Careers in Education (Packback Question)

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The Six Pillars of Character – Character Counts
question
ATTACHED FILE(S)
Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum,
· Read Chapter 6: History of Schools in Education and Chapter 16: Succeeding in Your Teacher Education Program, and Beyond in yourIntroduction to Teaching: Making a Difference in Student Learningtextbook.
· Read theSix pillars of character(Links to an external site.).
· Review the background information for this week’s discussion topic in the Packback Discussion Forum Guidance section below.
· Follow the directions in thetasksection of the Packback Discussion Forum Guidance section below.
Remember, each of your submissions must meet a minimum requirement of 50 Curiosity Points to count for credit. Also, your initial discussion entry and responses will be completed through Packback which you can access by clicking the button below or through the link on the left navigation.
A bachelor’s degree in education is the first step in preparing you for a career as an elementary or secondary school teacher. You will also have to complete a state-approved educator preparation program (EPP) and pass the teacher exams require by that state.
The bachelor’s degree you will receive here at UAGCdoes nothave a teaching credential embedded. You will have to enter an alternative teacher licensure program after completing your bachelor’s degree. Do not panic; we have researched a few alternative licensure programs that you can contact to continue your journey to becoming a certified teacher. Three alternative licensure programs you can research to begin to determine a best fit for you are summarized in the following table.

Program

Information

Contact

TeacherReady

· Hold a bachelor’s degree or higher.
· Pass a standard background check.
· Program delivered online in (8 to 10 months)
· Physical student teaching required.
· Reciprocity to most states.

TeacherReady: Become a Teacher in Less Than a Year(Links to an external site.)

Teach-Now

· Hold a bachelor’s degree or higher.
· Pass a standard background check.
· Program delivered online in (9 to 12 months)
· Physical student teaching required.
· Reciprocity to most states.

Teach-Now: What Is a Teaching License and How Do I Get One?(Links to an external site.)

AmericanBoard

· Hold a bachelor’s degree or higher.
· Pass a standard background check.
· Program delivered online in (9 to 12 months).
· Pass the Professional Teaching Knowledge exam (PTK).
· Pass the ABCTE content exam.
· Direct credentials in choice of 11 states:
· Arizona
· Idaho
· Missouri
· Oklahoma
· South Carolina
· Utah
· Florida
· Mississippi
· New Hampshire
· Pennsylvania
· Tennessee
· Reciprocity to most states.

