Communication Skills ( Writing a 130 word response for three questions)

Cardon addresses interpersonal communication and emotional intelligence in Chapter 2 of your textbook. Everyone should be mindful of the difficulties that are often present when communicating with others, whether family members, friends, co-workers, etc. After studying this chapter, complete the following:
Describe ways to ensure civility when communicating in the workplace.
Discuss your interpretation of “soft skills” that employers desire. Research this topic if you are not familiar with it.
List and explain the four (4) domains of Emotional Intelligence.
EACH TOPIC ABOVE REQUIRES A MINIMUM OF 125 WORDS. I HAVE ATTACHED A PP THAT CAN BE HELPFUL IN ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS. SEE PAGE 17 18 FOR QUESTION 3.
writingcommunication
ATTACHED FILE(S)
Chapter 2
Interpersonal Communication and Emotional Intelligence
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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
Learning Objective 2.1: Describe the interpersonal communication process and barriers to effective communication.
Learning Objective 2.2: Explain how emotional hijacking can hinder effective interpersonal communication.
Learning Objective 2.3: Explain how self-awareness impacts the communication process.
Learning Objective 2.4: Describe how self-management impacts the communication process.
Learning Objective 2.5: Explain and evaluate the process of active listening.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
LO2.1 Describe the interpersonal communication process and barriers to effective communication.
LO2.2 Explain how emotional hijacking can hinder effective interpersonal communication.
LO2.3 Explain how self-awareness impacts the communication process.
LO2.4 Describe how self-management impacts the communication process.
LO2.5 Explain and evaluate the process of active listening.
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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
Learning Objective 2.6: Describe and demonstrate effective questions for enhancing listening and learning.
Learning Objective 2.7: Explain strategies to sight-read the nonverbal communication of others.
Learning Objective 2.8: Identify common communication preferences based on motivational values.
Learning Objective 2.9: Explain how extroversion-introversion impacts interpersonal communication.
Learning Objective 2.10: Explain the role of civility in effective interpersonal communication and the common types of incivility in the workplace.
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LO2.6 Describe and demonstrate effective questions for enhancing listening and learning.
LO2.7 Explain strategies to sight-read the nonverbal communication of others.
LO2.8 Identify common communication preferences based on motivational values.
LO2.9 Explain how extroversion-introversion impacts interpersonal communication.
LO2.10 Explain the role of civility in effective interpersonal communication and the common types of incivility in the workplace.
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Chapter Overview
Communication process and barriers to communication
Emotional hijacking and self-awareness
Impacts of self-management
Empathy—Active listening, barriers to listening, asking questions, avoiding the traps of empathy, sight-reading nonverbal communication
Relationship management—Communication preferences and the impact of introversion-extroversion
Maintaining civil communication
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This chapter covers the following topics: communication process and barriers to communication; emotional hijacking and self-awareness; impacts of self-management; empathy, including active listening, barriers to listening, asking questions, avoiding the traps of empathy, and sight-reading nonverbal communication; relationship management, including communication preferences and the impact of introversion-extroversion; and maintaining civil communication.
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Table 2.1 Skills That Determine Success
Skills Percentage
1. Skill in dealing with people 87
2. Critical-thinking skills 84
3. Basic use of computers 65
4.Writing ability 57
5. Basic mathematics 56
6. Advanced use of computers 44
7. Physical strength 33
8. Scientific knowledge 27
9. Advanced mathematics 23
10. Artistic skill 23
11. Knowledge of history 19
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In nearly any poll of skills needed for career success, employees identify interpersonal skills as the most important. For example, consider the results of a recent Gallup poll of working adults, depicted in Table 2.1. More than any other item in the survey, respondents recognized “skill in dealing with people” as the most critical.
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Understanding the Interpersonal Communication Process (1 of 5)
Task 1
Overcome barriers to communication.
Task 2
Manage emotions to engage in constructive communication.
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To engage in effective interpersonal communication, focus on the following two tasks:
Task 1 Overcome barriers to communication.
Task 2 Manage emotions to engage in constructive communication.
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Understanding the Interpersonal Communication Process (2 of 5)
Interpersonal communication process
The process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people
Involves the exchange of simultaneous and mutual messages to share and negotiate meaning between those involved
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We often take the interpersonal communication process for granted, rarely thinking about its building blocks and how they influence the quality of our communications. However, consciously becoming aware of these basic elements can help you improve your interpersonal communications skills and work more effectively with others. The interpersonal communication process is the process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people. It involves the exchange of simultaneous and mutual messages to share and negotiate meaning between those involved.
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Figure 2.1 The Interpersonal Communication Process
Jump to Appendix 1 long image description
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The interpersonal communication process, depicted in Figure 2.1, is the process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages between two or more people.
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Understanding the Interpersonal Communication Process (3 of 5)
Meaning
Refers to the thoughts and feelings that people intend to communicate to one another
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Each person involved in interpersonal communication is both encoding and decoding meaning. Meaning refers to the thoughts and feelings that people intend to communicate to one another.
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Understanding the Interpersonal Communication Process (4 of 5)
Encoding
The process of converting meaning into messages composed of words and nonverbal signals
Decoding
The process of interpreting messages from others into meaning
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Encoding is the process of converting meaning into messages composed of words and nonverbal signals. Decoding is the process of interpreting messages from others into meaning. In the interpersonal communication process, communicators encode and send messages at the same time that they also receive and decode messages.
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Understanding the Interpersonal Communication Process (5 of 5)
One goal of interpersonal communication is to arrive at shared meaning.
Shared meaning
A situation in which people involved in interpersonal communication attain the same understanding about ideas, thoughts, and feelings
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One goal of interpersonal communication is to arrive at shared meaning—a situation in which people involved in interpersonal communication attain the same understanding about ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
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Barriers to Shared Meaning (1 of 2)
External noise
Internal noise
Lifetime experiences
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In practice, many barriers interfere with achieving shared meaning, including external noise, internal noise, and lifetime experiences. Noise causes distortion to or interruption of messages. Four types of noise affect the quality of message delivery: physical noise, physiological noise, semantic noise, and psychological noise. Physical noise is external noise. The other three types of noise are distortions or interruptions of messages that are caused by internal characteristics of communicators.
