions, and pay attention. Long term complications on the body can include diabetes, stroke, heart attack, depression and anxiety, sleep apnea, and psychosis.
As a college student, one must learn to balance school and work. Time management is a part of a lifestyle that can affect your health such as sleep and/or any mental health problems one may be facing. Between school and work, one can overcome the other, causing college students to most likely drop out of school because earning money is also a main essential to life. According to the article, “Burnout as a Mediator Between Work–School Conflict and Work Outcomes”, the results from their study have found that, “students experience stress when their resources are depleted by trying to attend to both work and school responsibilities.” There were about 87% of the students who felt burnt out due to work-school conflict.
Implications for Multicultural and Global Health
Culture plays an important role in the lives of individuals. It is known to influence what people believe, their morals, and behaviors. Accessing the health condition of the United States college students should consider multicultural and global health aspects. The issues about global health cannot be analyzed as a stand-alone without understanding people’s social dynamics, political structure, and the lifestyle of different global communities which form the United States college population (Ammigand, Drexlerd, Williamson, & Guerra, 2018). It is important to consider multicultural health because it reflects the need to provide health care services considering sensitivity, non-judgemental, and knowledgeable manners.
People’s health practices are different from your own because of the diversity witnessed within populations in the United States. Diversity among students in the United States affects how individuals handle situations they are exposed to. This affects the way these students make decisions about their health (Ammigand, Drexlerd, Williamson, & Guerra, 2018). Even though many cultures have developed beliefs about various causes of diseases, the procedure to treatment, and specific people involved in the care process, many college students are still exposed to diseases because of the lifestyle they tend to adopt.
College years are difficult for adolescents as they are moving into adulthood and going through many changes. These hard years can lead college students to partake in behaviors and lifestyles that are harmful to their bodies and overall health. Many adolescents during this time seem to rely on alcohol and drug use to consult feelings associated with the vulnerable times they are going through, specifically when dealing with stress. They are also known to lack a healthy diet and maintain physical activity recommended for their age group (Deasy, 2015).
College students may become overwhelmed with all of life’s situations. Many are not only full-time students, but may have jobs, children, families, and other obligations. Due to the overwhelming amount of situations they may be in, many are dealing with high incidents of stress. Stress risks a person’s overall health due to an individual’s immense relationship with their overall environment, affecting their well-being (Deasy, 2015). Ultimately, these factors affect the overall success of a student’s academic performance (Deasy, 2015). Along with these stressors, academic stress also plays a major factor within this population. For specific majors, such as nursing and education students, they deal with death and disorderly children, respectively (Deasy, 2015).
As mentioned previously, many students turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms in order to deal with the stressors they face. Some of the top coping strategies for this population include: sleeping, physical activity, eating, consuming alcohol, ignoring stress, and using study drugs (American Addiction Centers, 2019). College culture revolves heavily on partying and drinking as well as the use of drugs. While some students are able to find creative and healthy outlets to relieve their stress, for others that is not the case. In many majors such as engineering, marketing and communications, and education, over 60 percent of these students reported using alcohol to cope with stress (American Addiction Centers, 2019). When looking at the year and academic level of college students who rely on drinking as their outlet, over 50 percent of each year and level reported using alcohol. Seniors and freshmen were amongst the top ranked at 60 and 58.8 percent, respectively (American Addiction Centers, 2019).
When looking at specific cultures, some suffer from higher rates of stress than others. Each racial and ethnic group face different imbalances which affect their overall burnout, stress, dropout, completion, and GPA rates (Dickerson, 2015). Some of the heavily impacted populations include the Black and Latino or Hispanic when comparing them to Asian and White populations (Dickerson, 2015).
The percentage of Black students across college campuses are beginning to increase every year. The rates of black graduates, however, continue to remain low at only 43 percent despite their White counterparts at 63 percent. Racism was found to be very impactful on the levels of stress in college students. Black students who were surveyed noted that they experienced institutional, personal, and internal racism while in college (Dickerson, 2015). Furthermore, black students who were identified as having parents who had received low levels of education reported higher stress levels among other races and ethnicities (Dickerson, 2015).