American Board: Get started today.(Links to an external site.)
If you desire to become a certified teacher, we suggest you download UAGC’sTeacher Certification Action Plan (TCAP)
Download Teacher Certification Action Plan (TCAP)and begin plotting a path to add focus and intentionality as you pursue your career goal.
What if you want to go into education but do not want to teach children? Fortunately, the training you receive as an education major can prepare you for other careers. Watch the
Careers in Education With Morgan Appel—Job Won(Links to an external site.)
video. In this video, Dr. Morgan Appel speaks about the many opportunities in the field of education other than teachers.
We have also provided some brief descriptions of careers in the education that do not fall in the traditional classroom category.
Librarian
Librarians choose materials for public, law, and business libraries, as well as for school media centers. They then instruct people to effectively use these resources which include print and online media. In general, librarians need a master’s degree in library science (MLS). To be admitted to an MLS program, you need a bachelor’s degree which can be in any subject you choose. A natural trajectory for someone with a degree in education is to specialize in school media, since some states require school media specialists to also be certified teachers. You do not have to do this, however. There is no reason you cannot choose to study another area of library science.
Writer or Editor
Writers produce material for print and online media while editors select the material that will be published. To be a writer you must be able to express yourself well verbally. Editors must be able to guide others. You can use the skills you have as a trained educator to succeed in either of these occupations. You can convey complex information and are creative. If you have expertise in a particular subject matter (e.g., science, history, etc.) you can specialize in those topics.
Manager
Managers supervise other workers in a variety of occupations. Not everyone is cut out for this career; however, those who are must be good at delegating work to others, assessing performance, giving constructive feedback, setting one’s personal feeling aside when making decisions, and saying no when necessary. As an education major, you are trained to do all those things.
Textbook and Instructional Materials Sales Representative
Textbook and instructional materials sales representatives work for publishers and book wholesalers. Education majors and teachers can utilize their subject knowledge to sell products. Additionally, experienced teachers know how school systems function and can use this knowledge to their advantage. One of the most important skill sales representatives need is the ability to establish rapport with their customers. This should not be a problem given the common background you would share with customers.
Guidance Counselor
Guidance counselors assist students with any school-related issues they have. This includes selecting classes, dealing with academic difficulties and social problems, and applying to college. A bachelor’s degree in education, particularly if that was followed by a stint working in a school, will provide you with a great background for this occupation. You will also need to earn a master’s degree in school counseling.
Instructional Coordinator
Instructional coordinators develop curricula for school systems. They help teachers develop new strategies and techniques. This career is good for someone who wants to continue to impact childrens’ education but prefers to no longer have direct contact with them by remaining in the classroom. All employers require a master’s degree in curriculum and instruction or in a related field of study. You will also need to have either a teaching license or an education administrator license depending on what the requirements are in your state.
Training and Development Specialist or Manager
Training and development specialists design and implement instructional programs for companies’ employees. Training and development managers oversee the specialists and plan, coordinate, and direct these programs. Their goal is to improve workers’ skills and knowledge, and, in turn, the workers’ and the organization’s performance. As a teacher, or as someone who has trained to become one, you have skills that can prove very beneficial in this occupation. You are obviously good at instructing people and can determine what strategies are appropriate for different situations and subjects. You also have excellent communication and time management skills. Most jobs require a bachelor’s degree, but some employers will only consider candidates who have a master’s degree. You may want to beef up your background by taking some business classes as well as courses in instructional design.
Instructional Designer
Instructional designers develop technology-based courses and other educational products. They help faculty implement instructional technology into their courses. Instructional designers often develop distance learning courses. While your training provides you with the ability to instruct others, you will need to learn how to apply your skills to the development of technology-based educational programs. There are certificate programs as well as master’s and doctorate programs in instructional design available.
Health Educator
Health educators teach people how to live healthy lifestyles. They work in elementary, middle, and high schools as well as in health care facilities. They must be adept at providing instruction and have good interpersonal and communication skills. As an education major, you already have those skills. Now all you need to do is learn about public health, which you can do by earning a master’s degree in community, public, or school health education.
Adult Literacy or GED Teacher
You may have discovered you do not want to teach children, but that does not necessarily mean you do not want to continue to be an educator. Adults also need qualified educators to teach them basic reading, writing, and math skills—often to earn their GED (General Educational Development)— or basic English language skills for those who are new to the United States. Licensing requirements for adult literacy or GED teachers vary by state. Some require, at the minimum, a bachelor’s degree in education, while you must have a master’s degree to teach in others. Many employers prefer to hire experienced job candidates but if you spent time working in a classroom with children, you will qualify.
Task
This week your task is to research and evaluate career options in the education arena that are of interest to you.
Prior to completing this discussion forum, compile a list of the information about various career options in education then invite your classmates to engage in a conversation with you and review thesix pillars of character(Links to an external site.). Post at least one question around your career interests in education..
Craft a thought-provoking question around one of the following items:
· career goals and options in education,
· pathways to becoming and educator,
· academic and credential requirements,
· how thesix pillars of character(Links to an external site.)might apply in a career choice in the education field, or
· any other intriguing question topics you may have.
The idea is for you to further the critical thinking processes of your classmates by challenging them to broaden their awareness of career options and requirements in the field of education.
CHAPTER6
HistoryofSchoolsintheUnitedStates
TeacherInterview:MarvinKuhn
MeetMarvinKuhn,ateacherof43½ yearswhojustretired.Overhiscareer, Mr.Kuhntaughtinthreeschool systemsinIndiana,spendingthelast 30yearsintheruralschoolsofRush County,southeastofIndianapolis, wherehegrewup.RushCountyisafarmingcommunitywherethe populationisoverwhelminglywhite;lessthan2%ofthePreK–12students areAfricanAmericanorMexicanAmerican.Thepercentageofstudents whoareonfreeorreduced-pricelunchintheschoolsinwhichMr.Kuhn taughtoverhiscareerhasgrownfrom10%whenhebeganteachingto 50%inthelargestelementaryschoolinthecounty.Forthelast19years, hehasservedasthesciencecoordinatorforthefiveelementaryschools inthecounty.Hecontinuedtobeclassifiedasateacherwhilehewas thecoordinatorbecausehewasalwaysworkingwiththeelementary teachersintheschoolsashemodeledhands-onscienceteachingintheir classrooms.InretirementhecontinuestoteachclassesforschoolsinRush CountyandsurroundingareasonthestarsandplanetsusingStarLab, whichisaportableplanetarium.Healsomaintainsandteachesclassesata naturecenterthathecreatedandusesasalabforelementarystudents.
Whatcanteacherslearnfromthehistoryofeducationthatwillbehelpfulintheirwork?
Interestingly,IwasnotcrazyabouthistorywhenIwasinschool,butInowloveteachinghistoryandmakingitfunforstudents.Knowingwherewehavebeencanbeveryhelpfulinlookingforward.Youshouldnotbeafraidoftryingsomethingnew,butIhavelearnedoverfourdecadesofteachingthatnoteverythingisnew.Manyteachingstrategiesthatwehavebeenexpectedtoimplementarerefinementsofmethodsdevelopedearlierinourprofession.
Whatdoesexcellenceinteachinglooklike?
Themoreenthusiasmyoushowinwhatyoudoandthemoreexcitedyouare,themoreexcitedthekidsbecome.Fromthebeginningofschooling,studentshavebeenaskedtoreadandthendiscusswhattheyreadandanswerquestions.Youneedtobemuchmorecreativethanthattoengagestudentsinthelesson.Ialsofindthathands-onactivitieshelpstudentsrememberwhatisbeingtaughtbecausetheyareactuallydoingit.Yearsafterstudentshaveleftmyclassroom,theyremindmeofahands-onactivitytheydidwhentheywereinmyclassroom.
Whatdoyoufindjoyfulaboutteaching?
Seeingthekidssucceedandseeingthemgofromnotdoingsomethingtobeingabletodosomethingandsay“lookwhatIdid.”Itisthekidsthatalwayskeptmegoingeachandeveryday.Justtoseethesmilesontheirfaces,toseetheiraccomplishments.Iwouldsay,“Thisiswhatyouneedtodo;Iwanttoseeyoudoit.”Andwhentheydid,Iwasproudofthem,andtheywereproudofthemselves.
QuestionstoConsider
1.Whataresomeofthelessonsfromhistorythatcanhelpyoureflectonyourownworkinschools?
2.Whatreformsarebeingdiscussedtodaythathavebeentriedinoneformoranotherinthepast?
3.Whataresomecreativeandhands-onstrategiesthatyoucanusetoengagestudentsinlearningandbeingexcitedaboutlearning?Whatdoweknowfromhistoryaboutthisapproachtolearning?
INTRODUCTION
LearningOutcomes
Afterreadingthischapter,youshouldbeableto
1.Identifyreasonsthatthestatesestablishedfreeanduniversaleducation.
2.Describethepracticalandpedagogicalreasonsfortheestablishmentofschoolsbytheageofchildren.
3.Listsomeofthepeopleandeventsthathavebeeninfluentialindeterminingschoolcurriculuminthenation’sschools.
4.Analyzesomeofthehistoricaleventsthathaveresultedindifferenteducationalexperiencesamongstudentsfromdiverseracialandethnicgroups.
5.Identifychangesintheprofessionallivesofteachersbetweenthe19thcenturyandnow.
Knowingthepasthelpsusplanthefuture.SincetheBostonLatinSchoolwasestablishedin1635,thenationhasadopteduniversalschoolingforallchildren,establishedapubliceducationsystem,desegregatedschools,andopenedpost-secondaryeducationtoalmostanystudentwhodesiresit.Instudyingthehistoryofeducation,wefindthatsomeeducationalpracticesappearcyclical,reappearinginadifferentformeveryfewgenerations.Movementssuchasprogressivismhavehadalastingeffectinsomeaspectsofschoolingeventhoughitfelloutoffavorasamovementbythe1950s.Reformsofschoolscomeandgoasschooladministratorsandpolicymakersstrivetofindthemagiccurriculum,teachingstrategies,andsystemthatwillensurethatstudentslearnathighlevels.
HOWDIDPUBLICSCHOOLSCOMETOBE?
TheUnitedStateshashadalonghistoryofprovidinga
freeanduniversaleducation
foritschildren.Manyhard-foughtpoliticalandlegalbattlesoverthepastfourcenturieshaveledtouniversaleducationforallstudentsregardlessoftheirrace,ethnicity,socioeconomicstatus,ornativelanguage.However,thishasnotalwaysbeenthecase.Incolonialtimesaccesstoschoolinginbasicliteracyandnumeracywasavailableonlytotheaffluent.Criticalthemesintheseearlydebateswerearoundtherightsofindividualstodecideforthemselveswhethertoattendschoolandthebasicrequirementsnecessaryforallcitizensinademocracy.
AudioLink
Listentothewaysteachinghaschangedovertheyears.
AswithmanyotheraspectsofearlysocietyintheColonies,thePuritanstransferredtheirviewsandexpectationsforeducationfromEnglandtotheUnitedStates.WhoshouldbeeducatedandthepurposesofeducationwerehottopicsacrossEuropeinthe1600s.Citizenswereaskingwhetherallchildrenshouldattendschoolandwhethergirlsaswellasboysshouldattend.Theywerealsoaskingwhatstudentsshouldlearn,howlongtheyshouldattendschool,whoshouldpay,andwhetherschoolattendanceshouldbecompulsory.
SchoolsintheColonies
Beforecommunitiesbuiltschools,childrenwereoftentaughtbywomenintheirneighborhoodswhoestablished“dameschools”intheirhomes.Mostschoolswereestablishedandcontrolledbychurches,wherereligionwastaughtalongwithreading,writing,andarithmetic.LocallycontrolledschoolswerefirstestablishedintheNewEnglandcolonieswheretheNewEnglandPrimerwasthefirstwidelyusedtextbook.ItincludedtheLord’sPrayer,theTenCommandments,andalistofthebooksofthebible.Studentswereaskedtomemorizetheprimer’s
catechism
,whichwasaseriesofquestionsandcorrectanswersthattaughttheProtestantfaith(Spring,2011).
TheMassachusettsBayColonyiscreditedwithfirstrequiringallchildrentoreceiveformaleducation.TheMassachusettsLawof1642calledforchildrentolearntoreadsotheycouldunderstandthebibleandthecountry’slaws.A1647statute,theOldDeluderSatanLaw,establishedschoolsbyrequiringtownswith50ormorefamiliestoappointateacherandcollecttaxestosupportschools.In1650,Connecticutestablisheditsownschoolstatutes.Othercolonieswereslowertoengagewiththesecoreissues,andtheSouthcontinuedtoresisttheestablishmentofschoolsforanyoneotherthanaristocrats.
AlthoughtheearlyMassachusettsandConnecticutstatutesmadereferencetotheimportanceofreadingtheScriptures,theyalsoimpliedthatthestatewouldbebetteroffwitheducatedcitizens.Thisviewhadbeenchampionedbyleadingphilosophers,scientists,andpoliticiansinEuropeforseveralcenturies.Jean-JacquesRousseau,FrancisBacon,ThomasHobbes,RenéDescartes,andJohnLockearguedinthe18thcenturythattherewasapublicinterestinhavingallcitizenseducated.Theybelievedthatcitizenshadtohaveskillsinliteracyandnumeracyforademocracytothriveandthateducationshouldbeavailabletoallchildrenandyouth(Urban&Wagoner,2009).MostleadersintheUnitedStatesagreedthatafreeanduniversaleducationwasacornerstoneofdemocracy.
AroundthetimeoftheRevolutionaryWar,theconceptofsecularschoolsemerged.Someleaderswereconcernedthatreligiouscontrolofschoolscouldlimitpoliticalfreedomandthescientificrevolution.ThomasJefferson,forone,believedthatfreedomofthoughtandbeliefswaskeytoarepublicansociety.ThisconcernledtotheadoptionoftheFirstAmendmenttotheConstitution,whichpreventstheestablishmentofastatereligion.Thefocusonfreedomofideasduringthisperiodopenedthedoortoteachingmorethanreligion,
morals
,andcivilobedience.Educationbegantobeseenasprovidingintellectualtoolsbasedonsciencethatwouldhelpcreateabettersociety(Spring,2011).
CreatingaSystemofPublicEducation
ThatthestatesshouldberesponsibleforeducationwasseenasimportantevenbeforetheConstitutionwaswritten.DuringtheRevolutionaryWar,theContinentalCongresspassedseveralordinancesrelatedtotheopeningupoflandsintheWest.TheLandOrdinanceof1785requiredeachnewstatetoformacentralgovernmentandaddresseducationasacomponentofitsfoundinglaws.ItalsorequiredeachtownshipinthenewterritoriesnorthandwestoftheOhioRivertodesignateonesection(onesquaremile)ofits36allocatedtownshipsectionsforpublicschools.TwoyearslatertheNorthwestOrdinanceencouragedtheestablishmentofschoolsbecausereligion,morality,andknowledgewerecriticalforagoodgovernment(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
WhentheU.S.Constitutionwasadoptedin1789,itmadenoreferencetoeducation.Eventhoughsomeofthefounderswantededucationtobeafederalresponsibility,theresponsibilityforeducationwasclarifiedintheTenthAmendment,whichstatesthat“(t)hepowersnotdelegatedtotheUnitedStatesbytheConstitution,norprohibitedbyittotheStates,arereservedtotheStatesrespectivelyortothepeople.”Statelegislaturesbecameresponsibleforestablishingeducationpoliciesandfinancingapubliceducationsystem.
Asthe1800sunfolded,schooldebatesfocusedonwhetherattendanceshouldbecompulsoryandhowschoolsshouldbesupportedandmanaged.Graduallyaconsensusemergedthateachstatewouldsetexpectationsforpublicschools,thattownswereresponsiblefortheoperationofschools,andthatschoolswouldbefinancedthroughtaxation.Concernsaboutthequalityandrigorofeducationacrossthestatesledtoasystemofeducationthatwassomewhatuniformintheorganizationandoperationofpublicschools.Bythe1830s,childrenwereattendingpublicprimaryschoolstolearnreading,writing,andarithmeticinwhatwerecalled
commonschools
.ImportantdatesinthedevelopmentofasystemofeducationareoutlinedinTable6.1.
Table6.1SignificantEventsintheDevelopmentoftheAmericanSystemofEducation

1635

BostonLatinGrammarSchoolestablished.