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Noise (1 of 2)
Physical noise
External noise that makes a message difficult to hear or otherwise receive
Physiological noise
Refers to disruption due to physiological factors
Includes illness, hearing problems, and memory loss
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Physical noise is external noise that makes a message difficult to hear or otherwise receive. Examples include loud sounds nearby that interrupt verbal signals or physical barriers that prevent communicators from observing nonverbal signals. Physical noise can also be a function of the medium used. A poor signal for a phone conversation and blurry video feed for a teleconference are examples of physical noise.
Physiological noise refers to disruption due to physiological factors. Examples include hearing problems, illness, memory loss, and so on. Conversely, a communicator may have a difficult time sending a message due to physiological constraints such as stuttering, sickness, or other temporary or permanent impairments.
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Noise (2 of 2)
Semantic noise
Occurs when communicators apply different meanings to the same words or phrases
Psychological noise
Refers to interference due to attitudes, ideas, and emotions experienced during an interpersonal interaction
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Semantic noise occurs when communicators apply different meanings to the same words or phrases. For example, two people may have different ideas about what an acceptable profit margin means. One manager may have a figure in mind, such as 10 percent. Another may think of a range between 20 and 30 percent. Semantic noise can be most difficult to overcome when strong emotions are attached to words or phrases.
Psychological noise refers to interference due to attitudes, ideas, and emotions experienced during an interpersonal interaction. In many cases, this noise occurs due to the current conversation—the people involved or the content. The demanding impacts of day-to-day business can create psychological noise for many reasons.
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Barriers to Shared Meaning (2 of 2)
Filter of lifetime experiences
An accumulation of knowledge, values, expectations, and attitudes based on prior personal experiences
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All outgoing messages are encoded and all incoming messages are decoded through a filter of lifetime experiences. This filter is an accumulation of knowledge, values, expectations, and attitudes based on prior personal experiences. When people have more shared experiences, communication is easier. However, people who grew up in different communities or cultures and at different times, who have different educational backgrounds, and who have worked in different industries are far more likely to filter incoming messages differently. As a result, they are more likely to encounter noise and are less equipped to deal with the noise.
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Emotional Hijacking (1 of 2)
Emotional intelligence
Involves understanding emotions, managing emotions to serve goals, empathizing with others, and effectively handling relationships with others
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The ability to manage effective interpersonal communication depends on emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence involves understanding emotions, managing emotions to serve goals, empathizing with others, and effectively handling relationships with others. Business managers with high emotional intelligence are more effective at influencing others, overcoming conflict, showing leadership, collaborating in teams, and managing change. Furthermore, research has shown emotional intelligence leads to better outcomes in business reasoning and strategic thinking. You may see emotional intelligence referred to as EQ, which stands for emotional quotient, a play on the term IQ, intelligence quotient.
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Emotional Hijacking (2 of 2)
Emotional hijacking
A situation in which emotions control our behavior causing us to react without thinking
Jump to Appendix 2 long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The primary reason that emotional intelligence is so critical is physiological: People are hardwired to experience emotions before reason. All signals to the brain first go through the limbic system, where emotions are produced, before going to the rational area of the brain (see Figure 2.3).
People may experience emotional hijacking, a situation in which emotions control our behavior causing us to react without thinking. The impacts of emotions last long after they’ve subsided. Emotional hijacking prevents you from engaging in effective interpersonal communication. It can lead to unwanted behaviors.
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Domains of Emotional Intelligence
Self-awareness
Self-management
Empathy
Relationship management
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The most-used EQ test for business professionals shows that emotional intelligence can be divided into four domains: self-awareness, self-management, empathy, and relationship management. Strategies exist for improving your emotional intelligence in each of these domains to achieve more effective interpersonal communication in the workplace.
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Self-Awareness
Self-awareness
The foundation for emotional intelligence
Involves accurately understanding your emotions as they occur and how they affect you
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Self-awareness is the foundation for emotional intelligence. It involves accurately understanding your emotions as they occur and how they affect you. One prominent researcher defines self-awareness as “ongoing attention to one’s internal states.” People high in self-awareness understand their emotions well, what satisfies them, and what irritates them. Understanding your emotions as they occur is not always easy. In fact, research indicates that just 36 percent of people can accurately identify their emotions as they occur.
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Table 2.2 Low versus High Self-Awareness Thoughts (1 of 2)
Low Self-Awareness Thoughts
Jeff: Latisha needs to learn how to trust people. She’s not being fair to me and she needs to understand the constraints I’m facing. Jeff ignores and deflects his feelings to focus on what he perceives as Latisha’s misperceptions.
High Self-Awareness Thoughts
Jeff: I’m bothered that she doesn’t trust my motives. Typically, I feel disrespected when others don’t trust my motives. Sometimes, I lash out in these circumstances.
Jeff recognizes that he feels distrusted and disrespected by what Latisha said. He also recognizes that he often says things he later regrets in these situations.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2.2 shows differences in low versus high self-awareness in the encounter between Jeff and Latisha.
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Table 2.2 Low versus High Self-Awareness Thoughts (2 of 2)
Low Self-Awareness Thoughts
Latisha: This is ridiculous. Jeff promised me that I’d be working on the health care initiative. How can he go back on his word so quickly? Latisha overreacts to Jeff’s words and actions because she is not aware of how past disappointments are affecting how she is judging Jeff.
High Self-Awareness Thoughts
Latisha: I feel afraid and confused. Jeff doesn’t seem to care if I have challenging work. I’ve felt this way before at other jobs. I wonder how my past experiences are impacting how I’m judging Jeff.
Latisha notices that how she feels about Jeff is affected by previous, similar events. She knows she should be careful not to let those events make her rush to judgment.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2.2 shows differences in low versus high self-awareness in the encounter between Jeff and Latisha.
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Self-Management
Self-management
The “ability to use awareness of your emotions to stay flexible and to direct your behavior positively”
Involves the discipline to hold off on current urges to meet long-term intentions
Involves responding productively and creatively to feelings of self-doubt, worry, frustration, disappointment, and nervousness
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Self-management is the “ability to use awareness of your emotions to stay flexible and to direct your behavior positively.” It involves the discipline to hold off on current urges to meet long-term intentions. Excellent self-managers know how to use both positive and negative emotions to meet personal and business goals. Self-management involves far more than corralling anger. It involves responding productively and creatively to feelings of self-doubt, worry, frustration, disappointment, and nervousness. It also includes tempering oneself when experiencing excitement and elation.