Based on the findings, stress should be taken into consideration when dealing with the college population. Stress has impacted this population in many ways from many different factors. Different education programs and suggestions can be made to improve the health among these populations. For starters, classes could be offered through college campuses to combat these issues. Freshman year is an important time to start these habits. Incorporating classes into freshman year general education such as, physical activity, nutrition, and psychology could impact the lives of this population. These classes allow students to learn first hand how health impacts them overall.
Another program that could be offered to this population could be therapy and counseling to these students. Many students are unaware of how to take care of their mental health. By allowing therapy sessions, students will be able to connect what they are going through and allow them to get pointers and suggestions on how to combat it. Group therapy sessions could also be beneficial, especially for minorities, to be able to connect with others who may be going through the same struggles.

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The final exam for this course is a reflection paper. It is worth 125 points.
Please respond to the following prompts (1000 words).
Reflecting on Modules 5 and 7:
What have you learned about other health traditions? What have you learned about your heritage in terms of health maintenance, protection, and restoration? How consistent are you with your traditional cultural heritage? Did learning about your traditional cultural heritage change your view of your heritage?
Reflecting on Module 6:
What cultural and religious holidays do you celebrate? What other cultural and religious holidays that are interesting to you?
Reflecting on group work (research paper):
Did you learn about your group member’s cultural heritage through the group work? What went well in your group work? What are the greatest challenge you had as a group? How balanced do you feel the efforts of the group members were? What would you change about your group?
What is healing?
Thepractice of healing is thousands of years old.Healing can meanto make or become healthy, or to be comforted again. It can also meanthe restoration of health. Just like health, there are various ways to define healing. There are also many different types of healing in the world. Some are ancient and others are modern.
A good video connecting the previous module (allopathic vs homeopathic medicine) to this one. Healing from a scientific and spiritual point of view.
In traditional epidemiology, healing is linked to beliefs in evil and the removal of evil from the sick person.
Ancient Forms of Healing
· Illnesswas considered to be a crises.
· Cause of anIllnesswas attributed to forces of evil, which originated either within or outside the body.
· Early forms ofHealingdealt with the removal of evil.
· Successful treatments were passed on through generations.
The cause of an illness was attributed to the forces of evil, which originated either within (internal evil) or outside (external evil) the body. Early forms of healing dealt with the removal of evil.
Interval Evil
If the source of sickness-causing evil was internal, the treatment was to get the evil out of the body. This can be done in multiple ways:
1. Purgatives
· vomiting or diarrhea
2. Blood-letting
· Bleeding
· Leeching “sucking out” blood
If the source of the evil was external, there are a number of ways to deal with it.
· Ancient belief – Witchcraft
· People (or a single person) who were “different” from the other people
· Seen as the causative agent
· Remove or punish the guilty person from the community, the disease would be cured
· Healers themselves were often seen as witches and the possessors of evil skill.
Ancient Rituals
· Sick person isolated from others.
· Special prayers chanted and incantations recited.
· Sacrifices and dances often were performed.
· Speaking in tongues
· Reciting incantations in an unfamiliar language
· Use of strange practices
Watch the video clip “Ceremonial Dance of the Bushmen” below. This is a form of “medicine dance”.
Religion and Healing
Religion strongly affects the way people interpret and respond to the signs and symptoms of illness/illness.Threads—religion, ethnicity, and culture—are woven into the fabric of each person’s particular response to treatment and healing. There are many religious beliefs and practices related to healing. An introductory discussion of religious healing beliefs from the Judeo-Christian background.
The Old Testament does not focus on healing to the extent the New Testament does. In the Old Testament:
· God is seen to have total power over life and death, and is the healer of all human woes.
· God is the giver of all good things and of all misfortune, including sickness.
· Sickness represents a break between God and humans.
In the New Testament:
· Large focus onHealing
· Recordings of theHealingsby Jesus
· Healing practices of the Roman Catholic tradition include a variety of beliefs and numerous practices of both a preventive and healing nature.
