# Case 2: Load applied at the upper quarter (node 2)

Case 2: Load applied at the upper quarter (node 2)

Results

In case 2 we also want to find the two loads where the bat will reach its yielding point, and when it reaches its ultimate tensile strength (breaking point). First we applied a load that was 2200 lb and found that this load was very high. So then we reduced the load to approximately what we used in case 1 but that was too small. After several trials we were able to reach the points we were looking for. The model reaches the yielding point of the material (Aluminum 6061-T6) we are using when a load of 1060 lbs is applied on the bat. The main stress points for this load is shown in figure 7. Next to reach the UTS (breaking point) we had to apply a load of 1192 lbs on the model in order for it to break. The main stress points for this load is shown in figure 8. Maximum stress can be observed just over the points we have made stationary. The mesh size we used was the same as the one in case 1 with a seed size of 0.06 inches as shown in figure 9.

Figure7

Figure8

Discussion

This part is similar to part 1, in the conditions but uses a different case. In this case we will apply the load to the model on a lower point. We applied the load to a point in the upper quarter of the model as shown in Figure 2. We are investigating similar conditions as in case one. In this case we are trying to find the load required to break the bat when a load is applied to it from a different place and its yielding point. After running the model over several loads before reaching the loads we were looking for, we observed that the bat will need a higher load to break when a load is applied on this point compared to the point in case 1. However our analysis still shows the maximum stress in the same location as in case 1. The maximum stress can be observed just over our boundary conditions.

Sensitivity Analysis

The sensitivity analysis is performed by using different meshing sizes in order to generate a graph that shows a relationship between the maximum stresses and the number of elements. We used one analysis for both cases since there was no change in the model, only the point that the load is applied from was changed. After doing the sensitivity analysis we choose a seeding size of 0.06 as shown in figure 9. The sensitivity analysis graph can be seen in appendix 1.

Figure 9

Non-Finite Element Analysis

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Results & Discussion

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Future Improvements

The analysis we performed on the project used many assumptions that are not valid in real life application in order to get the results, also the project model was greatly simplified in order to make the analysis faster and simpler on Abaqus. The team suggests several improvements for the project in the future. The main improvement will be making the bat moving when the load is applied to mimic real life application in baseball games. Moreover the model we used was simplified as mentioned previously in the report, so a more precise model will also be a huge improvement to the project. Furthermore we were able to accomplish a very small mesh size due to the simplicity of our model, but if the model was improved drastically a more capable computers will be required in order to accomplish a smaller mesh in order to get a more accurate result. Also when changing the model a different mesh shape might be found more accurate. Another Improvement can be using a more complex material such as the material used in a composite bat since these bats has shown a great improvement in performance in recent years. At the end we should have analyzed the fatigue of the bat material since with continuous use it’s one of the major elements that lead to failure of material.

Conclusion

To conclude, our model mainly behaved as we expected in both cases as we observed in previous figures. Both cases acted mainly in a similar manner but case 1 needed a smaller load to reach the UTS and yielding points. The loads we applied might not be possible to reach by regular athletes. The material we are analyzing is the simplest material used in baseball bats compared to things like composite bats. Also they have a very great performance for their price, and rarely these failures are caused by high loads. Failures with these kind of bats will mostly be from fatigue due to the numbers we observed, thought we think these numbers are not precise because they are really high.

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