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Table 2.4 Low versus High Self-Management Thoughts and the Use of Mitigating Information (1 of 2)
Low Self-Management Thoughts
Jeff: If Latisha is going to treat me like I’m the bad guy, then maybe I should just turn her over to someone else so I don’t have to worry about her. Jeff assumes the worst about Latisha’s comments, thus allowing his frustration with her to grow. He considers an action that is extreme.
High Self-Management Thoughts
Jeff: Latisha is probably reacting this way because she cares so much about a health initiative, which helps the employees of this company. She is eager to contribute.
Jeff assumes a positive explanation for Latisha’s actions (mitigating information), thus short-circuiting his feelings from frustration and perhaps moderating anger.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
People can quickly control moderate negative emotions. For example, an individual who tries to understand mitigating information can short-circuit moderate anger almost immediately. Mitigating information involves favorable explanations for why others have behaved in a certain way. See Table 2.4 for examples of low versus high self-management and the use of mitigating information.
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Table 2.4 Low versus High Self-Management Thoughts and the Use of Mitigating Information (2 of 2)
Low Self-Management Thoughts
Latisha: There’s no way I can change anything. Jeff will assign me to another project and that’s that. I’m stuck in another dead-end internship. This thought process reflects pessimism. Latisha neither thinks of other options available to her for the health initiative nor assumes that other work tasks will provide her with rewarding challenges.
High Self-Management Thoughts
Latisha: I want to express to Jeff my desire to work on a meaningful project. We can discuss how my approach to the health initiative could be applied to another project. And we could discuss how I can still spend some time working on the health initiative in the planning process–in a way that does not require cash commitments during this budget crunch.
This thought process reflects optimism. Latisha considers how she can approach Jeff and constructively discuss options that are good for her and the company.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
People can quickly control moderate negative emotions. For example, an individual who tries to understand mitigating information can short-circuit moderate anger almost immediately. Mitigating information involves favorable explanations for why others have behaved in a certain way. See Table 2.4 for examples of low versus high self-management and the use of mitigating information.
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Empathy
Empathy
The “ability to accurately pick up on emotions in other people and understand what is really going on with them”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Empathy is the “ability to accurately pick up on emotions in other people and understand what is really going on with them.” Empathy also includes the desire to help others develop in their work responsibilities and career objectives.
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Active Listening
Active listening
“A person’s willingness and ability to hear and understand”
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Michael Hoppe of the Center for Creative Leadership has defined active listening as “a person’s willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind.… It involves bringing about and finding common ground, connecting to each other, and opening up new possibilities.” Hoppe breaks down active listening into six skills: (1) paying attention, (2) holding judgment, (3) reflecting, (4) clarifying, (5) summarizing, and (6) sharing.
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Paying Attention
This step of active listening involves devoting your whole attention to others and allowing them enough comfort and time to express themselves completely.
As others speak to you, try to understand everything they say from their perspective.
Paying attention requires active nonverbal communication.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
This first step involves devoting your whole attention to others and allowing them enough comfort and time to express themselves completely. As others speak to you, try to understand everything they say from their perspective. Paying attention requires active nonverbal communication. Your body language, including appropriate eye contact, should show you are eager to understand the other person. Lean forward. Keep an open body position. Sit up straight. Nod to show you are listening. Smile as appropriate. Pay attention to the speaker’s nonverbal behaviors. Avoid any distractions. Become comfortable with silence.
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Holding Judgment (1 of 4)
People will share their ideas and feelings with you only if they feel safe.
Holding judgment is particularly important in tense and emotionally charged situations.
One of the best ways to make others feel comfortable is to demonstrate a learner mind-set rather than a judger mind-set.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
People will share their ideas and feelings with you only if they feel safe. Holding judgment is particularly important in tense and emotionally charged situations. One of the best ways to make others feel comfortable expressing themselves fully is to demonstrate a learner mind-set rather than a judger mind-set. Holding judgment does not mean that you agree with everything you hear. It also does not mean you avoid critiquing the ideas of others. Rather, it’s a commitment to hearing the entire version of others’ ideas and experiences. It’s a commitment to listen fully before reacting. And, it’s a mind-set of rewarding others for opening up, especially when you disagree with them.
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Holding Judgment (2 of 4)
Learner mind-set
You show eagerness to hear others’ ideas and perspectives and listen with an open mind.
You do not have your mind made up before listening fully.
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In a learner mind-set, you show eagerness to hear others’ ideas and perspectives and listen with an open mind. You do not have your mind made up before listening fully. When you disagree, you stay open to the possibility of finding common ground and mutually beneficial solutions. Under the learner mind-set, difference of opinion is considered normal, even healthy, and potentially solution producing.
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Holding Judgment (3 of 4)
Judger mind-set
People have their minds made up before listening carefully to others’ ideas, perspective, and experiences.
Judgers view disagreement rigidly, with little possibility of finding common ground.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In a judger mind-set, people have their minds made up before listening carefully to others’ ideas, perspective, and experiences. Judgers view disagreement rigidly, with little possibility of finding common ground unless the other person changes his or her views. Judging often involves punishing others for disagreement. At its extreme, the judger mind-set involves ascribing negative traits to others and labeling them in undesirable terms.
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Holding Judgment (4 of 4)
Learner statements
Show your commitment to hearing people out
Judger statements
Show you are closed off to hearing people out
Shut down honest conversations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
You can create an environment in which others open up and you can listen more effectively with learner statements, which show your commitment to hearing people out. In effective learner statements, you explicitly state your desire to hear differing opinions with statements such as “I have a different perspective, so I want to understand how you see this.” By contrast, people who make judger statements, which show they are closed off to hearing people out, shut down honest conversations.
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Table 2.6 Judger Statements vs. Learner Statements (1 of 2)
Judger Statements
Lisa: You’re basing your conclusions on just a few people you’ve talked to. Why aren’t you concerned about finding out more about the costs? This statement implies Jeff is not concerned about costs and isn’t open to learning more. This will likely lead to defensiveness.
Learner Statements
Lisa: I don’t know much about continuous feedback systems. What have you learned from the people you’ve talked to?
This statement is neutral and shows a desire to learn about Jeff’s experiences and thoughts. This positions Lisa well to ask tough questions later on in a constructive manner.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Notice the distinctions between judger statements and learner statements in this conversation in Table 2.6.
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Table 2.6 Judger Statements vs. Learner Statements (2 of 2)
Judger Statements
Jeff: I spend a lot of time talking to HR directors and know which ones are best at helping their employees stay engaged and productive. Don’t you think HR professionals would know more about this than people with a finance background? This statement begins with an I’m right, you’re wrong message. It directly calls into question the competence of the listener. Many listeners would become defensive.