Saints and Healing
There are many places in this world where people make spiritual journeys, pilgrimages, or show popular piety for the purpose of petitioning for giving thanks for favors. One place is at ashrine. Shrines ranges from small memorials to large, famous shrines where people who are part of a given religious tradition, or a follower of a giver healer may go to pray or petition at the site. Shrines are not limited to any one faith tradition, and they can be secular as well as religious.
Selected Shrines
Callery pear tree, New York City
The Callery pear tree was found alive in the rubble of the World Trade Center in 2001; it is now a secular shrine.
The Tomb of Menachem Mendel Schneerson in Queens, New York
This is a Holy Shrine where Jewish people from around the world gather to seek healing and restored health.
Shrine of our Lord of Esquipulas, Chimayo, New Mexico. The shrine was built between 1814 and 1816 and is visited by thousands of people each year. There is a hole in the floor of the shrine, and it is believed that eating the dirt from this hole will cure many illnesses.
Shrine of Our Lady of Montserrat, Spain.
Pilgrims have visited this site since the 13th century to venerate the miraculous statue of the Black Madonna, and many miracles have been reported here.
The Tomb of Rachel in Bethlehem, south of Jerusalem.
This is a place where pilgrims go seek protection, healing, and help, especially for fertility. Here one is able to acquire the red string that is worn for protection from the evil eye.
An extensive list of shrines throughout the world can be found here:
Healing and Today’s Beliefs
There are four main types of healing:
1. Spiritual Healing
· Illness of the spirit
· The cause of suffering is personal sin.
The treatment method is repentance.
2. Inner Healing
· Emotional (mental) illness
· The cause lie in the person’s conscious or unconscious mind.
The treatment method is to heal the person’s memory.
3. Physical Healing
· Disease or accident that resulted in some form of bodily damage
The treatment method is laying on of hands and speaking in tongues and the person is prayed over.
4. Deliverance or exorcism
· Body and mind are victims of evil from the outside
The treatment method is that the person must be delivered, or exorcised, from the evil.
Traditional Healers
The people who heal:
· Received the gift of healing from a “divine” source;
· Received gift in a vision and have been unable to explain how they know what to do;
· Learned shills from one of their parents or other family members;
· Most healers with acquired skills are women, who subsequently pass on their knowledge to their daughters;
There are other healers setters as bone setters and midwives. Those who use herbs and other preparations to remove the evil from the sick person’s body are known as herbalists.
Compare: TraditionalHealers/ModernProviders
Healing using ring of fire.
Healing and today’s medicine. Please watch the video clip “Hmong Healing at Dignity Health” below.
Please watch the video clip below. A Hmong shaman performs a home-based curing ceremony for a man who fell ill during a funeral. To keep his soul from being drawn into the underworld with the deceased, the soul of a sacrificed pig is offered in exchange.
Ancient Rituals Related to the Lifecycle
Religion also plays a role in the rites surrounding both birth and death. Many of the rituals that we observe at the time of birth and death have their origins in the practices of ancient human beings.
Ancient Life Cycle Rituals
· Early human beings believed the number of evil spirits far exceeded the number of good spirits.
· Great deal of energy and time was devoted to thwarting evil spirits.
· Spirits would be defeated by the use of gifts or rituals, or redemptive sacrifice.
· Prevented from returning by various magical ceremonies and rites.
Birth Rituals
· Power of the evil spirits was believed to endure for a certain length of time.
· 3rd, 7th, and 40th days– Newborn and the mother were at the greatest risk from the power of supernatural beings.
· Usually on the 8th day, most of the rituals were observed.
· The person can be freed by certain rituals:
· Mother and child may be separated from the rest of the community for a certain length of time (usually 40 days),
· Rubbing the baby with different oils or garlic,
· Swaddling the baby,
· Lighting candles, or
· Baby and mother were watched for 7 days.
When the various rites were completed and the 40 days were over, both the mother and child were believed to be redeemed from evil. Ceremonies that freed the person had a double character: they were partly magic and partly religious.
