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According to Mayo Clinic (2013), blood doping involves removing blood out of the body, storing it, and then reinfusing it to increase the number of red blood cells. As such, the athlete’s performance rises when the increased red blood cells are able to deliver more oxygen to the body tissues. Therefore, some athletes like Lance Armstrong have undergone blood doping just before a race to achieve improved performance.
I do not think the sporting world should legalize blood doping. Enhancing performance using an unnatural technique is cheating. Research has found out that in endurance sports, performance can increase by 10 percent when individuals use blood doping (Solheim et al., 2019). As a result, an athlete that undergoes blood doping will have a competitive advantage of other competitors. Specifically, blood doping prevents a level playing field when only some athletes use the method. Faiss et al. (2020) pointed out that blood doping leads to competitive advantage since it enhances performance; hence, some nations might benefit unfairly from the technique. For instance, if a country has more athletes using blood doping than other nations do, it has a higher probability of winning more medals.
Moreover, blood doping might present some health risks to the sportspeople. Blood doping is associated with physiological side effects such as blood clot, stroke, and higher stress on the heart (USADA, 2022). In addition, since blood doping involves removing, storing, and reinfusion of blood, the athletes are at risk of infections such as hepatitis and AIDs (Bird et al., 2016). Besides, mismatch of blood might occur if the professionals conducting the process are negligent.
Bird, S.R., Goebel, C., Burke, L.M., & Greaves, R.F. (2016). Doping in sport and exercise: Anabolic, ergogenic, health and clinical issues. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 53(2),196-221. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004563215609952 (Links to an external site.)
Faiss, R., Saugy, J., Zollinger, A., Robinson, N., Schuetz, F., Saugy, M., & Garnier, P. Y. (2020). Prevalence estimate of blood doping in elite track and field athletes during two major international events. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, 160. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00160 (Links to an external site.)
Mayo Clinic. (2013, June 13). Blood doping – Mayo Clinic [Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7KZxIR1t-o (Links to an external site.)
Solheim, S. A., Bejder, J., Breenfeldt Andersen, A., Mørkeberg, J., & Nordsborg, N. B. (2019). Autologous blood transfusion enhances exercise performance-strength of the evidence and physiological mechanisms. Sports Medicine – Open, 5(1), 30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-019-0204-1 (Links to an external site.)
USADA. (2022). Effects of performance-enhancing drugs. https://www.usada.org/athletes/substances/effects-of-performance-enhancing-drugs/ (Links to an external site.)
M1D1: Cheating to be Famous
May 5, 2022 4:35PM
Question 1:
Sickle cell disease affects millions of people world-wide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (Campbell et al., 2021). Sickle cell anemia is one of the genetic blood disorders. It involves having defective hemoglobin and distorted red blood cells that do not go through blood vessels smoothly. Some people have sickle cell trait, which is a condition where an individual has one defective gene (Pecker & Naik, 2018). Studies are constantly reporting regarding the lack of knowledge of the genetic inheritance of the sickle cell trait pattern (Mayo-Gamble et al., 2019). Compared to other races, blacks are the most affected by sickle cell anemia. For instance, the chapter readings indicated that in about 500 African-Americans, one of them has sickle cell anemia in the United States. Therefore, sickle cell trait is also more common among African-Americans.
My question: Should healthcare professionals encourage all African-Americans to undergo testing for sickle cell trait to prevent sickle cell anemia?

Campbell, A. D., Colombatti, R., Andemariam, B., Strunk, C., Tartaglione, I., Piccone, C. M., Manwani, D., Asare, E. V., Boruchov, D., Farooq, F., Urbonya, R., Boatemaa, G. D., Perrotta, S., Sainati, L., Rivers, A., Rao, S., Zempsky, W., Sey, F., Segbefia, C., Inusa, B., … Antwi-Boasiako, C. (2021). An analysis of racial and ethnic backgrounds within the CASiRe International Cohort of Sickle Cell Disease Patients: Implications for disease phenotype and clinical research. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 8(1), 99–106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00762-2 (Links to an external site.)
Mayo-Gamble, T. L., Schlundt, D., Cunningham-Erves, J., Murry, V. M., Bonnet, K., Quasie-Woode, D., & Mouton, C. P. (2019). Sickle cell carriers’ unmet information needs: Beyond knowing trait status. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 28(4), 812–821. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1124 (Links to an external site.)
Pecker, L. H., & Naik, R. P. (2018). The current state of sickle cell trait: Implications for reproductive and genetic counseling. Blood, 132(22), 2331–2338. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-06-848705 (Links to an external site.)
M1D1: Cheating to be Famous
May 5, 2022 5:31PM
Part B
The health condition that results in the most deaths and morbidity annually in the US is cardiovascular disease (Giannini et al., 2022). Most people are not aware of their coronary disease risk until they get a diagnosis. For that reason, a large number of patients die from the disease or become disabled. However, with the numbers in deaths from CHD decreasing, patients will need assistance and encouragement to manage their symptoms and reduce the chances of complications in the future (Anderson et al., 2016). Many methods and procedures are being recommended in the treatment of coronary heart disease (Galper et al., 2015).
Classmate question: How can healthcare professionals prevent coronary disease among their patients?