Learner Statements
Jeff: I’ve learned several things from HR directors about continuous feedback systems….I need to learn more about the financial implications. Based on what I’ve told you, what are your thoughts about the cost-effectiveness?
This statement reflects a learning stance and shows a cooperative approach moving forward.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Notice the distinctions between judger statements and learner statements in this conversation in Table 2.6.
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Reflecting
Active listening requires that you reflect on the ideas and emotions of others.
To make sure you really understand others, you should frequently paraphrase what you’re hearing.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Active listening requires that you reflect on the ideas and emotions of others. To make sure you really understand others, you should frequently paraphrase what you’re hearing.
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Table 2.7 Reflecting Statements
Types of Effective Reflecting Statements
Examples
It sounds to me like…
Lisa: It sounds to me like you think we should replace annual performance reviews with continuous performance reviews because continuous reviews improve employee performance and morale.
So, you’re not happy with… Jeff: So, you’re not happy with this transition unless we carefully evaluate all of the costs, is that right?
Is it fair to say that you think… Lisa: Is it fair to say that you think we should make this change even if we don’t know all the costs?
Let me make sure I understand… Jeff: Let me make sure I understand your view. Are you saying that we can understand the costs better by…?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
As Table 2.7 shows, good reflecting statements begin with phrases such as, “It sounds to me like…”; “So, you’re not happy with…”; or “Let me make sure I understand.…”
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Clarifying
Clarifying involves making sure you have a clear understanding of what others mean.
It includes double-checking that you understand the perspectives of others and asking them to elaborate and qualify their thoughts.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Clarifying involves making sure you have a clear understanding of what others mean. It includes double-checking that you understand the perspectives of others and asking them to elaborate and qualify their thoughts. It is more than simply paraphrasing. It involves trying to connect the thoughts of others so you can better understand how they are making conclusions.
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Table 2.8 Clarifying Statements
Types of Effective Clarifying Statements
Example
What are your thoughts on…?
Lisa: What are your thoughts on considering other ways of conducting annual reviews more effectively?
Could you repeat that? Jeff: Could you repeat what you just said about evaluating the costs of continuous reviews?
I’m not sure I understand… Lisa: I’m not sure I understand why the problems with our current annual review process mean that we should move away from annual reviews. Do you know of companies that are using annual reviews more effectively than we are?
Could you explain how…? Jeff: Could you explain how you would calculate the costs of a continuous review system?
What might be your role in…? Lisa: What roles will Steve and Lisa have in helping us understand what employees think of the current review process?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
As Table 2.8 shows, good clarifying questions are open-ended and start with learner-oriented phrases such as, “What are your thoughts on…?” or “Could you explain how…?”
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Summarizing and Sharing
The goal of summarizing is to restate major themes so that you can make sense of the big issues from the perspective of the other person
Active listening also involves expressing your own perspectives and feelings.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
The goal of summarizing is to restate major themes so that you can make sense of the big issues from the perspective of the other person. Ideally, you can show that you understand the major direction of the conversation.
Active listening also involves expressing your own perspectives and feelings. If you do not share your own ideas completely, your colleagues do not know what you really think. This is not fair to them or to you. It is even arguably dishonest.
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Table 2.9 Summarizing Statements
Types of Effective Summarizing Statements Example
So, your main concern is…
Jeff: So, your two main concerns are that moving to a continuous review process will be costly and impractical. The software and time needed in the process will cost far more than what we invest in an annual review process. Also, it may be difficult to get all employees to participate often in this process. Is that right?
It sounds like your key points are… Lisa: It sounds like you have a few key points. Continuous feedback systems improve morale and performance at each of the companies you’ve learned about. Also, your contacts at these companies think evaluating the costs of the software is easy, but evaluating the costs of time invested by employees is not possible. Is that correct?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
You can summarize with statements that begin with phrases such as “So, your main concern is…” or “It sounds as though your key points are…,” as shown in Table 2.9.
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Recognizing Barriers to Effective Listening
Jump to Appendix 3 long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Active listening is not easy, especially in certain corporate cultures and in the face of time constraints. Some barriers to listening are lack of time, lack of patience and attention span, image of leadership, communication technology, fear of bad news or uncomfortable information, defending, “me too” statements, giving advice, and judging. Consider which barriers to listening are most challenging to you.
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Lack of time
Lack of patience and attention span
Image of leadership
Communication technology
Fear of bad news
Defending
“Me too” statements
Giving advice
Judging
Figure 2.4 Defensive and Non-defensive Replies
Jump to Appendix 4 long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.4 displays defensive and non-defensive replies to a potentially upsetting comment. Avoiding defensiveness requires a high level of self-awareness and self-management. It requires understanding the triggers that make you feel threatened in a professional environment. It also requires understanding how to manage these emotions so that you can maintain your roles as an active listener and a problem solver.
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Asking the Right Questions
A crucial skill is the ability to ask the right questions.
Good questions reflect the learner mind-set, and poor questions reflect a judger mind-set.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Listening involves a cluster of communication skills. A crucial one is the ability to ask the right questions. On the most fundamental level, good questions reflect the learner mind-set, and poor questions reflect a judger mind-set. The ability to ask good questions creates a culture of learning. Good questions are not good in and of themselves, however. Unless you truly listen to the answers and even encourage other perspectives and dissent, you may not achieve learning.
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Table 2.10 Questions That Reflect the Judger Mind-Set and the Learner Mind-Set
Judger Mind-Set
Learner Mind-Set
How come this doesn’t work?
How is this useful or beneficial?
Who is responsible for this mess? What can we do about this?
Why can’t you get it right? Going forward, what can we learn from this?
Can’t you try a better approach? What are you trying to accomplish?
Why don’t you focus on helping customers? How will customers react?
Are you sure this approach will really meet your goals and objectives? How well does this approach meet your goals and objectives?
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Listening involves a cluster of communication skills. A crucial one is the ability to ask the right questions. On the most fundamental level, good questions reflect the learner mind-set, and poor questions reflect a judger mind-set. The ability to ask good questions creates a culture of learning. Good questions are not good in and of themselves, however. Unless you truly listen to the answers and even encourage other perspectives and dissent, you may not achieve learning. Notice examples of questions in Table 2.10 that reflect judger mind-sets and learner mind-sets.
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Table 2.11 Types of Effective Questions (1 of 4)
Types of Questions Examples
Rapport-building
How was your trip to the human resources conference?