1647

Massachusetts’sOldDeluderSatanLawrequiredestablishmentofschools.

1785–1787

NorthwestOrdinancespassedtosupportschoolsinnewterritories.

1789

UnitedStatesConstitutionadoptedwithoutreferencetoeducation.

1821

TheEnglishClassicalSchool,thefirsthighschoolestablishedinBoston.TheTroyFemaleSeminaryfirstpreparedteachersforcertification.

1825–1826

FirstknownchildcarecenteropenedinNewHarmony,Indiana.

1827

Massachusettslawestablishedhighschools.

1837

Massachusettsestablishedfirststateboardofeducation;HoraceMannappointedthefirstsecretary.

1839

FirstpublicnormalschoolforpreparingteachersopenedinLexington,Massachusetts.

1848

QuincySchool,basedongrades,wasestablishedinBoston.

1852

Massachusettsestablishesfirstcompulsoryattendancelaw.

1872

KalamazooDecisionmadepublichighschoolslegal.

1873

St.LouisopenedthefirstpublickindergartenintheUnitedStates.

1918

Compulsoryeducationrequiredinallstates.

1965

Elementary-SecondaryEducationAct(ESEA)passed.

1979

TheU.S.DepartmentofEducationestablishedbyPresidentJimmyCarter.

2001

ESEAreauthorizedasNoChildLeftBehindAct.
AlthoughpublicschoolshavelongbeenarealityintheUnitedStates,criticsoftoday’sschoolsquestiontheirabilitytopreparestudentsfortheglobalworldinwhichwelive.Whenaskedhowimportantpublicschoolsaretoday,retiredteacherMarvinKuhnreplied,
Itisjustasimportantasbackthen.Everybodyneedsaneducation.Ifyoudon’thavethemoney,whereelseareyougoingtogetyoureducationbutthroughpubliceducation?OneofthethingsI’veseeninthepastfewyearsisthecreationofcharterschoolsandvouchers.Eventhoughtheymaybeavailabletolow-incomestudents,charterandprivateschoolspickwhotheywantintheirschools,andifthosestudentsdonotperformattheexpectedlevel,theschooldoesnothavetoletthemcomeback.
HOWDIDSCHOOLSBECOMEDESIGNEDBASEDONTHEAGEOFSTUDENTS?
Earlyinthe18thcenturyeducatorsandpolicymakersenvisionedschoolsasawaytoovercomepovertyandcrimebyinculcatingagoodmoralcharacterintostudentswhothereformersbelievedlackedappropriateparentalguidance.
Charityschools
,whichweretheforerunnerofthecommonschool,weredevelopedforthispurpose(Spring,2011).Althoughsomestudentsfromlow-incomefamiliesattendedtheschoolsthatexistedduringthisperiod,many,includingAfricanAmericanstudentsinthenorth,attendedcharityschoolswhilemoreaffluentchildrenattendedprivateorpublicschools(Spring,2011).
Theelementaryschoolcurriculuminthefirsthalfofthe19thcenturywasinfluencedgreatlybythespellersandtextbookswrittenbyNoahWebster.Hisinfluencewasnotonlyonschools;hewroteanAmericandictionarywithwhichmanyofyoumaybefamiliar.Websterwasaschoolmasterwho,in1779,hadanideaforanewwayofteachingthatincludedaspellingbook,grammarbook,andreader.Whenhefinishedwritingthebooksfiveyearslater,hebecameanitinerantlecturer,ridingthroughthecountrysellinghisbooks.Hewasagoodsalesman,selling1.5millioncopiesby1801and75millionby1875.Webster’sbookscontainedcatechisms,buthedidnotlimittherecitationtoreligion.Heincludedamoralcatechismandafederalonethatstressednationalismandpatriotism(Spring,2011).
Teachersintheone-roomschoolsofthepastandtodayservenotonlyastheteachers,butalsoasthecustodian,nurse,secretary,andprincipal.
Thefirstschoolsbuiltinmanyruralcommunitieswereone-roomschoolswithateacherwhotaughtallsubjectstostudentswhosometimesrangedinagefromfiveto17.Theseschoolsgenerallyhaddesksorlongbenchesonwhichstudentssattogether.Apopularinstructionalmethodwasrecitationinwhichpupilsstoodandrecitedtheassignedlesson.Valuesofpunctuality,honesty,andhardworkwerestressedintheseruralschools(Howey&Post,2002).
Inthe1830sand1840s,thefatherofcommonschools,HoraceMann,wasconcernedwithdivisionsbetweensocialclassesandsawmixingthesocialclassesinthecommonschoolasonewaytoreducethetensionsbetweengroups.MannappliedhisideastoschoolswhenhebecamethefirstsecretaryoftheMassachusettsBoardofEducationin1837.Hisconceptofthecommonschoolbecamethetax-supported,locallycontrolledelementaryschoolsthatdominatedU.S.educationintheindustrialera.
Thecurriculumofthecommonschoolincludedtheskillsneededforeverydaylife,ethicalbehavior,andresponsiblecitizenship,withstandardizedsubjectmatterinreading,writing,arithmetic,spelling,history,andgeography(Cremin,1951).CommonschoolswerealsoexpectedtocreateconformityinAmericanlifebyimposingthelanguageandideologicaloutlookofthedominantAngloAmericanProtestantgroupthatgovernedthecountry.EducationincommonschoolswasseenasavenueforupwardsocialandeconomicmobilityfornativewhitesandEuropeanimmigrantsintheUnitedStates.Bothgirlsandboysattendedthecommonschools,usuallytogether.
VideoLink
WatchaclipaboutNoahWebster.
ElementarySchools
ThefirstschoolbasedongradeswasestablishedinBostonin1848asQuincySchool.Teachershadtheirownseparateclassroom,andeachstudentsatatadeskinclassroomsdesignedfor56students.Withinsevenyears,allBostonschoolsweregraded.OthercitiesandcommunitiessoonadoptedtheQuincymodel,settingthestageforthegradedschoolsoftoday(Spring,2001).
Manyurbanschoolspriorto1850hadclassroomsformorethan100students.Oneteachermanagedtheclassroomwiththeassistanceofstudentmentorswhowereselectedfromthebetterstudents.InthisLancasterianmethod,developedbyEnglishmanJosephLancaster,studentssatinlongrowsandtheteachersatatadeskonaraisedplatformatthefrontoftheroom.Whenitwastimeforinstructionbytheteacher,studentsmarchedtothefrontoftheroom.Afterwards,theywerereplacedatthefrontoftheroombyanothergroup.Thefirstgroupofstudentsmovedtoanothersectionoftheclassroomforrecitationanddrillwithoneofthementors.Throughouttheday,studentsmovedfromonepartoftheroomtoanothertoworkwithdifferentmentorswithseveralrecitationsoccurringsimultaneouslyintheroom.Manyeducatorsandpoliticiansofthiserasawthisverystructuredandorderlylearningenvironmentasthepanaceaforefficientschoolingofthemasses(Spring,2011).
TheLancasterianclassroomwasdesignedforoneteachertomanagetheeducationofasmanyas100studentsatonetimeinthesameroom.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,thestandardclassroomhadrowsofdesksboltedtothefloor.Asthecenturyprogressed,manyeducatorsmovedfromlectureandrecitationtostudent-centeredactivities,whichcalledforsmallerclassesthatallowedexperimentationandflexibility.NewYorkCityclassrooms,forexample,averaged50studentsaroundWorldWarI;by1930,theaveragewas38students(Spring,2001).
TheWebsterspellerswerereplacedinthelasthalfofthe19thcenturybytheMcGuffeyReaders,whichwerewrittenbyWilliamHolmesMcGuffey.Thereadersprovidedmorallessonsforanindustrializedsociety.Theleadingcharactersinthereaderswerestereotypicallymale(Spring,2011).Althoughthestoriesweremoresecularthanthoseinearliertextbooks,religiousselectionswereincludedalongwithstoriesfocusingonmoralcharacterandtheimportanceofcharity.TheMcGuffeyReaderssoldmorethan120millioncopiesbetween1836and1960(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Textbooksinthelastthirdofthe20thcenturybecamemuchmoreseculartothechagrinofsomechurchleaders,whosometimessuggestedthatthenationwouldbebetteroffiftextbooksandschoolsreturnedtotheirPuritanroots.The“DickandJane”readers,whichwerepopularfromthe1930sthroughthe1950s,reflectedwhitemiddle-classlifestylesandbehaviors(Kaestle&Radway,2009).
VideoLink
LearnmoreabouttheLancastarianmethod.
Inresponsetothequestionaboutchangesthathaveoccurredintheelementaryschoolsince1968whenMr.Kuhnbeganteaching,hesaid:
Oneofthethingsthatisdifferentisthemassamountofpaperworkyouhavetodo.Yes,youhadtodopaperworkwhenIfirststartedteaching,andyouwereaccountableforyourwork,butyounowhavetodocumenteverythingyoudo.You’rebasicallyteachingmoretothestandardsthananythingelse.Ifyouarenotteachingtothestandards,youaresupposedlynotontherighttrack.
HighSchools
Duringthecolonialperiod,astruggleforintellectualfreedomwasunderwayinEnglandtoexpandeducationbeyondtheclassicalstudyofLatinandGreek.Dissentersbelievedthatschoolswerelimitingthefreedomofideasbyteachingstudentstobeobedienttoachurchorthegovernment.Thescientificrevolutionfueledthedebate,andintellectualssuchasFrancisBaconarguedthateducationshouldprovidetheintellectualtoolsandscientificknowledgerequiredtocreateabettersociety.Thismovementledtothedevelopmentofwhatwascalleddissentingacademies(Spring,2001).
WhentheideacrossedtheAtlanticOcean,theacademiesbecameapopularalternativetotheLatingrammarschools.Anearlymodelofahighschool,theacademiestaughtideasandskillsrelatedtothepracticalworld,includingthesciencesandbusiness.Theyprovidedusefuleducationandtransmittedtheculturethathelpedmovegraduatesintothemiddleclass.Sometimestheacademieswereconsideredsmallcolleges,atothertimeshighschools(Spring,2001).
TheEnglishClassicalSchoolwasfoundedinBostonin1821asanalternativetoboardingschoolsandtheBostonLatinSchool,whichprovidedaclassicaleducation.ThecurriculumincludedEnglish,geography,arithmetic,algebra,geometry,trigonometry,history,navigation,andsurveying.Afewyearslater,itwasrenamedEnglishHighSchool,becomingthefirsthighschoolintheUnitedStates(Spring,2001).Withinafewyears,Massachusettspassedalawtoestablishhighschoolsacrossthestate.Otherstatesfollowedsuit,butnotwithoutresistance.OneofthemostfamouscasesagainstpublichighschoolswastheKalamazoodecisioninthe1870s,broughtbythreeprominentcitizenswhobelievedthathighschoolshouldnotbesupportedwithpublicfunds.Thecourtsdidnotagree,settlingthequestionabouttaxessupportinghighschools.