Ancient Birth Rituals and today
The birth of a male child was considered more significant than that of a female, and many rites were practiced in observance of this event. One example is cutting off a lock of the child’s hair and then sprinkling his forehead with the sacrificed of a sheep’s blood. The sheep’s skin was saved, dried, and place in the child’s bed for 3 or 4 years as protection from evil spirits. The ritual must be performed on the 8th day of life. It was believed that if this sacrificial ritual was not performed on the 7th or 8th day of life, the child would die.
Circumcision is another ceremony. Circumcision is practiced by many people throughout the world. The Jews of ancient Israel practice circumcision on the 8th day of life. The Muslims circumcise their sons on the 7th day. The rite of circumcision is accompanied by festivals of varying durations.
The ceremony of baptism is also another important ceremony related to birth. It, too, symbolically expels the evil spirits, removes the taboo, and is redemptive. Water was believed to possess magical powers and was used to cleanse the body from both physical and spiritual maladies, which included evil possession and other impurities. A child can be baptized on the 40th day of life or on the 8th day, depending on the communities.
Death Rituals
In many religions, it was believed that evil spirits and the duration of their evil (7 or 40 days) surrounded the person, family, and community at the time of and after death. Rites evolved to protect both the dying and dead persons and the remaining family from these evil spirits. For examples:
· Ritual washing (dying person was cared for in specific ways
· Grave was prepared in set ways (food and water are stored in the coffin for the journey after death)
Mourning and beliefs and practices vary widely depending on the religious and national origins of the family. Below are some examples:
· Buddhists may not allow pregnant women to attend funerals to prevent bad luck for the baby.
· Christians may show reserved grieving in public, and for others grief may be demonstrative. In many traditions the widow may wear dark mourning clothes for the rest of her life, and in other nations, white may be worn.
· Hindus believe in reincarnation and practice cremation.
· Jews bury the person as soon as possible; and this is followed by a 7-day mourning period.
· Muslims may hold a ceremony 2 days after burial, followed by a meal.
Expressions of death and deaths rituals are also found in objects.
Candles are used by many people after a death as a way lighting the way for the soul of the deceased.
Jade Stone
Jade stone, from China, is placed in orifices of the body to block the entrance of evil spirits after death.
Ghost Money
Ghost money, from China, is burned to send payments to a deceased person and to ensure his or her well-being in the afterlife.
Food, clothes, and merchandise can also be burned to a deceased person in the afterlife. Watch the video clip”Burning Paper Food and Clothes for the Afterlife”below.
Intersections of Health, Healing, and Religion
There are several areas in which there is an intersection of health, healing, and religion. The table below illustrates several of these intersections.


Spirituality and religion begin in silences; however, the need for adequate interpreters has been addressed, but it is also to have available to people the members and leaders of their faith community who can reach out and interpret what is happening in regard to a health crisis at a deeper and spiritual level for the patient and family.


Understand the “rules” for gender care; in many faith traditions – for example, among Orthodox Jew and Muslims – care must be gender-specific, and people may be forbidden to be touched by someone of the opposite gender.


Religious and elderly people may be extremely sensitive as to the manner in which they are addressed – never call a person by their given name unless given permission to do so.


Religious and elderly people may be extremely modest, and modesty must be safeguarded at all times.


Many food taboos are predicated by one’s religion, and consideration must be given to see that improper foods are not served to patients.


Sacred objects, such as amulets and statues, must be allowed in patient’s space, and all precaution must be observed to safeguard them; when a person wears an amulet, every effort must be made to protect this amulet and permit the patient to wear it.

Social Organization

Spirituality or a religious background contributes many positive factors to the healthcare situation; collaboration with the leaders of a faith community can result in strongly positive outcomes for a patient and family.


Space must be defined and allocated for the patient’s and family’s private use.