What did you learn about at the last Chamber of Commerce event?
These questions, when asked sincerely, provide an opportunity for asker and listener to bond through understanding one another. They also break the ice for a substantive conversation about the business issues at hand.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Generally speaking, most good questions are open-ended. In contrast, closed questions require simple responses such as yes or no. Some basic types of learning-centered questions include rapport-building questions, funnel questions, probing questions, and solution-oriented questions. See Table 2.11 for examples of each type of question.
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Table 2.11 Types of Effective Questions (2 of 4)
Types of Questions Examples
Funnel So, how do you think we should go about researching what our employees think about performance reviews?
How do you think we can capture the employees’ perspectives about continuous review systems?
What types of survey questions will help us understand their thoughts about continuous review systems?
Could you give me a word-by-word example of how you’d capture that in a survey question?
These questions progressively break down a problem into manageable pieces, starting with a large, open-ended question and moving to increasingly specific and tactical questions. Once broken into smaller pieces, the asker and listener are more likely to achieve shared meaning and move toward finding solutions.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Generally speaking, most good questions are open-ended. In contrast, closed questions require simple responses such as yes or no. Some basic types of learning-centered questions include rapport-building questions, funnel questions, probing questions, and solution-oriented questions. See Table 2.11 for examples of each type of question.
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Table 2.11 Types of Effective Questions (3 of 4)
Types of Questions Examples
Probing How often do you receive complaints about the annual performance review process?
What concerns do supervisors have?
What ideas do employees have for making the review process fairer?
Do you ever hear supervisors or employees talk about how to make the process more goal-oriented?
Other than the frequency of reviews, what are some other explanations for why employees make these complaints?
These iterations of questions about the causes, consequences, and scope of group guest complaints attempt to look at the problem from every angle. This approach is effective at identifying root causes and best solutions.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Generally speaking, most good questions are open-ended. In contrast, closed questions require simple responses such as yes or no. Some basic types of learning-centered questions include rapport-building questions, funnel questions, probing questions, and solution-oriented questions. See Table 2.11 for examples of each type of question.
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Table 2.11 Types of Effective Questions (4 of 4)
Types of Questions Examples
Solution-oriented How can we find out which software vendors offer the most attractive performance review features?
What are your ideas for ensuring that employees provide continuous feedback to one another?
What are some best practices in making performance reviews candid and honest, yet also rewarding and productive?
These questions form the basis for identifying options about how to move forward. Ideally, solution-oriented questions are open, we-oriented, and offer help to others.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Generally speaking, most good questions are open-ended. In contrast, closed questions require simple responses such as yes or no. Some basic types of learning-centered questions include rapport-building questions, funnel questions, probing questions, and solution-oriented questions. See Table 2.11 for examples of each type of question.
47
Table 2.12 Types of Counterproductive Questions (1 of 3)
Types of Questions Examples
Leading Would you agree that employee engagement and productivity should be our priorities?
I’m sure you think it’s a good idea to keep costs under control, right?
These questions are meant to lead the listener to agree with or adopt the perspective of the asker. Many listeners will resent feeling pressured into the views of others. Also, this approach will not lead to a learning conversation.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Most poor questions fall into the category of the judger mind-set and can actually lead to less listening. Poor questions include leading questions, disguised statements, and cross-examination questions. Table 2.12 provides examples.
48
Table 2.12 Types of Counterproductive Questions (2 of 3)
Types of Questions Examples
Disguised Statements Why do you insist on focusing on costs instead of benefits?
Don’t you think you’re jumping to conclusions by paying attention to the opinions of only a few of your close contacts?
These are not real questions. They are statements that say you are close-minded on this issue. This flaw-finding approach will cause many listeners to become defensive and/or avoid sharing their real thoughts. Many listeners will view disguised statements as underhanded and manipulative, since they are often attempts to get the listeners to acknowledge their own faults.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Most poor questions fall into the category of the judger mind-set and can actually lead to less listening. Poor questions include leading questions, disguised statements, and cross-examination questions. Table 2.12 provides examples.
49
Table 2.12 Types of Counterproductive Questions (3 of 3)
Types of Questions Examples
Cross-examination Just now, you said annual reviews don’t work because they don’t happen often enough. Yet, last week, you said the real reason our annual reviews fail is not because of how often they occur, but because they don’t involve setting goals. So, what’s the real reason annual reviews don’t work?
This cross-examination question will put most listeners on the defensive. It may score points for the asker, but it will move the conversation away from learning and toward a battle of messages.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Most poor questions fall into the category of the judger mind-set and can actually lead to less listening. Poor questions include leading questions, disguised statements, and cross-examination questions. Table 2.12 provides examples.
50
Avoiding the Traps of Empathy
Givers frequently help others out in the workplace; takers often accept help but infrequently reciprocate.
Some givers help others at the expense of their individual performance.
Givers perform best when they address three potential barriers to performance associated with empathy:
Timidity
Availability
Emotional concern for others
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Givers frequently help others out in the workplace, whereas takers often accept help but infrequently reciprocate. The highest performers are most often givers. Yet, the weakest performers are also most often givers. In other words, some givers manage their generosity in a way that improves their own performance and those around them while other givers help others at the expense of their individual performance.
Givers are generally motivated by empathy. They perform best when they address three potential barriers to performance associated with empathy: timidity, availability, and emotional concern for others.
51
Learning to Sight-Read
Consciously practice each day.
Pay attention to congruence.
Sight-read in clusters, not in isolation.
Sight-read in context.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
People can learn sight-reading, which David Givens of the Center for Nonverbal Studies defines as “intelligent observation [of nonverbal communications]… it is the act of anticipating intentions and moods through the perceptive examination of nonverbal cues.” Generally, you should pay close attention to nonverbal signals and attempt to decode their meanings. Yet, you should always make sure to suspend a certain level of judgment and avoid rigid conclusions. Consider the following guidelines as you develop your sight-reading:
Consciously practice each day.
Pay attention to congruence.
Sight-read in clusters, not in isolation.
Sight-read in context.
52
Relationship Management
Relationship management
The “ability to use your awareness of emotions and those of others to manage interactions successfully”
Principles for relationship management: adapting communication to the preferred styles of others and ensuring civility in the workplace
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Relationship management is the “ability to use your awareness of emotions and those of others to manage interactions successfully.” In this chapter we introduce the following principles for managing relationships effectively: adapting communication to the preferred styles of others and ensuring civility in the workplace.
