Chapter 12: Moral DevelopmentQUESTION 11. Evolutionary theorists believe that the human capacity to act prosocially toward nonrelatives has its roots in systems of social exchange, in which humans acted benevolently toward others with the expectation that others would do the same for them in the future. parent child relationships that are nurturing and supportive. the left hemisphere of the brain, which is responsible for emotional self-regulation, empathy, and self-sacrifice. chimpanzees and other primates, which are genetically closest to humans.5 points QUESTION 21. According to Freud s psychoanalytic theory, Jennifer s moral development will happen as she identifies with her father and adopts his moral standards. is classically conditioned to behave morally. imitates the behavior modeled by her caregivers. identifies with her mother and adopts her moral standards.5 points QUESTION 31. Which of the following scenarios illustrates induction? Wally s father models positive behavior by offering to share his snack. Virgil s mother says, When you yell at Susan, it hurts her feelings. Tabetha s mother punishes her for hitting her sister. Freddie s mother ignores him when he spills his milk.5 points QUESTION 41. Which of the following approaches is most effective for promoting conscience development among anxious, fearful children? ignoring misbehaviors combining firm correction of misbehavior with induction power assertion combined with empathy mild, patient tactics5 points QUESTION 51. Social learning theorists believe that children learn to behave morally through trial and error. cognitive maturity and peer conflict. modeling and reinforcement. punishment and withdrawal of privileges.5 points QUESTION 61. Daniel uses corporal punishment when his children misbehave. Which of the following statements about this practice is true? Corporal punishment has consistently negative outcomes. Corporal punishment is generally more effective than time out or withdrawal of privileges. More than 80 percent of American parents use corporal punishment on a regular basis. Corporal punishment is harmless and can even be beneficial.5 points QUESTION 71. In a longitudinal study focusing on physical punishment, researchers found that in __________ families, physical punishment __________. Caucasian-American; predicted adolescent aggression African-American; was seldom used as a disciplinary tactic African-American; predicted angry, aggressive behavior in adolescents Caucasian-American; predicted prosocial behavior5 points QUESTION 81. According to the cognitive-developmental approach, rather than internalizing existing rules and expectations, children develop morally through construction. ideal reciprocity. imitation. identification with the other-sex parent.5 points QUESTION 91. Research on young children s understanding of authority reveals that they only regard highly prestigious adults like doctors or engineers with unquestioning respect. regard adults with the unquestioning respect Piaget assumed. do not regard adults with the unquestioning respect Piaget assumed. regard parents, but not other adults, with unquestioning respect.5 points QUESTION 101. According to Kohlberg, the maturity of moral judgment is determined by the ________ in the Heinz dilemma. action the person chooses to take way an individual reasons content of the response legality of the action5 points QUESTION 111. Addison believes that each member of society has a personal duty to uphold the law because laws are vital for ensuring societal order and cooperation between individuals. Addison is reasoning at Kohlberg’s ________ level. preconventional postconventional concrete conventional5 points QUESTION 121. Evidence indicates that even though the morality of males and females includes both justice and care orientations, females tend to stress_________, whereas males stress ________. a universal view of morality; care, or empathetic perspective taking a higher level of justice; a universal view of care and justice a justice perspective; an empathic care perspective care, or empathic perspective taking; justice or focus equally on justice and care5 points QUESTION 131. In cultures where young people _______, moral reasoning is advanced. have more interactions with adults than children experience a prolonged transition between adolescence and adulthood participate in the institutions of their society at early ages are rewarded for prosocial behavior5 points QUESTION 141. Children who are involved with a religious community are less likely to socialize with peers outside of that community. use drugs and alcohol. reason at Kohlberg s preconventional level. report trusting relationships with parents.5 points QUESTION 151. Which of the following is associated with civic commitment that persists into adulthood? working part-time while in school participation in organized sports at school getting average or above-average grades in school participation in nonsport extracurricular activities at school5 points QUESTION 161. Which of the following actions would Terrell, a 4-year-old, judge as more wrong? burping at the table not saying please and thank you not wearing shoes stealing candy5 points QUESTION 171. Fifteen-year-old Norah s parents frequently come into her room, check her text messages, and insist that she wear no makeup until she is 18. Which of the following is likely true of Norah? She seldom challenges her parents authority in these areas. She reports greater psychological distress because of her parents interference. She reports less psychological distress because she understands that her parents are trying to protect her. She is not concerned about matters of personal choice or increasing her independence.5 points QUESTION 181. At age 4, Tarah was good at delaying gratification. As an adolescent, Tarah is likely to _____________ than adolescents who were less skilled at delay of gratification in preschool. score higher on the SAT score 10 to 20 points higher in IQ devote fewer hours to homework work fewer hours at a part-time job5 points QUESTION 191. According to Mischel, as children get older, the hot system emerges, allowing children to delay gratification for longer periods of time. becomes increasingly subordinated to the cool system. no longer predicts moral behavior. replaces the cool system.5 points QUESTION 201. When Samuel sat in Joshua s place on the bench, Joshua calmly moved him aside and sat down. Joshua was displaying __________ aggression. hostile relational proactive reactive5 points QUESTION 211. Which form of aggression is always direct? verbal relational hostile physical5 points QUESTION 221. Between ages 3 and 6, verbal aggression decreases. girls are slightly more aggressive than boys. physical aggression decreases. physical aggression increases.5 points QUESTION 231. Girls account for about one in five adolescent arrests for violence, and about 90 percent of these girls are considered impulsive and hyperactive. and these offenders show a dramatic increase in violent behavior over time. and their offenses are largely limited to simple assault. but these arrests almost always stem from joint participation with boys in violent activity.5 points QUESTION 241. When persistent adolescent delinquency begins in adolescence, it usually does not persist beyond the transition to early adulthood. should be treated with a combination of therapy and incarceration. quickly leads to violent crime, such as assault or robbery. is far more likely to lead to a life-course pattern of aggression and criminality.5 points QUESTION 251. For children exposed to ethnic and political violence, ________ is/are the best protection against lasting problems. a strong ethnic identity high IQ therapy and social skills training parental affection and reassurance
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