Must be knowledgeable about sacred time – for example, what day the patient and family observe as a day of rest; Sacred
Module 5:
Health and Illness
The definition of health is“thebalanceof the person, both within one’s being—physical, mental, and spiritual—and in the outside world—natural, communal, and metaphysical. It is a complex, interrelated phenomenon.” Illness is “theimbalanceof one’s being—physical, mental, and spiritual—and in the outside world—natural, communal, and metaphysical.” These definitions are synonymous with definitions that people who have maintained the traditions of their heritage communicate.
Thephysical bodyincludes:
· Anatomical organs such as the skin, skeleton, muscles, digestive system, cardiovascular system, and so forth;
· Our genetic inheritance;
· Body chemistry;
· Gender;
· Age;
· Nutrition; and
· Physical condition.
Themind, mental, includes:
· Cognitive process, such as thoughts, memories, and knowledge
· Emotional processes as feelings, defenses, and self-esteem.
Thespiritualfacet includes:
· Both positive and negative learned spiritual practices and teachings, dreams, symbols, stories.
· Gifts and intuition.
· Grace and protecting forces.
· Positive and negative metaphysical or innate forces.
Health Traditions Model
The Health Traditions Model uses the concept of holistic health and explores what people do from a traditional perspective tomaintainhealth,protecthealth orprevent illness, andrestorehealth.
1. Traditional methods ofmaintain healthhas three components:physical, mental, and spiritual
2. Traditional methods ofprotecting healthhas three components:physical, mental, and spiritual
3. Traditional methods ofrestoring healthhas three components:physical, mental, and spiritual
The traditional methods of maintaining, protecting, and restoring health can be summarized in the table below.
These are health-related images that depict objects that may be used to protect, maintain, and/or restore physical, mental, or spiritual health by people of many different heritages.
First picture isThousand Year Eggsfrom China. These represent traditional foods that may be eaten to maintain physical health.
The second picture isNature. This depicts the notion that the enjoyment of nature, the environment, may be a universal way of maintaining mental health.
The third picture is theIslamic Prayerfrom East Jerusalem. It shows that prayer may be a way of maintaining spiritual health.
The Red Stringmay be worn to protect physical health.
Eyefrom Cuba represents the plethora of eye-related objects that may be worn or hung in the home to protect the mental health of people.
The Thunderbirdfrom the Hopi Nation may be worn for spiritual protection.
TheHerbal Remedyfrom Africa represents the plethora of herbs from all places, that may be used by people from all ethno-cultural traditional backgrounds as one method to restore physical health in countless preparations.
Tiger Balmfrom Singapore represents substances that are used in massage therapy that may be used as a way of restoring both physical and mental health.
Rosary Beadsfrom Italy symbolize prayer and meditation, which are methods used in spiritual restoration of health.
· Dietary
· Traditional cooking methods do not use preservatives.
· Most foods are fresh and well prepared.
· Traditional diets are followed, and food taboos and restrictions obeyed.
· Cleanliness of the self and the environment is vital.
· Hand washing before meals.
· Concentrating and using the mind
· Reading and crafts
· Games, books, music, art
· Hobbies
· The family and social support systems.
· Maintained in the home with family closeness—prayer and celebrations.
· Rights of passage and kindred occasions—family and community events.
· Strong identity with and connections to the “home” community are a great part of traditional life and the life cycle.
Health Protection
The protection of HEALTH rests in the ability to understand the cause of a given ILLNESS or set of symptoms. Most of the traditional health and illness beliefs regarding the causation of illness differ from those of the modern epidemiological model. Inmodern epidemiology, we speak of viruses, bacteria, carcinogens, and other pathogens as the causative agents. In “traditional” epidemiology, factors such as:
· Evil Eye or Evil Spirits
· Envy, Hate, or Jealousy
· Soul loss
· Spells or Hexes
may be the agents of illness.
Researchers in evil eye beliefs assert that the belief in the eye is probably the oldest and most widespread of all superstitions, and it is found to exist in many parts of the world, such as southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. It is thought by some to be merely a superstition, but what one person sees as superstition may well be seen by another person as religion. Immigrant populations carried various evil eye beliefs to the United States.
The common beliefs in the evil eye assert that:
· The power emanates from the eye (or mouth) and strikes the victim.