53
Differences in Communication Preferences Based on Motivational Values
Many communication styles can be traced to motives and values. People have a blend of three primary motives: nurturing (identified as blue in this model), directing (identified as red), and autonomizing (identified as green).
A person’s motivational value system (MVS) is a blend of these primary motives and refers to the frequency with which these values guide their actions.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Many communication styles can be traced to motives and values. Relationship Awareness Theory explains how professionals often act and communicate differently from one another based on a fairly constant set of motives and values. People have a blend of three primary motives: nurturing (identified as blue in this model), directing (identified as red), and autonomizing (identified as green). A person’s motivational value system (MVS) is a blend of these primary motives and refers to the frequency with which these values guide their actions.
54
Motivational Value Systems (1 of 2)
Professionals with a blue MVS are most often guided by motives to protect others, help others grow, and act in the best interests of others.
Professionals with a red MVS are most often guided by concerns about organizing people, time, money, and other resources to accomplish results.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Professionals with a blue MVS are most often guided by motives to protect others, help others grow, and act in the best interests of others. About 30 percent of business managers are strongly aligned with blue motivations. Professionals with a red MVS are most often guided by concerns about organizing people, time, money, and other resources to accomplish results. About 46 percent of business managers are strongly aligned with red motivations.
55
Motivational Value Systems (2 of 2)
Professionals with a green MVS are most often concerned about making sure business activities have been thought out carefully and that the right processes are put into place to accomplish things.
Hubs are professionals who are guided almost equally by all three of these MVSs.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Professionals with a green MVS are most often concerned about making sure business activities have been thought out carefully and that the right processes are put into place to accomplish things. About 16 percent of business managers are strongly aligned with green motivations. Hubs are professionals who are guided almost equally by all three of these MVSs. Among business professionals, roughly 43 percent are hubs.
56
Table 2.13 Motivational Value Systems (1 of 4)
Blues(Altruistic and Nurturing)
Primary concerns Protection, growth, and welfare of others
Preferred work environment Open, friendly, helpful, considerate; being needed and appreciated; ensuring others reach their potential
People feel best when… Helping others in a way that benefits them
People feel most rewarded when… Being a warm and friendly person who is deserving of appreciation for giving help
People want to avoid being perceived as… Selfish, cold, unfeeling
Triggers of conflict When others compete and take advantage; are cold and unfriendly; are slow to recognize helpful efforts on their behalf
Overdone strengths Trusting, gullible; devoted, subservient; caring, submissive
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In Table 2.13 you can see how blues, reds, greens, and hubs differ in various ways. Take several minutes to view this table and see how people with these MVSs differ as far as what they prefer in work environments, what makes them feel satisfied and rewarded, what triggers conflict for them, and how their overdone strengths may be perceived as weaknesses. Think about which style best matches you. You might also think about which style you clash with the most.
57
Table 2.13 Motivational Value Systems (2 of 4)
Reds(Assertive and Directing)
Primary concerns Task accomplishment; use of time, money, and any other resources to achieve desired results
Preferred work environment Fast-moving, competitive, creative, progressive, innovative, verbally stimulating; potential for personal advancement and development
People feel best when… Providing leadership and direction to others
People feel most rewarded when… Acting with strength and ambition, achieving excellence, and leading and directing others
People want to avoid being perceived as… Gullible, indecisive, unable to act
Triggers of conflict When others are too forgiving and don’t fight back; don’t provide clear expectations about rewards
Overdone strengths Confident, arrogant; persuasive, abrasive; competitive, combative
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In Table 2.13 you can see how blues, reds, greens, and hubs differ in various ways. Take several minutes to view this table and see how people with these MVSs differ as far as what they prefer in work environments, what makes them feel satisfied and rewarded, what triggers conflict for them, and how their overdone strengths may be perceived as weaknesses. Think about which style best matches you. You might also think about which style you clash with the most.
58
Table 2.13 Motivational Value Systems (3 of 4)
Greens (Analytical and Autonomizing)
Primary concerns Assurance that things have been properly thought out; meaningful order being established; self-reliance and self-dependence
Preferred work environment Clarity, logic, precision, efficiency, organization; focus on self-reliance and effective use of resources; time to explore options
People feel best when… Pursuing their own interests without needing to rely on others
People feel most rewarded when… Working with others in a fair, clear, logical, and rational manner
People want to avoid being perceived as… Overly emotional, exploitive of others
Triggers of conflict When others don’t take issues seriously; push their help on them; do not weigh all the facts when making a decision
Overdone strengths Fair, unfeeling; analytical, nit-picking; methodical, rigid
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In Table 2.13 you can see how blues, reds, greens, and hubs differ in various ways. Take several minutes to view this table and see how people with these MVSs differ as far as what they prefer in work environments, what makes them feel satisfied and rewarded, what triggers conflict for them, and how their overdone strengths may be perceived as weaknesses. Think about which style best matches you. You might also think about which style you clash with the most.
59
Table 2.13 Motivational Value Systems (4 of 4)
Hubs (Flexible and Cohering)
Primary concerns Flexibility; welfare of the group; sense of belonging in the group
Preferred work environment Friendly, flexible, social, fun; consensus-building; encouraging interaction
People feel best when… Coordinating efforts with others in a common undertaking
People feel most rewarded when… Being a good team member who can be loyal, direct when necessary, and knows when to follow rules
People want to avoid being perceived as… Subservient to others, domineering, isolated
Triggers of conflict When others are not willing to consider alternatives; insist on one way of doing things; restrict ability to stay flexible and open to options
Overdone strengths Flexible, wishy-washy; option-oriented, indecisive; tolerant, uncaring
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In Table 2.13 you can see how blues, reds, greens, and hubs differ in various ways. Take several minutes to view this table and see how people with these MVSs differ as far as what they prefer in work environments, what makes them feel satisfied and rewarded, what triggers conflict for them, and how their overdone strengths may be perceived as weaknesses. Think about which style best matches you. You might also think about which style you clash with the most.