Anderson, L., Thompson, D. R., Oldridge, N., Zwisler, A., Rees, K., Martin, N., Taylor, R. S.& Taylor, R. S. (2016). Exercise‐based cardiacrehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2018(1), CD001800-CD001800. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001800.pub3 (Links to an external site.)
Galper, B. Z., Wang, Y. C., & Einstein, A. J. (2015). Strategies for primary prevention of coronary heart disease based on risk stratification by the ACC/AHA lipid guidelines, ATP III guidelines, coronary calcium scoring, and C-reactive protein, and a global treat-all strategy: A comparative-effectiveness modeling study. PloS One, 10(9), e0138092. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138092 (Links to an external site.)
M1D1: Cheating to be Famous
May 7, 2022 7:42PM

Original Question
In chapter 13, we read about the cardiovascular system. One thing in particular that we read about was blood pressure, which is the force the heart pumps blood through the body. We also read about what hypertension is, which is the blood pressure being too high (Patton & Thibodeau, p. 296-397). In my nursing career, I have come across several different medications that help to reduce blood pressure, including diuretics which we also read about. Diuretics make the body urinate in order to decrease the amount of blood in the body which in turn helps the blood pressure decrease (Patton & Thibodeau, p.298). There are several different types of diuretics; for example, Furosemide (Lasix) is a loop-diuretic (Krakoff, 2005). Can you name other types of diuretics and how they work in the body?
My Response:
There are typically five classes of diuretics: thiazides, loop diuretics, carbon anhydrase inhibitors, potassium sparing and osmotic diuretics. Chlorothiazide is a diuretic often used to treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia in pediatric patients. It helps to improve lung mechanics by decreasing the edema that builds up in the lungs (VanderVeen, 2020). Diuretics also work when used in combinations for a better effect. For instance, there was a case study with a four-month-old baby with NDI (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) who was given HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide) which inhibits sodium reabsorption which can cause hypokalemia. Therefore, it will be given in conjunction with amiloride, a potassium sparing diuretic (Leung, et al., 2016). Lastly, Lasix has many uses, however, the most interesting to date that I have read about is a 32-year-old patient case study. The Lasix was used to reduce the pressure inside his inner ear as he was presenting with hearing loss (Kosec et al., 2019). In conclusion, diuretics have many uses and can be used individually or in combination with one another.

Košec, A., Kruljac, I., & Ajduk, J. (2019). Remission of Recurrent Cochlear Hydrops Associated With Bromocriptine Treatment for Macroprolactinoma. American Journal of Audiology, 28(3), 548–552. https://doi-org.ezproxy.indstate.edu/10.1044/2019_AJA-18-0191
Leung, T., Babbitt, C., & O, B. K. (2016). Severe Hypernatremia and Failure to Thrive. Clinical Pediatrics, 55(11), 1085–1087. https://doi-org.ezproxy.indstate.edu/10.1177/0009922816664069
VanderVeen, S. K. (2020). The Transition from Hospital to Home for a Patient with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A MultidisciplinaryApproach. Pediatric Nursing, 46(4), 184–188.
M1D1: Cheating to be Famous
May 7, 2022 8:05PM
Part C
Original Question:
According to Essentials of Anatomy and physiology Chapter 16, Blood is a liquid connective tissue consisting not only of fluid plasma but also of cells. Blood consist about 55% plasma, 45% of a variety of formed elements, Including Erythrocytes, thrombocytes and leukocytes.
What is the hematocrit and what is a disease marked by a decrease in the average hematocrit?
My Response:
Hematocrit is the ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood and can be measured by an instrument known as a centrifugation (Khongphatthanayothin et al., 2008). A disease marked by low hematocrit is leukemia (Bolin et al., 2020). Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow which is responsible for forming red blood cells. Individuals with leukemia form an overabundance of immature white blood cells, stopping them from forming other cells in the meantime. These individuals now become immunocompromised as well (Day et al., 2021).
Bolin, C., & Maricle, D. E. (2020). Leukemia: What School Psychologists Should Know. Communique (0164775X), 49(4), 10–13.
Day, M., Harris, S., Hussein, D., Saka, M. Y., Stride, C., Jones, M., Makin, G., & Rowe, R. (2021). The efficacy of interactive group psychoeducation for children with leukaemia: A randomised controlled trial. Patient Education & Counseling, 104(12), 3008–3015. https://doi-org.ezproxy.indstate.edu/10.1016/j.pec.2021.04.015
Khongphatthanayothin, A., Supachokechaiwattana, P., & Pantcharoen, C. (2008). Prediction of Capillary Leakage in Patients with Dengue Virus Infection: What Else Besides Hematocrit and Platelet Counts? Pediatrics, 121, S99. https://doi- (Links to an external site.) org.ezproxy.indstate.edu/10.1542/peds.2007-2022Z

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