· The injury, be it illness or other misfortune, is sudden.
· The person who casts the evil eye may not be aware of having this power.
· The afflicted person may or may not know the source of the evil eye.
· The injury caused by the evil eye may be prevented or cured with rituals or symbols.
· This belief helps explain sickness and misfortune.
Various populations define the nature of the evil eye differently. The variables include how it is cast, who can cast it, who receives it, and the degree of power it has. For example:
· Philippines – the evil is cast through the eye or mouth
· Mediterranean – it is the avenging power of God
· Italy – it is a malevolent force, like a plague, and is warded off by wearing amulets.
Casting the evil eye is also different in various parts of the world. For example:
· Mexico – by strangers
· Iran – by kinfolk
· Greece – witches
A brief description of the evil eye.
Another source of evil can be of human origin and occurs when a person is temporarily controlled by a soul not his or her own. In the Jewish tradition, this controlling spirit is known as dybbuk. Adybbuk
is portrayed as a “wandering, disembodied soul which enters another person’s body holds fast”. In short, a
is actually a ghost that sticks around after death to possess the body of the living for malevolent purposes.
Traditional practices used in the protection of health include, but are not limited to:
1. The use of protective objects – worn, carried, or hung in the home
2. The use of substances that are ingested in certain ways and amounts or eliminated from the diet, and substances worn or hung in the home
3. The practices of religion, such as the burning of candles, the rituals or redemption, and prayer.
Amulets are sacred objects, such as charms, worn on a string or chain around the neck, wrist, or waist to protect the wearer from the evil eye or the evil spirits that could be transmitted from one person to another, or could have supernatural origins. Amulets may also be written documents on parchment scrolls, and there are hung in the home.
Examples of amulets:
Mano negro (black hand)
: Placed on babies of Puerto Rican descent to ward off the evil eye.
Mano milagroso (miraculous hand)
: worn by many people of Mexican origin for luck and the prevention of evil.
worn by people originating from the West Indies to prevent evil from entering the body.
The prayer card (written amulet):
hung in the home or workplace to protect the person, family, or business from the evil eye, famine, storms, diseases, and countless other dangers.
In addition to amulets, there are talismans. A talisman is believed to possess extraordinary powers and may be worn on a rope around the waist or carried in a pocket or purse. An example of talisman is below:
The table below shows some of the practices in different parts of the world to ward off the Evil Eye.
Food and diet are also practices used to protect health in many ethnic backgrounds.
Raw garlic or onions: used to prevent illness.
Ginseng root: used preventively to “build the blood,” especially after childbirth. Also used as a restorative tonic.
Examples of other food and diet in protecting health:
· The rules of the kosher diet practiced among Jewish people mandate the elimination of pig products and shellfish.
· Jews also believe that milk and meat must never be mixed and eaten at the same meal.
· Food must be a balance between yin or yang in Chinese homes.
· Food must be balanced as to “hot” and “cold” in Hispanic homes.
· Some foods are consumed at certain times of the week or year and not during other times.
· Spirituality connotes the way we orient ourselves toward the Divine, make meaning out of our lives, the recognition of the presence of Sprit (breath), a cultivation of a life-style consistent with this presence, and a perspective to foster purpose, meaning, and direction to life.
· It may find expression through religion or religion may be a tool for finding one’s spirit.
· Countless religious practices serve to protect Health. Examples here include:
· Saints
· Virgin of Guadalupe
· Beads – the Catholic and Moslem Rosary beads
· Saint Lucy is the patron of eye problem. Eyes may be carried or worn for protection.
The Virgin of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is believed to protect the person and home from evil and harm, and she serves as a figure of hope.
Religion helps to provide the believer with an ability understand and interpret the events of the environment and life. Box 5-1 in the textbook shows some examples.
Example of situations where religion andHealthintersect:
· Blood
· Admonitions regarding the acceptance of blood transfusions
· Death
· The immediate care of the body after death
· End-of-life care
· Use of resuscitation and extreme care versus not using
The traditional beliefs and practices concerning the activities, such as the use of folk remedies and traditional healers that must be used to restoreHealth.