60
Table 2.14 Words and Phrases that Resonate with Professionals of Various MVSs
MVS Verbs Nouns Modifiers Phrases
Blues Feel, appreciate, care, help, thank, include, support Satisfaction, well-being, people, cooperation Thoughtful, loyal, sincere, respectful, maybe Serve everyone’s best interests, look out for everyone
Reds Compete, win, lead, challenge, dominate Achievement, results, success, performance, goals, advantage Challenging, rewarding, passionate, definitely, quickly Make it happen, take charge, go for it
Greens Think, analyze, evaluate, identify, organize Process, principles, standard, schedules, accountability, details Fair, careful, accurate, objective, correct, efficient, risky Take our time, get it right, make sure it’s fair
Hubs Brainstorm, decide together, play, experiment, meet Options, flexibility, teamwork, fun, consensus, compromise Balanced, open, flexible, friendly, inclusive, committed Let’s work together, let’s try this out
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In Table 2.14 you can see some of the words that resonate most with various MVSs. Of course, all people use these words at times. But, you will often be able to recognize others’ motivational values by noting how often they use these and synonymous words and phrases.
61
Figure 2.5 A Conversation between a Hub and a Green
Jump to Appendix 5 long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figures 2.5 and 2.6 contain two brief conversations, which are somewhat simplified due to space. The conversations demonstrate some common differences between reds, blues, greens, and hubs. In the first conversation, Jeff, a hub, talks with Lisa, a green. Jeff talks with Lisa about transitioning from annual performance reviews to continuous performance reviews. One of Jeff’s strengths as a hub is flexibility. Yet, Lisa views him as wishy-washy and indecisive in this case because he appears too flexible in making a decision. One of Lisa’s strengths as a green is her careful analysis and caution. Yet, Jeff perceives her as nit picking and rigid when he presents an idea he’s enthusiastic about.
62
Figure 2.6 A Conversation between a Red and a Blue
Jump to Appendix 6 long image description
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In the next conversation (Figure 2.6), Latisha and Steve talk about setting up an online survey to get input from employees about performance review systems. One of Latisha’s strengths as a blue is her ability to think about the needs and feelings of others. Yet, in this case Steve views her as lacking in initiative and being subservient to others. Two of Steve’s strengths as a red are his focus on action and his desire to lead positive change. Yet, in this case Latisha perceives him as combative and bossy.
63
Differences in Communication Preferences Based on Extroversion-Introversion
Introverts
Tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from their own thoughts, feelings, and moods
Extroverts
Tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from external sources such as social interaction
©McGraw-Hill Education.
One element of personality that plays a major role in workplace communication is professionals’ level of extroversion-introversion. Generally, introverts tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from their own thoughts, feelings, and moods. Extroverts tend to get much of their stimulation and energy from external sources such as social interaction. Whereas most introverts need time to recharge after social interactions, extroverts thrive on social interactions and feel more energized.
64
Table 2.15 Strengths of Introverted and Extroverted Professionals (1 of 2)
Strengths of IntrovertedProfessionals
Asking thoughtful and important questions
Listening to the ideas of others
Giving people space to innovate
Developing insights to deal with uncertain situations
Improving the listening environment in meetings
Networking among close-knit professional groups
Making lasting impressions in social tasks that require persistence
Taking time to reflect carefully
Providing objective analysis and advice
Excelling in situations requiring discipline
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2.15 shows some of the strengths of introverts and extroverts. Consider how people can accomplish much more by uniting these strengths.
65
Table 2.15 Strengths of Introverted and Extroverted Professionals (2 of 2)
Strengths of Extroverted Professionals
Stating views directly and charismatically
Gaining the support of others
Organizing people to innovate
Inspiring confidence in uncertain situations
Driving important conversations at meetings
Networking at large social events with potential clients and other contacts
Making strong first impressions that often lead to future partnerships
Acting quickly to gain advantages
Acting pragmatically in the absence of reliable information
Excelling in competitive situations
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 2.15 shows some of the strengths of introverts and extroverts. Consider how people can accomplish much more by uniting these strengths.
66
Incivility in Society and the Workplace (1 of 2)
A recent survey showed that incivility is common in the workplace:
Nearly four in ten respondents (39 percent) said they have colleagues who are rude or disrespectful.
More than three in ten respondents (31 percent) said that their workplace supervisors are rude or disrespectful.
About 30 percent of respondents said they often experienced rudeness at the workplace.
Another 38 percent said they sometimes experienced rudeness at the workplace.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
In the interactions among colleagues in the workplace, incivility is common. Nearly four in ten respondents (39 percent) said they have colleagues who are rude or disrespectful. More than three in ten respondents (31 percent) said that their workplace supervisors are rude or disrespectful. About 30 percent of respondents said they often experienced rudeness at the workplace, and another 38 percent said they sometimes experienced rudeness in the workplace. The majority of respondents admitted that they are rude themselves; 61 percent agreed with the statement, “I’m so busy and pressed for time that I’m not as polite as I should be, and I feel sorry about it later on.” As the researchers of this study concluded, “Few people can count on being consistently treated with respect and courtesy as they go about their daily lives. The cumulative social costs—in terms of mistrust, anger, and even rage—are all too real to ignore.”
67
Incivility in Society and the Workplace (2 of 2)
Employees who are targets of incivility respond in the following ways:
Half lose work time worrying about future interactions with instigators of incivility.
Half contemplate changing jobs.
One-fourth intentionally cut back work efforts.
Approximately 70 percent tell friends, family, and colleagues about their dissatisfaction.
About one in eight leave their jobs.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Incivility erodes organizational culture and can escalate into conflict. It lowers individuals’ productivity, performance, motivation, creativity, and helping behaviors. It also leads to declines in job satisfaction, organizational loyalty, and leadership impact. Employees who are targets of incivility respond in the following ways:
Half lose work time worrying about future interactions with instigators of incivility.
Half contemplate changing jobs.
One-fourth intentionally cut back work efforts.
Approximately 70 percent tell friends, family, and colleagues about their dissatisfaction.
About one in eight leave their jobs: turnover expense per job is estimated at $50,000.
68
Common Types of Incivility in the Workplace
Ignoring others
Treating others without courtesy
Disrespecting the efforts of others
Disrespecting the privacy of others
Disrespecting the dignity and worth of others
©McGraw-Hill Education.
People show disrespect and rudeness to others in almost limitless ways. Generally, incivility occurs when a person ignores others, fails to display basic courtesies, fails to recognize the efforts of others, fails to respect the time and privacy of others, and fails to recognize the basic worth and dignity of others. Think about whether you have witnessed or engaged in some of these types of incivility. These actions make people feel undervalued and unwelcome. They also lead to less collegiality and cooperation among co-workers.
69
Maintaining Civil Communications
Slow down and be present in life.
Listen to the voice of empathy.
Keep a positive attitude.