Massachusettsenactedthefirst
compulsoryattendance
lawin1852,requiring12weeksofschool.Bytheendofthe19thcentury,27stateshadcompulsoryattendancelaws,butall48stateshadpassedthemby1918(Urban&Wagoner,2009).However,theestablishmentofattendancelawsdidnotcomeaboutwithoutobjections.Therewerecompetinginterestsforwhatchildrenshouldbedoingataspecificage,whichsometimesmeantworkinginsteadofattendingschool.
Bytheendofthe19thcenturychildrenwerealargecomponentoftherapidlygrowingindustriallaborforce,especiallyinthetextilemills.Threein10millworkersintheSouthwereunder16yearsofageand75%ofthespinnersinNorthCarolinawere14oryounger(Woodward,1971).Theyworkedlonghoursindark,dirty,anddangerousconditions,whicheventuallyledtochildlaborlaws.However,thiswasslowtohappen,especiallyintheSouth.Itwasnotuntil1912thatsouthernstatesprohibitednightworkforchildrenandsetageandhourlimitsthatwereaslowasage12and60hoursperweek.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,most7-to13-year-oldchildrenattendedschool.However,only10%remainedinschoolbeyondage14,andlessthan7%ofthe17-year-oldsgraduatedfromhighschool(Olson,2000).Asthe20thcenturyunfolded,thecombinationofchildlaborlawsandcompulsoryattendancelawswereincreasinglyeffectiveinpushingyoungpeopleintoschool.
Ashighschoolswereestablishedinsmalltownsandcities,debatesaboutthepurposeofhighschoolsweresimilartothosethatledtothedevelopmentofacademiesduringthecolonialdays.Somepeoplearguedthatthehighschoolshoulddevelopawell-disciplinedmindinthetraditionoftheoldgrammarschools.Othersbelievedthatthecurriculumshouldpreparestudentsforthepracticalworldandoccupations.Mostoftheearlyhighschoolsendedupfocusingonadvancedscience,math,English,history,andthepoliticaleconomy,butthecurriculumwasgenerallydeterminedbythetextbooksoftheperiod.Admissionrequiredpassingrigorousexaminations;only4%ofeligiblestudentswereenrolledinahighschoolinthe1870s.Lessthanoneinthreeoftheadmittedstudentscompletedhighschool.Thosewhodidn’tcompletethefour-yearcurriculumenteredbusinessortaughtelementaryschool(Cuban,2004).
TheNationalEducationAssociation(NEA),whichtodayisthelargestteachers’union,formedtheCommitteeofTenonSecondarySchoolStudiesin1892todevelopuniformrequirementsforcollegeadmission.Instead,itsfinalreportidentifiedgoalsforsecondaryeducation,recommendingthatthechildrenofwealthyandlow-incomefamiliestakethesamecourseofstudy,regardlessofwhethertheywouldattendcollege.TheCommitteecalledforatleastfouryearsofEnglish,fouryearsofaforeignlanguage,andthreeyearseachofmathematics,science,andhistory(Spring,2001).Thenumberofhighschoolsgrewdramaticallyattheturnofthecentury.Seventypercentofthestudentsenteringcollegein1872weregraduatesofacademies;by1920,90%werehighschoolgraduates(Alexander&Alexander,2001).
Highschoolsattheturnofthe20thcenturywerebeginningtosortstudentsforspecificrolesinsociety.TheNEA’sCommissionontheReorganizationofSecondaryEducationpublisheditsreport,CardinalPrinciplesofSecondaryEducation,in1918.Itsattempttoredesignthehighschooltomeettheneedsofthemoderncorporatestateimpactedthehighschoolcurriculumforthenext50years.TheproposedcomprehensivehighschoolsweretoteachEnglishandsocialstudiestopromoteunityamongstudentsfromdifferentsocioeconomic,ethnic,andlanguagebackgrounds,butalsoincludedvocationalprogramsinagriculture,business,industry,finearts,andthehousehold.Thepurposeofhighschoolswasexpandedfromanarrowfocusonacademicstoalsoattendtothesocializationofstudentsbyencouragingtheirinvolvementincommonactivitiessuchasathleticsandextracurricularactivitiessuchasstudentgovernment,thestudentnewspaper,andclubs.Thereportalsocalledforhighschoolstopromotegoodhealththroughphysicalandhealtheducation(Spring,2011).Duringthisperiod,highschoolsdevelopedanacademictrackforstudentswhowereencouragedtoattendcollege.Allotherstudentswereguidedintogeneralorvocationaltracksthatwouldpreparethemforjobsimmediatelyafterhighschool.Overtime,fewerandfewerstudentstooktheacademiccourses,asshowninFigure6.1.
Figure6.1PercentageofHighSchoolersTakingAcademicCourses:1928to1961
Source:ThefailedpromiseoftheAmericanhighschool,1890-1995byAngus,Davidl.:Mirel,JeffreyE.Copyright1999.ReproducedwithpermissionofTeachersCollegePressintheformatofTextbookviaCopyrightClearanceCenter.
ItwasnotuntilafterWorldWarIIthattheneedforahighschooleducationbecamewidespread.Bythe1950s,amajorityofteenagerswereearninghighschooldiplomas.Althoughmorestudentswereattendinghighschool,notallofthemwerehappywiththecurriculumandthewaytheyweretreated.Bytheendofthe1960sandintothe1970s,studentsofcolorweredisruptingmanyhighschoolsastheyconfronteddiscriminationanddemandedthattheirculturesbeincludedinthecurriculum.Highschoolsenteredthe1980smorepeacefully,butwithmorerightsforstudents,inpart,duetoanumberofcourtcases.Thecurriculumandtextbooksbegantoincorporatecontentontheexperiencesandhistoryofpeoplebeyondthewhite,Anglo-Saxon,Protestantmale.
MiddleLevelEducation
Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,psychologistG.StanleyHallarguedthatearlyadolescentswereneitherchildrennoradults.Hebelievedthatseparateeducationwouldbetterservethestudentsbetweenelementaryandhighschool(Beane,2001).Asecondreasonforthecreationofthisnewlevelofschoolingwastoprepareyoungpeopleforthedifferentiatedcomprehensivehighschoolinwhichtheywouldbesortedintoacademicandvocationaltracks(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Table6.2listssomeoftheeducatorswhohaveinfluencedU.S.education.
Thefirstjuniorhighschoolwasestablishedin1909inColumbus,Ohio,followedbyoneinBerkley,California,in1910.Althoughsomeeducatorsandpsychologistswerecallingforthecreationofschoolsbetweenelementaryandhighschool,thenumberofjuniorhighschoolsgrewoverthenextfewdecadesprimarilyinresponsetosocialconditions.Elementaryschoolswereovercrowdedwiththelargeinfluxofimmigrantchildrenandtheincreasingnumberofstudentsnotbeingpromotedtothenextgrade(Beane,2001).Fourinfivestudentswereattendingjuniorhighschoolby1960(McEwin,Dickinson,&Jenkins,2003).Forthemostpart,theyhadbecomeminiaturehighschoolsthatwerenoteffectivelyservingyoungadolescents.
Stillbelievingthatearlyadolescentsdeservedaneducationthatwasdifferentfromthatprovidedinelementaryandsecondaryschools,middleleveleducatorsproposedanewstructure.Likejuniorhighschools,middleschoolsevolved,inpart,becauseofthepracticalitiesofthetimes.Bythelate1950s,thebabyboomgenerationwasovercrowdingelementaryschools,whichsuggestedbuildingmoreelementaryschools.Anotheroptionwastoaddawingtothehighschool,movetoittheninthgradefromthehighschool,andgrades6–8fromtheelementaryschool.Somecommunitiesbuiltanewhighschoolandremodeledtheoldoneforgrades6–8.Sometimesthefifthgradewasmovedintothenewintermediateschools.
Middleschooladvocatesarguedthatschoolingforyoungadolescentsshouldfocusontheirdevelopmentalaswellasacademicneeds.Ratherthanalarge,departmentalizedschoollikehighschool,theirvisionwassmallerclustersofteachersandstudents.Teachersandotherschoolprofessionalsintheseschoolsweretoprovideguidancetohelpstudentsmaneuverthoughtheirchangingsocialandphysicaldevelopment.Educatorsweretobemoreaffectionateandsensitivetoyoungpeople.
Asthepopularityofjuniorhighschoolsdeclined,thenumberofmiddleschoolsgrewquicklytomorethan11,000by1999(Snyder&Dillow,2011)andmorethan15,000today(McEwin&Greene,2011).Withthenationalfocusonacademicsinthe1990s,middleleveleducatorspushedforacurriculumthatwouldprovideaccesstoacademicsubjectsinapositiveandnurturingclimate.Teacherswereencouragedtousecollaborativeandcooperativelearningwithinterdisciplinaryteamsofteachersandblockscheduling.Advocatespromotedeliminatingthetrackingofstudentsandcreatingheterogeneousgroupsinwhichculturaldiversitywascelebratedanddiverselearningstyleswererecognized.
DeeperLook
ReadaboutthehistoryofHeadStart.
Howtobestservepreadolescentstudentsremainsanunsettledissue.Criticschargethatthemiddleschoolphilosophyfocusesontheself-exploration,socialization,andgrouplearningtothedetrimentofacademics.Thesechargesarefueledbypoorshowingsofeighthgradersonnationalandinternationaltestswheretheyranklowerthanfourthgraders,suggestingthattheyarelosinggroundastheyprogressthroughthemiddlegrades.SomeresearchsuggeststhatthesestudentswouldbebetterservedinK–8schools(Meyer,2011).Youarelikelytobeengagedindiscussionsaboutthevalueofmiddleschoolsasyouproceedthroughyourteachingcareer.
EarlyChildhoodEducation
Throughouthistory,somemothershavehadtoworktosupporttheirfamilies.Almostalways,theyhavehadtoleavetheirchildrenwithsomeone,oftenarelativeoraneighbor.Somewomenintheneighborhoodwatchedseveralchildren,butorganizedschoolswithchildcareproviderswerenotavailableuntilthe19thcentury.RobertOwensopenedthefirstknownchildcarecenteratamillinNewHarmony,Indiana,in1825–1826withmorethan100children(Ranck&NAEYC’sHistory&ArchivesPanel,2001).