· Physical
· Countless traditional remedies such as herbal teas, liniments, special foods and food combinations, massage, and other activities
· Mental
· The use of various techniques such as exorcism, calling on traditional healers, using teas or massage, and seeking family and community support
· Spiritual
· Religious healing rituals, the use of symbols and prayer, meditation, special prayers, and exorcism
Please visit the folklore museum developed by the eminent folklorist, Norine Dresser ( to an external site.)
Healthcare Choices
There are countless ways to describe and label health care beliefs, practices, and systems. “Healthcare” may be labeled as:
· “modern”
· “conventional”
· “traditional”
· “alternative”
· “complementary”
· “allopathic”
· “homeopathic”
· “folk”
· “integrative”
The figure below shows a great comparison between two health care types: Allopathic vs Homeopathic.
Folk medicine is the mixture of traditional healing practices and beliefs that involve herbal medicine, spirituality and manual therapies or exercises in order to diagnose, treat or prevent an ailment or illness. The World Health Organization states that it is mostly practiced by indigenous or native populations and as much as 80% of the population in certain countries within Asia and Africa rely on it for primary care.
There are two varieties of folk medicine:
· Natural folk medicine—or rational folk medicine—represents one of humans’ earliest uses of the natural environment and utilizes herbs, plants, minerals, and animal substances to prevent and treat illnesses.
· Magico-religious folk medicine—or occult folk medicine—represents the use of charms, holy words, and holy actions to prevent and cure illnesses/Illnesses.
Healthcare Philosophies
There are two distinctly different health/health care philosophies determine the scope of health beliefs and practices:
· Dualistic (allopathic)
· Holistic (homeopathic)
Modern/Allopathic Philosophy:
Importance of:
· Health and Illness
· Cure
· Technology
Traditional/Homeopathic Philosophy
Importance of:
· Health
· Healing
· Touch
· Communication
There are two categories in the holistic system:
1. alternative or integrative
2. traditional or ethnocultural
Alternative or integrative therapies are those that are not a part of one’s ethnocultural or religious heritage. Traditional therapies are those that are part of one’s traditional ethnocultural or religious heritage.
The dominant healthcare system in the United States is predicated on the allopathic (dualistic philosophy).
The table below are selected examples of health/Health care choices.
Alternative/Integrative Care:
—an ancient science, presently popular, that uses essential plant oils to produce strong physical and emotional effects in the body
—the use of an electronic machine to measure skin temperatures; the patient controls responses that are usually involuntary
—the use of hypnosis to stimulate emotions and involuntary responses such as blood pressure
—a diet and lifestyle from the Far East and adapted for the United States by Michio Kushi; the principles of this vegetarian diet consists of balancing yin and yang energies of food
Massage therapy
—use of manipulative techniques to relieve pain and return energy to the body, now popular among many groups, both modern and traditional
—the natural science dealing with the reflex points in the hands and feet that correspond to every organ in the body. The goal is to clear the energy pathways and the flow of energy through the body.
Traditional or ethnocultural healthcare systems:
This 4,000-year-old method of healing originated in India and is the most ancient existing medical system that uses diet, natural therapies, and herbs. Its chief aim is longevity and quality of life. It formed the foundation of Chinese medicine.
This traditional Hispanic (Mexican) system of healthcare originated in Spain and is derived, in part from traditional practices of indigenous Indian and Spanish health practices.
Qi gong.
This form of Chinese traditional medicine combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of qi (the vital energy), to improve circulation and enhance the immune system.
This Japanese form of therapy is based on the belief that when spiritual energy is channeled through a practitioner, the patient’s spirit is healed, and this in turn heals the physical body.
A form of traditional healthcare observed among the practitioners of Santeria, this is a syncretic religion that comprises both African and Catholic beliefs. This religion is found practiced among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans.