Respect others and grant them plenty of validation.
Disagree graciously and refrain from arguing.
Get to know people around you.
Pay attention to small things.
Ask, don’t tell.
©McGraw-Hill Education.
P. M. Forni, one of the leading voices on improving civility in society and the workplace, recommended eight guiding principles:
Slow down and be present in life.
Listen to the voice of empathy.
Keep a positive attitude.
Respect others and grant them plenty of validation.
Disagree graciously and refrain from arguing.
Get to know people around you.
Pay attention to small things.
Ask, don’t tell.
One of the best ways of keeping your emotional intelligence high and maintaining the habit of communicating respectfully is to get to know people around you and humanize your work. While this approach may seem time-consuming, it will help you develop the types of work relationships that make communication easier, even for difficult conversations.
70
Chapter Takeaways
Communication process and barriers to communication
Emotional intelligence and emotional hijacking
Self-awareness and self-management
Empathy—Active listening, barriers to listening, asking questions, avoiding the traps of empathy, sight-reading nonverbal communication
Relationship management—Communication preferences and the impact of introversion-extroversion
Maintaining civil communication
©McGraw-Hill Education.
After studying this chapter, you should understand the following topics: communication process and barriers to communication; emotional intelligence and emotional hijacking; self-awareness and self-management; empathy, including active listening, barriers to listening, asking questions, avoiding the traps of empathy, and sight-reading nonverbal communication; relationship management, including communication preferences and the impact of introversion-extraversion; and maintaining civil communication.
71
Image Descriptions Appendix
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.1 The Interpersonal Communication Process Appendix
Communicator A encodes and sends a message in a particular medium. This message is received and decoded by Communicator B. Communicator B responds by encoding and sending a message in a particular medium. This message is received and decoded by Communicator A, and the cycle begins again. Both Communicator A and B have internal noise they must contend with. Each communicator also sends and receives the message through the filter of their life experiences. Additionally, the message can be affected outside of each communicator by external noise.
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Emotional Hijacking (2 of 2) Appendix
Sensory signals enter through the spinal cord. They proceed to go to the limbic system, which is the emotional part of the brain. The signals then enter the rational part of the brain.
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Recognizing Barriers to Effective Listening Appendix
Lack of time
Lack of patience and attention span
Image of leadership
Communication technology
Fear of bad news
Defending
“Me too” statements
Giving advice
Judging
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.4 Defensive and Non-defensive Replies Appendix
The Original Statement: I spend a lot of time talking to HR directors and know which ones are best at helping their employees stay engaged and productive. Don’t you think HR professionals would know more about this than people with a finance background?
What the Listener Hears (Decodes): You don’t know what you’re talking about.
The Defensive Reply (Judgmental Stance): Actually, I know a lot about how performance review systems affect employees. In fact, I’m in a far better position to evaluate whether new systems make financial sense.
The Nondefensive Reply (Learning Stance): I think you’re right that we need to pay attention to what other HR directors have learned. Have they told you about the costs of these performance review systems?A second nondefensive reply is: I want to know how we can determine the costs of transitioning to a continuous review system. What have you learned from HR directors you know about evaluating these costs?
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.5 A Conversation between a Hub and a Green Appendix
The conversation proceeds in four parts.
Jeff explained, “Lisa, I’d like you, Steve, and Latisha to help work with me to implement a continuous performance review system. Our current system of annual performance reviews is really outdated.”
In this conversation, Jeff encodes: Let’s work as a team to improve our performance feedback system. Lisa decodes: Jeff is rushing to a decision too quickly and thinks I’m on board.
Lisa was silent for several seconds. “I think we need to step back and really make sure we’re making the right decision here. Have you taken the time to carefully compare annual reviews and continuous reviews? Can you share some of that information with me?”
In this conversation, Lisa encodes: This might be a good idea but let’s weigh our options first. Jeff decodes: Lisa doesn’t like this idea. I wonder what’s wrong.
Jeff was surprised Lisa wasn’t enthusiastic. After all, it was Lisa who always loved data, and continuous feedback provided more information to everyone. “Well, I think it’s a no-brainer. I’ve talked to quite a few HR directors who’ve had a lot of success with continuous performance reviews—never heard a bad thing yet. I guess we could gather some more information to make sure we’re doing the right thing. Maybe we could do an employee survey, or we could find some industry surveys of how companies are implementing performance reviews, or maybe we could even attend a conference about performance reviews and talk to people there to figure out how we should go about this. What do you think we should do at this point?”
In this conversation, Jeff encodes: I want to work with you and figure out how to move forward. Here are some additional ways of learning our options. I want your input. Lisa decodes: Jeff doesn’t really know what he wants to accomplish.
Lisa responded, “All those ideas might help. Let’s think first about our objectives for the new system and then think about some ways of gathering information to decide whether the new system meets those objectives more so than annual reviews.…”
In this conversation, Lisa encodes: Let’s be really thorough about this decision. Jeff decodes: This approach is time consuming and far too cautious.
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 2.6 A Conversation between a Red and a Blue Appendix
The conversation proceeds in four parts:
Steve: We should aim to get the survey done within the next few days. Jeff and Lisa will be really impressed if we get the results quickly. As soon as you get the questions ready and send out the link to employees, I can take over and do the statistics.
In this conversation, Steve encodes: Let’s get results quickly. Latisha decodes: Steve is being bossy and isn’t thinking about how to include the employees.
Latisha: I feel like we should include the employees first to find out what kinds of questions we should ask in the survey. Maybe we could hold a few focus groups. If the employees see us do this, they’ll feel included in the process and become more committed to our efforts.
In this conversation, Latisha encodes: First, let’s think about how to include the employees in the process. Steve decodes: Latisha needs to just take charge. That will take too long.
Steve: You don’t need to worry so much about what the employees think about us. Sending them a survey shows we’re interested in their input. If you’re not comfortable doing the questions, I can do that part of the project.
In this conversation, Steve encodes: Let’s just make this happen and not complicate the task. Latisha decodes: Steve is too assertive. He doesn’t understand you have to win people’s hearts to make changes.
Latisha: Steve, it’s in everyone’s best interests to involve the employees more in this process. They need to feel like partners with us as we gather the information.
In this conversation, Latisha encodes: We really need to involve everyone more. Steve decodes: Latisha probably doesn’t know how to create the survey questions on her own.
Return to slide
©McGraw-Hill Education.
Business Communication
Chapter 2
The End
©McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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