Write 300 words about what you have learnt from reading the chapter.  Do this in Discussion Boar.

1-The reading from Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell captivated me right away. At first I was confused, because I was not sure how the chapter related to communication. However, as I read further on in the chapter, it became clear. Chapter seven of Outliers examines different aircraft accidents, and their causes. Specifically, it examines how the Korean Air had a long history of plane crashes, which gave them a bad reputation. When Korean Air was about to be put out of business, they made changes that allowed them to become a much safer airline. The author analyzes how they were able to make such an effective change. As Gladwell takes examples from multiple plane crashes, he explains that the typical aircraft accident involves multiple human errors, the most critical error being communication. This is an essential part of a successful flight. Clear communication is vital because it leads to precise thought and action. Gladwell goes into depth on a situation where the copilot told Air Traffic Control that they were running out of fuel. The way he said it though was with mitigated speech, and contained a passive tone. This did not allow the ATC to comprehend the urgency of the message. The reason people use mitigated speech is linked to their culture power distance rating. Power-distance is the different interactions people have with their superiors in different cultures. This can lead to extremely ineffective communication when flying a plane, because different cultures are communicating to each other in different ways. This is why the Korean Air was having reoccurring airplane crashes. Once Korean Air embraced their cultural legacy, and learned to change their communication style when flying to resemble a low-power distance culture, they better suited the aviation world.  It is important that people acknowledge that everyone has a culture, and each comes with its own mix of strengths and weaknesses.

2-I have heard about this book which discusse about how the people scusses with the examples of celebrities like Bill Gates. This book is making me think about my own growing up years, culture and education backgroud. The importance of success is that based on the effort. It is very intersting about the “10,000 hour rule.”The success is an accumulation of advantages and to be repetitive. ”Everyone can be successful if you put in 10,000 hours.”This priciple is encourage for many people. every single succes is based on the boubled efforts. In the article, it shows an example of Bill. He spent many effort on his bussiness. It makes me tinking about a successful people from China–Deng Yaping. She is a talented woman player of table tennis. She was the table tennis champion of the 11th Asian Games and the 41th World Tabte Tennis Championship. And in the 25th Olympic Games she won two gold medals. Why can she make such brilliant achievements with the disadvantage of her short fighre? Her hard work and determination to succed helped her to overcome many disadvantages. At the age of 4, she began to play table tennis underthe guidance of her tather. When she was 8, she won the championship in the national competition of the amateur sports school. In 1998, she became a member of the National  training team. Onn her way to success, she proved that height was nothing and hard work was everything. To be successful is not easy to reaching, it needs the right opputunity and the right direction spending 10000 hours. To my life, i think to fight for the goals and to having a good goal to reaching. In my opinion, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in our society, but only those who have made enough preparations and are highly talented can make use of them to achieve their purpose.

3-The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes covers the role that enthnicity and culture play in our interactions with others. Through flying planes people are connected more than ever. The ability to reach new lands create the oppurtunity to engage in intercultural communication. The book begins with an overview of plane crashes. The first flight mentioned was a crash that occured in Guam. What led to this crash was minor tech problems, weather, and a tired pilot. What increased these factors was the poor communication between the First Officer and the Captain. The First Officer, due to the higher power distance in their culture failed to be direct with his Captain out of respect. Instead he hinted; or kindly suggested a plan of action. Hinting is one form of mitigation; a way of lessening severity of situation to help yourself or others. The power distance index determines the rank of different countries as to how they value hierarchies in their communication. Another plane crash mentioned was Avianca 052, this crash was also caused by poor communication between the First Officer and the Air Traffic Coordinators. It was later believed to the ethnicity of the First Officer that played a hand in the accident. The Officer was Colombian, meaning his culture favors a high power distance relationship. When he spoke to the coordinators he assumed that they were angry because of the tone used by the American worker. Korean Air brought in David Greenberg to help regain their credibility after several crashes. Greenberg’s training included altering the power distance between the workers at the airline. Especially the relationship between the First Officer and the Captain. He required all employees to speak English at work, but understood the culture deeply rooted in their language, so he allowed for the current workers to stay and learn. The English language, culturally rooted in the United States, is lower on the power distance index. This is because they tend to treat everyone, regardless of status, as equal. This liner’s success with English emersion training influenced other liners to adopt the practice and as a result less crashes occur. An example of effective communication in a time of need was recounted by Ratwatte, a pilot that was faced with a seizuring passenger. He communicated effectively by employing the help of his other pilots, called his headquarters, contacted doctors, and worked with the airport in Finland to safely land the plane. His ability to communicate with his peers in a stressful situation by being direct, helped him save the lives of his passengers. Intercultural communication requires you to be aware of another culture, ethnicity, and power distance’s influences on their interactions.

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