NoahWebster

Authorofspellersandtextbooksthatinfluencedtheelementaryschoolcurriculumfrom1783–1875.

EmmaWillard

AnearlyfeministwhoopenedtheTroyFemaleSeminaryin1821wherewomenpreparedforacertificatetoteach.

ReverendSamuelHall

EstablishedtheColumbianSchoolinVermontin1823forpreparingteachers.

RobertOwens

WelshsocialreformerwhoopenedthefirstknownchildcarecenteratamillinNewHarmony,Indiana,in1825–1826.

HoraceMann

FirstsecretaryoftheMassachusettsBoardofEducationandfatherofthecommonschoolmovement.

WilliamHolmesMcGuffey

WrotetheMcGuffeyReadersthatwereusedbetween1836and1960.

FriedrichFroebel

Establishedthefirstkindergartenin1837inGermanythatservedasthemodelforearlykindergartensintheUnitedStates.

SamuelChapmanArmstrong

FounderofHamptonInstitutein1868toprepareAfricanAmericanteacherswhopaidfortheireducationthroughmanuallabor.

BookerT.Washington

EducatorandauthorwhoservedasthefirstpresidentofTuskegeeNormalandIndustrialInstitutein1881andpromotedpreparingAfricanAmericansforthetradesandtheirappropriaterolesintheJimCrowSouth.

W.E.B.DuBois

Sociologist,historian,professor,author,andcivilrightsactivistwhochallengedtheoppressivesoutherneconomyandarguedthatAfricanAmericansshouldhaveaclassicaleducationtopreparethemtobeleaders.

JohnDewey

PhilosopherandprofessorwhoestablishedalaboratoryschoolinChicagoin1896totesthisprogressiveideasaboutachild-orientedcurriculum.Hisideashavebeenveryinfluentialineducationandsocialreform.

WilliamJames

Harvardphilosopherandpsychologistwhofoundthatthestimulus-responseconceptsoflearningcouldbeusedtohelpchildrendevelopdesirablehabits.

G.StanleyHall

Psychologistwhoestablishedchilddevelopmentandchildpsychologyasfieldsthatinfluencededucationattheendofthe19thcentury.

MargaretHaley

ActivistteacherwhowasanearlymemberoftheChicagoFederationofTeachersandlateranorganizerfortheAmericanFederationofTeachers.

CatherineGoggin

AlongwithMargaretHaley,shehelpedaffiliatetheChicagoFederationofTeacherswithorganizedlabor.

EdwardThorndike

ProfessoratTeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityandauthorofEducationalPsychology(1903).Hepromotedbehaviorismandtesting,whichwaswidelyusedbythemilitary.

MaryMcLeodBethune

AneducationalleaderwhoopenedaschoolforAfricanAmericangirlsin1904inDaytonaBeach,Florida,thatevolvedintoBethune-CookmanUniversity.AlsoservedasanadvisertoPresidentFranklinD.Roosevelt.

WilliamChandlerBagley

ProfessorandauthorofClassroomManagement(1907),whichwastheprimaryguideforpreparingeffectiveteachersformanyyears.

WilliamHeardKilpatrick

TeachersCollege,ColumbiaUniversityprofessorwhosupportedprogressiveeducationandintroducedin1918the“projectmethod”inwhichstudentsdirecttheirownlearning.

ThurgoodMarshall

U.S.SupremeCourtjusticewhohadarguedBrownv.BoardofEducationin1952–1953.

