Discussion 5 Respond Patho

You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your responses must be substantive and not just agreeing with someone’s work. You need to addby explaining more, refuting a point or correcting a point. a minimum of 150 words and one reference with in text citation, one reference for each respond.
Discussion 1 (George)
Musculoskeletal case study
Introduction and Definition
Osteoarthritis is the degeneration of joint cartilage and underlying bones characterized by stiffness and pain in the affected area (Roth, 2022). It mostly affects the thumb, hip and knee joints, but it can affect any joint in the body—the disease is commonly known to affect the middle-aged and elderly. Osteoarthrosis is the disorder of synovial joints. The most affected joints in osteoarthrosis are the hands, hip, knee and first metatarsophalangeal joint.
Risk factors
G.J presents with the following risk factors for osteoarthritis. She is older (71 years), overweight, and her sex (woman). The risk of osteoarthritis rises with age. Also, women are more susceptible to osteoarthritis compared to men. Increased weight adds weight to joints increasing the chances of individuals suffering osteoarthritis (Roth, 2022).
Differences Between Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disorder resulting from the wear and tear of cartilage, while rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that attacks tissues lining the joints (Roth, 2022). Also, osteoarthritis starts later in life, whereas rheumatoid arthritis starts at any age. Another distinctive feature is rheumatoid arthritis develops fairly quickly (weeks to months), but osteoarthritis develops slowly over time. Rheumatoid Arthritis is characterized by muscle aches, low-grade fever and fatigue affecting the entire body, including the lungs and heart, while osteoarthritis is limited to joint pain. Rheumatoid Arthritis commonly starts in smaller joints (fingers) with symmetrical symptoms, which might later affect larger joints. At the same time, osteoarthritis often develops in hands and sometimes fingers joints but is less symmetrical (Roth, 2022). Finally, the treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis includes biologics and disease-modifying medications targeting the immune system, while osteoarthritis entails corticosteroid and anti-inflammatory medications.
Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment
Pharmacological treatment includes NSAIDs and steroid injections. NSAIDs are strong pain relievers and anti-inflammatories, for example, topical capsaicin cream and ibuprofen tablets making them effective in managing osteoarthritis (Versus, 2022). For non-pharmacological treatment, the patient should focus on reducing weight through lifestyle changes and exercise.
Health education on Osteoporosis
I will educate my patient on the link between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis and advise her to eat a healthy diet, avoid smoking and exercise more frequently.
Neurological Function Case Study
Risk Factor
The major risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease are cardiovascular disease, head injuries, down syndrome, genetics, older age, untreated depression, hearing loss and social isolation (NIH, 2022). Alzheimer’s interferes with the brain’s ability to store and retrieve new information while affecting cognitive brain functions, i.e. reasoning and problem-solving abilities (NIH, 2022). Vascular dementia is the most common form of dementia associated with brain blood vessels. In contrast, frontotemporal dementia is a less common type of dementia affecting the language and behavior of individuals.
Explicit and Implicit Memory
Both explicit and implicit memories memory are types of long-term memory. Explicit memory is the state of remembering information consciously to work, while implicit memory is remembering information effortlessly and unconsciously (Cherry, 2022).
Diagnosis criteria for Alzheimer’s disease
The diagnosis criteria for preclinical Alzheimer’s entail no dementia, concern about changes in cognition and cognitive abilities such as problem-solving skills and memory loss expected for the level of education and age (NIH, 2022). Also, preserved ability to function and work independently is an indicator of Alzheimer’s disease.
Therapeutic Approach
Firstly, health care providers should consider her overall health, the severity of the disease and past medical history before deciding on treatment modalities and therapies (Versus, 2022). Also, they should acknowledge family and patient’s preferences on medication and how it will affect their lifestyle.
Roth, E., 2022. What’s the Difference Between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis?. [online] Healthline. Available at:
Versus, 2022. Osteoarthritis (O.A.). [online] Versus arthritis. Available at:
Versus, 2022. Osteoarthritis (O.A.). [online] Versus arthritis. Available at:
NIH, 2022. Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic Guidelines. [online] National Institute on Aging. Available at:

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