Running Head: CRYPTOGRAPHIC GAMING THEORY
CRYPTOGRAPHIC GAMING THEORY
Cryptographic Gaming Theory
Cryptographic gaming theory as it is, is a combination of two concepts(cryptography and gaming theory) which are put together to come up with one object with one main agenda; protect information, secrets from theft or illegal access. Parties involved come up with ways of governing the game so as to make it trusted by all parties. However, both game theory and cryptography are concerned with designing and analyzing the algorithmic ways for collaborative interaction among parties with conflicting interest so as to bring fairness (Peng, et al., 2017). Butbefore this is done, one ought to understand cryptography and gaming theory and how they interact with one another to form one common body of one common interest. This paper therefore seeks to evaluate and discuss the cryptographic gaming theory (Pass, 2016).
Cryptography is the art of creating, writing, and coding that allows given information to be kept as a secret. Cryptography enables data to be encoded in a format that is unreadable to everybody else apart from the authorized individuals. The aspect of coding information is the one that keeps cryptography unique and reliable in keeping secrets. It uses cipher to convert plain text to cipher text and back by encrypting and decrypting.
Cryptography basics include distinguishability where it distinguishes and converts information into readable codes only for those who are allowed to access the information, Encryption where it can encrypt and decrypt texts from plain texts to cipher texts and back plain texts through decryption, and Zero Knowledge in that a party proofs to the other party that they know a given value for instance conveyable message y without necessarily giving out any information about what the message is or the contents of the message. This aspect ensures that information conveyed from one point x to point y is kept as a secret and is not accessible to people who are not entitled (Wattenhofer, 2017).
It also deals with secure computation in that the definitions. This is to ensure that the users of a given data do not disclose important information to unauthorized persons but instead compute and communicate with each other in a more safer and effective manner. Basic constructions are also very important in the cryptography since it is what informs the communication between parties involved in the computation. Finally it looks at how fairness in secure computation can be achieved while concentrating on Definitions, constructions and impossibility results (Killian, 2006).
This is to say that cryptography is very important as far as keeping information safe is concerned and is regarded as a reliable method of keeping secrets. The method can be used alongside game theory but before we look at how the two can blend and work together, we first need to look at game theory and understand the concept. Wattenhofer (2017) says that the two can be used to improve and achieve old goals, come up with new ones, or with an aim of understanding the nature of collaborative interaction of conflicting theories. Further, he says exploration and combination of the two is useful since they both involve designing and analyzing collaborative interaction between parties which have conflicting interests.
Gaming theory deals with the rules involving analysis of strategies and measures to be applied when dealing with competitive situations where the participant’s actions dictate the outcome of the decision he/she made. Game theory is mostly used and applied in situations involving wars, businesses among other competitive areas.
Some of the components of the game theory include, Zero-sum games where one works on minimizing on the potential loses while maximizing on the possible gains. This is a theorem that is unique to the game theory and is popularly known as min-max theorem. Additionally, normal form games are a distinguishable aspect of the game theory in that Nash equilibrium correlated equilibrium and dominated strategies together with approximate Nash equilibria are used in game theory where it provides the participants with the description of the game through matrix representation unlike extensive which give the description through graphic representations.
On the other hand, extensive form games is also used to make sure that one knows or rather is aware of all the possible moves that an opponent might take in the game. This is under the sub game perfection, imperfection, and Bayesian equilibria. This aspect helps the participants monitor their opponents in a game and make the necessary block to avoid being beaten by the opponent. That way, a participant is certain that they have high chance of winning the game against their opponents.
With the above discussion about the game theory, it is notable that game theory could be very useful in ensuring that a game is fair to all parties involved. It is also in order to note that if it could be combined with cryptography, they both can combine efforts to bring more useful components which will in turn bring better services or rather improve on what the two can do solely.
Cryptographic gaming theory
Cryptographic game theory is a concept that is denoted from the two words of different but related concepts; cryptography and game theory. While the two concepts have relations in what they entail, they also have differences. However, the differences do not from the basis of this discussion as we are looking at how or rather what these two but one concept can be utilized to offer better, fair and more reliable services.
According to Pass, (2016), game theory and cryptography can be used to improve and reformed to come up with one main medium to be used in solving problems, preventing injustices and providing fair judgments to all. Some of the distinguished components of cryptography game theory are; computational notions of Nash equilibria where the cryptography brings in Computation while game theory brings in equilibria to form computational notions. This is used in coding the language to be used in the media of communication.
On the other hand, replacing trusted mediators through cryptographic means is another important aspect of cryptographic game theory. This is a designed method where participants can exchange information safely without getting into the hands of other people who may be a threat to the information. The communication is encrypted in codes that are only meaningful and understood by the intended participants only. Both game theory and cryptography are useful in bringing this aspect to function (Kol & Naor, 2008).
Further, rational secure communication is essential as it ensures that basic formalisms and rational secret sharing is possible. Although rational sharing of information was initially identified and associated with game theory only while computation was only to cryptography, combination of the two has made it possible to have both of them working together to form rational secure computation.
In this section, two party and multiparty is allowed in that more participants can engage together as the system is now more improved in that there is a combination of two very important technologies. This is evidence that the two can work together for a good cause and that is to provide better services.
Dodis, (2007), says that both game theory and cryptography have a common interest as they both deal with interaction of mutually distrustful participants whom all are after a desirable end. Therefore, the distrustful aspect gets in when competition gets stiff yet everyone wants to get to win. Although cryptographic setting is more of multiparty interaction than the game theory which is more of two parties both have a common point that drives their business with the involved parties and that is wining against an opponent.
In conclusion, it is notable that the cryptography and game theory can blend so well in providing the protection required by the participants in a game or a hard decision that needs participants to choose an option that will in turn give them a desired end result. In addition, cryptography gaming theory can be used by parties to monitor the moves of their opponents so as they may get prepared to counterattack or protect themselves against losing to their opponents. It is therefore important to acknowledge that cryptography is a very good invention and if put into practice it could bear good results.
Peng, C., Tian, Y., Liu, H., & Ding, H. (2017). A Survey on the Intersection of Cryptography and Game Theory. Journal of Cryptologic Research, 4(1), 1-15.
Pass, R. (2016). Cryptography and game theory. Securty and Cryptography for Networks.
Wattenhofer, R., & Förster, K. T. (2017). Cryptography Basics. In Distributed Ledger Technology (pp. 49-70). Inverted Forest Publishing.
Killian, J. (2006). Secure Computation. Cryptography Tutorial, http://www. cs. rutgers. edu/˜ jkilian/lectures, downloaded from the Internet on Feb, 27.
Kol, G., & Naor, M. (2008, March). Cryptography and game theory: Designing protocols for exchanging information. In Theory of Cryptography Conference (pp. 320-339). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Dodis, Y., & Rabin, T. (2007). Cryptography and game theory. Algorithmic Game Theory, 181-207.
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