TheodoreSizer

EducationreformerwhowroteHorace’sCompromiseandfoundedtheCoalitionofEssentialSchoolsin1984tocreateagroupofhighschoolsbasedontheprogressivetradition.
Table6.2Who’sWhoinU.S.Education
ThefirstkindergartenwasopenedbyFriedrichFroebelin1837inGermanyforthree-andfour-year-oldchildren.Hebelievedthatthekindergartenteachershouldnotbe
authoritarian
,butinsteadwouldguidechildren’slearningthroughtheirownplay,songs,stories,andactivities(Gutek,2012).ThefirstpublickindergartenintheUnitedStatesopenedinSt.Louisin1873toservechildreninpoverty.Childrenweretolearnthevirtuesandmanners,moralhabits,cleanliness,politeness,obedience,promptness,andself-controlthatwouldpreparethemforelementaryschool.Bythe1880s,FroebeliankindergartenshadbecomepopularintheUnitedStates(Spring,2001).
Earlynurseryschoolsweredevelopedinthe1920sand1930sonwhatwasknownfromtheemergingfieldofchilddevelopmentandpsychology.
Bythebeginningofthe20thcentury,about6%ofthekindergarten-agedpopulationwasenrolledinkindergarten.ItwasatthistimethattheworkofG.StanleyHallestablishedchilddevelopmentandchildpsychologyasfieldsofstudy.Hedefinedchildhoodastheyearsbetweenfourandeight,whichremainsthegeneralrangeforprimaryeducationtoday.Thefocusofakindergartenclassfocusedoncreatingorderanddisciplineinthechild’slife,butcontinuedtoencouragechildrentoplayandbecreative.Duringthisperiod,theageforkindergartenersinpublicschoolswasraisedtofive.Approximately90%offive-year-oldswereattendingkindergarteninthe1980satthetimethatthecurriculumwasbeginningtoshiftfrombeingchild-centeredtoacademics(Berg,2003).
UnderstandingandUsingEvidence
PublicSchoolStatisticsfor1879
Thefederalgovernmenthascollecteddataonthepopulationandinstitutionsformorethan100years.Thesedataprovidedemographicinformation,buttheyalsoassistpolicymakersandotherleadersinplanningforthefuture.Thefollowingstatisticsontheschoolpopulationsbyselectedstatewerereportedbythefederalgovernmentin1879.
aIn1878.bIn1876.cForcoloredpopulation,theschoolageisfrom6to16.dIn1877.eIn1873.
Source:U.S.CensusBureau.(2006).StatisticalabstractoftheUnitedStates:2006.Washington,DC:U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice.
YourTask:Usingthesestatistics,answerthefollowingquestionstocompareattendanceandlengthofschoolyearsin1879totoday.
1.Howdotheagesofstudentsin1879comparewiththeagesofstudentsinschoolstoday?
2.Whatpercentageoftheschool-agedpopulationwasenrolledinschoolsin1879inthestatesabove?
3.Howmanymonthsdidstudentsinschoolsin1879attendschool?Howdoesthelengthoftheschoolyearcomparewiththetimespentinschoolstoday?
4.Whatpercentageoftheenrolledstudentsin1879attendedschooldaily?
WHATHASINFLUENCEDTHESCHOOLCURRICULUM?
CurriculumhasgonethroughsomemajorchangessincethefirstschoolswereestablishedinthePlymouthcolony.Itnolongerhasthereligiousandmoralovertonesofthepast.Educatorstodayareconcernedabouttheacademicperformanceoftheirstudentsandprovidingequalaccessforallstudentstolearn.Inhisreflectionsoncurriculumchangesoverhis43yearsofteaching,Mr.Kuhnreportsthat
youusedtousethetextbooktodevelopcurriculumguidesthatreflectedthecurrentstatestandards.Statestandardsexisted,buttheywerenotemphasizedasmuchasnow.Atthattime,thebasictesttakenbyalmostallIndianastudentswastheIowaBasicSkillsTest.NowitistheISTEP,whichallIndianastudentstakeatexactlythesametimeoftheyear.
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Inaddition,thecurriculumhasbeeninfluencedbythechangingneedsofbusinessesandevolvingnewtechnologies.Theintensityofdebatesamongeducators,politicians,andthepublicaboutwhatshouldbetaughtandhowitshouldbetaughtcontinuesasreflectedinnumerousnationalandstatereportsaboutthestateofeducation.Inthissectionwewillexaminehowthecurriculumchangedindifferenthistoricalperiods.
TheIndustrialRevolution
AsindustrializationtookholdinthecitiesoftheNortheasternUnitedStatesattheendofthe19thcentury,schoolingwasgreatlyinfluencedbytheneedtohelpnewimmigrantpopulationsbecomeliterateanddisciplinedworkers.Educationwasbecomingmorestandardized,compartmentalized,andcentralized.TheLancasteriansystemwaspromotedasaninexpensivesolutionfortheeducationofthemasses.
Themovetowardpreparingyoungpeopletocontributeeffectivelytotheindustrialrevolutionwasassistedbytheworkofpsychologistsattheturnofthecentury.HarvardphilosopherandpsychologistWilliamJamesfoundevidencethatthestimulus–response,orbehavioral,conceptsoflearningcouldbeusedtohelpchildrendevelopdesirablehabits.HisideaswereexpandedbyEdwardThorndike,whoseideasofteachingasascienceandbehaviorisminwhichrewardsandpunishmentwereusedtocontrolstudentbehaviorinfluencededucationforthenextfewdecades(Spring,2011).Healsopromotedtestingasawayofdeterminingwhichpeoplearesuitedforwhichsocialroles.Thorndike’sprincipleswereappliedtoschoolsinthepopulartextbookClassroomManagementbyWilliamChandlerBagley,whobelievedthatschoolsshouldhelpstudentsdeveloptheindustrialhabitsneededfortheassemblyline.
Progressivism:CurriculumforReform
InEmile,publishedin1762,EuropeanphilosopherJean-JacquesRousseauquestionedthefocusofeducationonmemorizationandthesubordinationtoauthority.Hethoughtthatlearningoccurredthroughexperienceanddiscovery.Healsobelievedthatmoraleducationshouldoccurinadolescence,notchildhood(Urban&Wagoner,2009).InfluencedbyRousseau,JohannPestalozziofSwitzerlandintroducedateachingapproachin1781thatusedteachingobjectsfromtherealworld,learningbydoing,andactivitiesratherthanseatwork(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
Aphilosopherwhointegratedpsychologyandpedagogyintohisthinkingabouteducation,JohnDeweyopenedhislaboratoryschoolinChicagoin1896totesthisprogressiveideasaboutachild-orientedcurriculum.Hisclassroomshadmovabletablesratherthanindividualdeskstoencouragegroupworkandlearning(Spring,2011).Unlikemostofhiscolleagues,Deweysaweducationascriticaltochangingsocietyandpreparingstudentstoparticipateinademocraticsociety(Urban&Wagoner,2009).
AcolleagueofDewey’satColumbiaUniversity,WilliamHeardKilpatrick,introducedin1918the“projectmethod”thatwaswidelyadoptedbyschooldistricts.Theprojectmethoddevelopedschoolactivitiesthatweremeaningfultostudentsandrelevanttosociety(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Intheeyesofprogressives,traditionalcurriculumwithitsemphasisonlectureandrecitationcouldnotpossiblyaddressstudents’individualneedsandlearningstyles.Theybelievedthatcurriculummustbemoderatedthroughactivitiesdirectedbythelearner.
Student-centeredinstructionhadbecomegoodpracticeinthe1940s,andschoolsweremorehumanebythe1950s.Asprogressivespressedforreformedschoolsthattheybelievedcouldsolvesocietalproblems,theybecamemorevulnerabletocriticismforneglectingacademicsubjects(Urban&Wagoner,2009).Nottobekeptdown,progressivethoughtreappearedinthe1960sandearly1970s,butitwasconfrontedbytheback-to-basicsmovementattheendofthe1970s.Nevertheless,itcontinuestoreappear.Forexample,TheodoreSizerfoundedtheCoalitionofEssentialSchoolsin1984tocreateagroupofhighschoolsalongprogressivelines.Theprogressiveideologywasadoptedbyhundredsofschoolsacrossthecountry(CoalitionofEssentialSchools,2012).Theprogressiveideologycontinuestobereflectedtodayincharterschoolsandotherschoolsofchoicethathavesomefreedomfromthecentral-office-drivenculture.Manyofthepracticesoftheprogressivemovementarenowtakenforgrantedbyeducatorsastheyusemovablefurniture,placestudentsinsmallworkgroups,andteachanintegratedcurriculum.
Theprogressivemovementledtomoveablefurniture,small-groupwork,andmorehands-onworkinclassrooms.
SputnikI
AnurgentdemandfornewcurriculumandteachingtechniquesemergedaftertheSovietUnionlaunchedthefirstsatellite,SputnikI,onOctober4,1957.U.S.leaderswereboundtodowhateveritwouldtaketoregaintheirnation’sscientificandtechnologicalsupremacyovertheSovietUnionduringthisColdWarperiod.CongressionalresistancetofinanciallysupportingeducationdisappearedwithpassageoftheNationalDefenseEducationAct(NDEA)in1958toimprovethecurriculumandteachingofscience,mathematics,andforeignlanguages.Thelawalsoincludedsupportforguidance,counseling,testing,andtheidentificationofthebrighteststudents.Thedevelopmentofmorescientists,mathematicians,andengineerswasseenascriticaltoU.S.prominenceintheworld,andthefederalgovernmentbegantotakeitsfirststeptowardanationalcurriculum(Kliebard,2004).
TheNationalScienceFoundation(NSF)waschargedwithdevelopingcurriculaforscienceandmathematics.Professorsinmajorresearchuniversities,ratherthanprofessionaleducators,designedthenewcurriculathatwouldtransformtheteachingofscienceandmathinthenation’sschools.“Newmathematics”wasoneoftheoutcomesofthisworkthatchangedhowmathwastaughtinschools.Mathteachersparticipatedinprofessionaldevelopmentworkshopstolearnthenewmathandhowtoteachbasicconceptssuchassettheoryandfunctions.Althoughthepublicgenerallysupportedthenewfocusonreformingschools,theyquestionedtheneedforthenewmathastheytriedtohelptheirchildrenwiththeirhomework(Spring,2011).
Newformatsfortextbooksandideasforthepresentationofrelevantsubjectmatteremergedfromtheseprojects.Teachersweresuddenlypresentedwithanavalancheofchoicesregardingwhatandhowtoteach.TherewereAttributeGamesandTangrams.ElementaryschoolsciencepackagesofferedPetridishesfulloffungiandamoebasonorderfromthelocalsciencelaboratory(Spring,2001).Readingtextswereorganizedaroundliterarythemesandgeneralizationsrelatingtothestudents’ownlives.Manyteachersbenefitedfromtheprogramsthattaughtnewmathandintroducedthemtonewcurriculummaterials.
ThecurriculumreformsafterSputnikIcontinuetoresurfaceinthenation’sdiscourseaboutimprovingeducation.Today’scriticsonceagainareconcernedthattheUnitedStatesisfallingbehindothercountriesinscientificandtechnologicaladvances.Asaresult,achievementonstandardizedtestsisofutmostimportancetothepublicandpolicymakers.Thefederalgovernmenthascalledfortherecruitmentofmorebrightstudentsinscience,technology,engineering,andmathematics(STEM).Finally,commoncorestandardsformathematicsandreadinghavebeenadoptedbymoststatestoimprovetheacademicachievementofstudentsandtheprominenceoftheUnitedStatesinthesefields.
HOWHASTHEEDUCATIONALSYSTEMCONTRIBUTEDTOEQUALITY?
AnexaminationofhowdifferentgroupshavebeentreatedinoureducationalsystemoverthepastfourcenturiesprovidesinsightsintotheimportanceofeducationinthestruggleforequalityintheUnitedStates.Allgroupshavefoughtforqualityeducationfortheirchildren.Theprogresstowardriddingthenationofinequalityandprovidingequaleducationforallstudentshasinvolvedcommittedpeopleofcoloraswellaswhites.Thejoyinthissadhistoryofdiscriminationandinequalityisthatmuchhaschanged,especiallyinthepast50years.Inaddition,teachersarekeyinprovidingaqualityandequitableeducationforallstudents.Ourunderstandingofhowwegottowherewearetodayshouldencourageustomakeacommitmenttoensurethatallofourfuturestudentshaveeverypossibleopportunitytolearn.AchronologyofsignificanteventsinprovidingequalityforstudentsisshowninTable6.3.
FirstAmericans
EuropeancoloniststhoughtthatAmericanIndianleadersshouldbeeducatedintheschoolsofthecolonistsforthepurposesoflearningChristianityandtheAnglo-Saxonculture,withthegoalofreplacingtheirnativeculturesandlanguages.WhenVirginia’sWilliamandMaryCollegewasestablishedin1693,apartofitsmissionwastheeducationofNativeAmericanstudents(Glenn,2011).NewHampshire’sDartmouthCollegehadthesamegoalwhenitwasestablishedin1780,butmostofitsstudentswerewhite(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadmoreaboutthehistoryandcurrentstateofNativeAmericaneducation.
ResistancetoConversion
TheconversionofAmericanIndianstotheAnglo-Saxonculturemetwithgreatresistancefromtribesandtheirmembers.TheconversionthatdidoccurwasmostoftenamongthefamiliesformedbymarriagesofwhitesandAmericanIndians.Becausethegovernment’splansfor
deculturalizing
NativeAmericanswereineffective,CongresspassedtheCivilizationActof1819withtheexplicitpurposeofculturallytransformingthenativepopulation,especiallythesoutherntribes.Tomovetheeffortforward,theSuperintendentofIndianTrade,ThomasL.McKenney,encouragedtheestablishmentoftribalschoolswithmissionaryteachers.TheProtestantchurchesthatjoinedthiseffortbelievedthatthespreadofAnglo-Saxonculturearoundtheworldwaspartofthenation’s
manifestdestiny
.MostNativeAmericanfamilieswhoparticipatedinthemissionaryschoolshadadifferentgoalthanthefederalgovernment.Theywereinterestedinliteracy,nottheextinctionoftheirculturesortheadoptionofChristianity(Spring,2011).
Oneofthefederalgovernment’sgoalsforthetribesinthesouthwastoconvincetribalmemberstodividetriballandsintoprivatepropertythatcouldthenbesoldtoAnglosettlers—agoalthatwasreinforcedbymissionaryschools.WhenfewNativeAmericanswerewillingtoselltriballands,CongresspassedtheIndianRemovalActof1830,authorizingthepresidentoftheUnitedStatestosetasidelandwestoftheMississippiRiverforNativeAmericanswhothenwerelivinginthesouthernstateseastoftheMississippiRiver.Withinafewyears,theCherokees,Creeks,Choctaw,Chickasaws,andSeminoleswereforciblymovedtothenew“IndianTerritory.”IntheTrailofTearsoneinfourCherokeesdiedonthetrekwestfromtheirancestralhomelandinGeorgia.Inthenewterritory,whichisnowOklahoma,tribesestablishedtheirownschools.By1848theChoctawshadnineboardingschoolswithmanyChoctawteachers.TheChoctawsalsoestablishedsegregatedschoolsforthechildrenoffreedslavesaftertheCivilWarandasystemofschoolsthatincludedacademiesforboysandgirls(Spring,2011).
Table6.3SignificantEventsintheMovementTowardEducationalEquality