This form of traditional healthcare is observed among the practitioners of Voodoo, a religion that combines Christian and African Yoruba religious beliefs
Homeopathy, also known as homeopathic medicine, is a medical system that was developed in between 1790 and 1810 by Samuel C. Hahnemann in Germany. It’s based on two unconventional theories: 1) “Like cures like”—the notion that a disease can be cured by a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy people. 2)“Law of minimum dose”—the notion that thelowerthe dose of the medication, thegreaterits effectiveness. Many homeopathic products are so diluted that no molecules of the original substance remain.
Key features of homeopathic medicine:
· The person, not the disease, is treated.
· The “law of similars.”
· The medicines are administered in extremely small doses.
· Developed in 1874 by Dr. A. T. Still in Kirksville, Missouri
· The art of curing without excessive the use of surgery or drugs
· Attempts to discover and correct all mechanical disorders in the human machine, and to direct the recuperative power of nature that is within the body to cure the disease
· Osteopaths are fully qualified physicians.
· Practice in all areas of medicine and surgery
Chiropractic is a health care profession that emphasizes the body’s ability to heal itself. Treatment typically involves manual therapy, often including spinal manipulation. Other forms of treatment, such as exercise and nutritional counseling, may be used as well.
· Developed as a form of healing in 1895 by Daniel David Palmer in Davenport, Iowa
· Theory
· An interference with the normal transmission of “mental impulses” between the brain and body organs produce diseases.
· Interference is caused by misalignment or subluxation of the vertebrae of the spine, which decreases the flow of “vital energy.”
· Treatment consists of manipulation to eradicate the subluxation.
· A system of spiritual healing explained in 1875 by Mary Baker Eddy.
· The discovery of this divine science of mind-healing, through a spiritual sense of the Scriptures
· The proof, by present demonstration, that the so-called miracles of Jesus did not specially belong to a dispensation now ended, but that they illustrated an ever-operative divine Principle.
· Founded in 2014 in the National Institutes of Health.
· The Federal Government’s lead agency for scientific research on complimentary and integrative health care.
· Preceded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (1998)
· The goals of the the agency:
· Advance the science and practice of symptom management.
· Develop effective, practical, personalized strategies for promoting health and well-being.
· Enable better evidence-based decision making regarding complementary and integrative health approaches and their integration into healthcare and health promotion.
To explore more, visit the NCCIH’s webpage at: to an external site.)
The use of complimentary and integrative therapies has grown rapidly in last decades. Reasons people use complimentary and integrative therapies:
1. Dissatisfaction with modern medicine. Patients are not satisfied with allopathic care because it is seen as ineffective, it produces adverse effects, or it is impersonal, too costly, or too technological.
2. Need for personal control.The providers of alternative therapies are less authoritarian and more empowering, as they offer the patient the opportunity to have autonomy and control in their healthcare decisions.
3. Philosophical congruence.The alternative methods of therapy are compatible with the patients’ values, worldview, spiritual philosophy, or beliefs regarding the nature and meaning of health/health and illness/illness. These therapies are now frequently used by patients with cancer, arthritis, chronic back or other pain, stress-related problems, AIDS, gastrointestinal problems, and anxiety.
Familial Health Traditions
Becoming culturally competent is to develop an increased awareness of the heritage of your family, and of the health/health practices within your family, both in past generations and in the present. This information can be discovered by interviewing people close to you (maternal grandmother, mother, grandfather, father, older brother, etc). In this module you will have to opportunity to interview a family member and learn more about your family’s heritage.
As we learned from previous modules, culture and heritage play an important role in health/health practices.
Some examples of traditional ways to protect health from cultures around the world:
· Austrian- camphor around the neck (in the winter) in a small cloth bag to prevent measles and scarlet fever
· Canadian- camphor around the neck to ward off any evil spirit
· English- strict enforcement of lifestyle
· French, German- every spring, take sulfur and molasses for 3 days as a laxative to get rid of worms
· Irish, Spanish- Blessing of the Throat on Saint Blaise Day
· Italian- garlic cloves strung on a piece of string around the neck of infants and children to prevent colds and “evil” stares from other people, which, it is believed, could cause headaches and a pain or stiffness in the back or neck.

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