1693

WilliamandMaryCollegeestablishedwithmissiontoeducateNativeAmericans.

1855

Massachusettsoutlawedthesegregationofschools.

1896

SupremeCourtfinds“separatebutequal”lawsconstitutionalinPlessyv.Ferguson.

1905

SanFranciscoschoolsaredesegregated,allowingChineseyouthtoattendregularhighschools.

1915

StudentstrikeinPuertoRicosupportsinstructioninSpanish.

1918

TexasmakesitacriminaloffensetouseanylanguageotherthanEnglishforinstruction.

1928

MeriamReportattacksgovernment’spoliciesofremovingAmericanIndianstudentsfromtheirhomes.

1934

PadinReformrestrictsEnglishinstructiontohighschools.

1940

FederalcourtrequiresequalsalariesforAfricanAmericanandwhiteteachersinAlstonv.SchoolBoardofCityofNorfolk.

1947

FederalappealscourtstrikesdownsegregatedschoolingforMexicanAmericansinMéndezv.WestminsterSchoolDist.

1951

PuertoRicogainsgreatercontroloftheirschoolsystemsafterbeinggrantedcommonwealthstatus.

1954

SupremeCourtmakesschoolsegregationunconstitutionalinBrownv.BoardofEducation,overturningPlessy.

1956

Virginialegislaturecallsfor“massiveresistance”toschooldesegregation.

1958

InCooperv.AarontheSupremeCourtrulesthatfearofsocialunrestorviolencedoesnotexcusestategovernmentsfromcomplyingwithBrown.

1959

OfficialsclosepublicschoolsinPrinceEdwardCounty,Virginia,ratherthanintegratethem.

1964

CongresspassestheCivilRightsAct,whichprohibitsdiscriminationinschoolprogramsandactivitiesthatreceivefederalassistance.

SupremeCourtordersPrinceEdwardCountry,Virginia,toreopenitsschoolsonadesegregatedbasis.

1965

InGreenv.CountySchoolBoardofNewKentCountytheSupremeCourtordersstatestodismantlesegregatedfacilities,staff,faculty,extracurricularactivities,andtransportation.

CongresspassestheHandicappedChildren’sEarlyEducationAssistanceAct.

1968

TitleVIIofESEAsupportsbilingualprogramsinIndianlanguagesandEnglish.

1971

InSwannv.Charlotte-MecklenbergBoardofEducationthecourtapprovesbusing,magnetschools,compensatoryeducation,andothertoolsasappropriateremediestoovercometheroleofresidentialsegregationinperpetuatingraciallysegregatedschools.

1972

CongresspassesTitleIXEducationAmendmentoutlawingdiscriminationbasedonsex.

1973

Courtrulesthateducationisnota“fundamentalright”andthattheConstitutiondoesnotrequireequaleducationexpenditureswithinastateinSanAntonioIndependentSchoolDistrictv.Rodriguez.

1974

SupremeCourtblocksmetropolitan-widedesegregationplanstodesegregateurbanschoolswithhighminoritypopulationsinMillikenv.Bradley.

InLauv.NicholstheSupremeCourtstipulatesthatspeciallanguageprogramsarenecessarytoprovideequaleducationalopportunitytostudentswhodonotunderstandEnglish.

1975

CongresspassesEducationforAllHandicappedChildren,PublicLaw94-142.

CongresspassesIndianSelf-DeterminationandEducationAssistanceAct.

1978

SupremeCourtrulesthatracecanbeafactorinuniversityadmissions,butitcannotbethedecidingfactorinRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniav.Bakke.

1982

SupremeCourtrejectstaxexemptionsforprivatereligiousschoolsthatdiscriminateinBobJonesUniversityv.U.S.andGoldboroChristianSchoolsv.U.S.

1986

FederalcourtfindsthataschooldistrictcanbereleasedfromitsdesegregationplanandreturnedtolocalcontrolafteritmeetstheGreenfactorsinRiddickv.SchoolBoardoftheCityofNorfolk,Virginia.

1988

TriballyControlledSchoolsActgivesgrantsfortribalschools.

1990

NativeAmericanLanguagesActpromotespreservationofNativeAmericanlanguages.

1996

Federalappealscourtprohibitstheuseofraceincollegeanduniversityadmissions,endingaffirmativeactioninLouisiana,Texas,andMississippiinHopwoodv.Texas.

2003

SupremeCourtupholdsdiversityasarationaleforaffirmativeactionprogramsinhighereducationadmissionsbutdeclarespointsystemsinappropriateinGratzv.BollingerandGrutterv.Bollinger.
Federaldistrictcourtcaseaffirmsthevalueofracialdiversityandrace-consciousstudentassignmentplansinK–12educationinLynnv.Comfort.

2007

SupremeCourtstrikesdowntheuseofraceindeterminingschoolsforstudentsinParentsInvolvedinCommunitySchoolsInc.v.SeattleSchoolDistrictandMeredithv.JeffersonCounty(Ky.)BoardofEducation.
BoardingSchools
StilltryingtoconvertAmericanIndians,the1867IndianPeaceCommissionsaidthatAmericanIndianscouldbecomecitizensiftheygaveuptheirnativereligionsandwaysoflife.Again,educationwastoplayanimportantroleinthisprocess.ThechargetoschoolswastoreplacenativelanguageswithEnglish,destroytribalcustoms,anddevelopallegiancetothefederalgovernment.Thenewstrategycalledforboardingschools,requiringtheremovalofchildrenfromtheirfamiliesatanearlyagetoisolatethemfromthelanguageandcustomsoftheirparentsandtribes.Between1879and1905anumberofboardingschoolswerelocatedfarfromthereservation.ThousandsofyoungNativeAmericansfromtheDakotaswereboardedattheCarlisleIndianSchoolinPennsylvania(Glenn,2011).Parentsandtribescontinuallycomplainedabouttheboardingschools,howtheirchildrenwerebeingtreated,andhowtheirnativecultureswerebeingdenigrated.
FederalpoliciesremovedmanyAmericanIndianchildrenfromtheirhomestoattendboardingschoolsintothe20thcentury.
ChildrencontinuedtoberemovedfromtheirhomesandplacedinboardingschoolsatthetimecitizenshipwasgrantedtoNativeAmericansin1924.Notuntilthendidconcernedcitizensseriouslyinvestigatethehorribleconditionsintheseschools.RedCrossinvestigatorsfoundthatchildrenattheRiceBoardingSchoolinArizonawerefed“bread,blackcoffee,andsyrupforbreakfast;breadandboiledpotatoesfordinner;morebreadandboiledpotatoesforsupper”(Szasz,1974).Thepoordietandovercrowdedconditionscontributedtothespreadofdiseasessuchastuberculosisandtrachoma(Spring,2011).Investigatorsfoundthatboardingschoolsweresupportedbytheworkofstudentswhoattendedclasseshalfthedayandworkedtheotherhalf.The1928MeriamReportbyJohnsHopkinsUniversityattackedthegovernment’spoliciesofremovingNativeAmericanchildrenfromtheirhomes.Followingthereleaseofthisreport,thegovernmentbegantosupportcommunitydayschoolsandnativecultures(Spring,2011).
VideoLink
Watchavideoaboutboardingschools.
AmericanIndianControl
WhenJohnF.Kennedywaselectedtothepresidencyin1960,theBureauofIndianAffairsbegantoinvolveAmericanIndiansinpolicydecisions.TheOfficeofEconomicOpportunityandtheBureauofIndianAffairssupportedthecreationoftheRoughRockDemonstrationSchoolontheNavajoreservation,inparttopreservetheNavajolanguageandculture.Inaddition,Navajoparentswereagainabletocontroltheeducationoftheirchildren.
AstheCivilRightsMovementgrewinintensityinthe1960s,AmericaIndiantribesbegantoparticipateinaPan-Indianmovementthatrecognizedthattribessharedacommonsetofvaluesandinterests.TheAmericanIndianMovement(AIM)andtheIndiansofAllTribesleddemonstrationsdemandingself-determination.Atthesametime,aSenatereport,IndianEducation:ANationalTragedy—ANationalChallenge,condemnedpreviousfederaleducationalpoliciesforNativeAmericans.Thereportsaid“acarefulreviewofthehistoricalliteraturerevealsthatthedominantpolicyoftheFederalGovernmenttowardtheAmericanIndianhasbeenoneofforcedassimilation.…[becauseof]adesiretodivesttheIndianofhisland”(SenateCommitteeonLaborandPublicWelfare,1969,p.9).
Federalpolicybegantochange.TitleVIIoftheElementaryandSecondaryEducationActof1968providedsupportforbilingualprogramsinIndianlanguagesandEnglish.In1975,CongresspassedtheIndianSelf-DeterminationandEducationAssistanceAct,whichgavetribestherighttooperatetheirownschools.The1988TriballyControlledSchoolsActgavegrantstotribestooperatetheirownschools.Inacompleteswitchofearlierpolicyforassimilationandthedestructionofnativeculturesandlanguages,the1990NativeAmericanLanguagesActpromotedthepreservationoftraditionalNativeAmericanlanguages.
AfricanAmericans
TheeducationofAfricanAmericansisalsobuiltonahistoryofdiscrimination,buttheirrelationshipwiththeEuropeancolonizerswasdifferentthanthatoftheAmericanIndians.TheywerenotthenativeinhabitantsoftheUnitedStates.Forthemostpart,theyhadnotchosentoimmigratetotheUnitedStates,butenteredinvoluntarilybyforce.Theydidnotownlandthatthesettlerswanted,buttheywereacriticalsourceoflabornecessaryforthesoutherneconomy.MostAfricanAmericanswereownedandsold,andhadlittlecontrolovertheirownlives.Untiltheearlypartofthe20thcentury,mostAfricanAmericanslivedintheSouthwherebeforetheCivilWaritwasillegaltoattendschool.AlthoughliteracywasapunishablecrimeforAfricanslavesintheSouth,atleast5%ofthemwereliteratebytheoutbreakoftheCivilWar(Anderson,1988).
ParticipationinSchoolsAftertheRevolutionaryWar
AfricanAmericanchildrenintheNorthmostoftenattendedsegregatedandinferiorschools.Charityschoolsforfreedslavesopenedattheendofthe18thcenturyinPhiladelphia,NewYorkCity,andBaltimore(Kaestle,1983).AfricanAmericanchildrencouldattendBostonschoolsatthattime,butmostdidnotbecauseoftheirpooreconomicsituationsandthehostilereceptionoftheminschools.In1798agroupofblackparentspetitionedtheSchoolCommitteeforaseparateschooltoprotecttheirchildrenfromthehostileenvironment.TheSchoolCommitteedidnotaccepttheparents’proposalatfirst,butitchangeditspositionin1806andopenedasegregatedschoolwithpublicfundsandmoneyfromwhitephilanthropists(Spring,2011).
Bythe1820sblackparentsdecidedthatthesegregatedschoolwasprovidinganinferioreducationfortheirchildrenandbegantodemandbetterconditionsandteachers.TheypetitionedtheBostonSchoolCommitteein1846todesegregateschools.EventhoughtheSchoolCommitteefoundthesegregatedschoolsunacceptable,ittooknoactiontochangethoseconditionsortorequireitspublicschoolstobeopentoAfricanAmericanchildren.Inresponse,BenjaminRobertssuedthecityforexcludinghisdaughterfromall-whiteschoolsneartheirhome.HelosthiscasebeforetheMassachusettsSupremeCourtwhenitruledthatthecityhadprovided“aseparate,butequal”schoolforhisdaughter.Notlongafterwards,in1855,however,thestatelegislaturepassedalawthatpreventedthesegregationofschoolsbasedonraceorreligion,becomingthefirststatetooutlawschoolsegregation.TheBostonschoolswereintegratedthatyear(Spring,2011).
EducationintheSouth
BeforetheendoftheCivilWar,formerslavesintheSouthwerefightingforuniversaleducation.Theycravedliteracybutwereunwillingtowaitforthegovernmenttoprovideschools.TheyestablishedandstaffedtheirownschoolswithAfricanAmericanteachersthroughouttheSouth.TheAfricanAmericanteachers,schoolofficials,andotherleadersadoptedthecommonschoolidealwiththeNewEnglandclassicalliberalcurriculum.Thecurriculuminelementaryschoolsincludedreading,spelling,writing,grammar,diction,history,geography,arithmetic,andmusic.Intheblackcolleges,studentsstudiedLatin,Greek,mathematics,science,andphilosophy(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadaboutsegregatedschoolsintheSouth.
Topursuethegoalofuniversaleducation,theformerslavessoughtthehelpofRepublicanpoliticians,northernmissionarysocieties,theUnionarmy,andtheFreedmen’sBureau,whichhadbeencreatedbyCongressin1865.However,itwasveryimportanttothemthattheycontroltheirowneducation,whichwassometimesdifficultasnorthernmissionariesmovedintotheSouthtoestablishschools.WhenJohnW.AlvordwasappointedthenationalsuperintendentofschoolsfortheFreedmen’sBureauin1865,hediscoveredasystemofatleast500“nativeschools”ashetraveledacrosstheSouth(Anderson,1988).Theseschoolshadbeenestablishedandwerebeingmanagedbyex-slaveswhowerecommittedtoensuringthatAfricanAmericanchildrenandadultswouldlearntoreadandwriteassoonaspossible.Insomecommunities,blackchurchesdevelopedSabbathschoolsthatofferedliteracyinstructionintheeveningsandontheweekends.Intheseschools,thespellerwasasprevalentasthebible(Anderson,1988).
Mostplantersresisteduniversaleducationforformerslavesandimpoverishedwhites.Theiroppositionwas,inpart,duetoeconomics.Theplantersneededaworkforcethatwouldworkforlowwages;itdependedheavilyonchildlabor,whichledtoschoolsbeingopenedaslateasDecember.Theysupportedlowtaxes,opposedcompulsoryschoolattendance,anddiscourageduniversalpubliceducation.Eventually,theybegantoprovideschoolsforlow-incomewhitestudents,buttheyfailedtoprovideschoolsforblackchildreninmostcommunities.ThegainsmadebyAfricanAmericansinthe1860swerequicklystymiedandtheproportionattendingschoolbegantodrop(Anderson,1988).
EducationattheBeginningofthe20thCentury
Althoughex-slaveshadfoundedtheirschoolswithaclassicalcurriculum,someleadersquestionedtheneedforsuchadvancedstudy.TheyarguedthatblackchildrenwouldbebetterservedwithtrainingforthetradesandlearningtheirappropriateroleintheSouthernculture.Withthisgoalinmind,NorthernerSamuelChapmanArmstrongfoundedHamptonInstituteinVirginiatoprepareteachers.MostofHampton’searlystudentshadcompletedonlytheeighthgrade.Theywererequiredtoworklonghoursinasawmill,ontheschool’sfarm,orintheschool’skitchenordiningroomtodeveloptheethicofhardworkthatSouthernlandownersexpectedoftheirlaborers.OneofArmstrong’stopstudents,BookerT.Washington,foundedTuskegeeNormalandIndustrialInstitutein1881toextendArmstrong’spedagogy.
MostAfricanAmericanshadadifferentvisionfortheireducation.TheysawWashingtongivingintothewhitedemandsofindustrialistswhowantedasteady,complacentworkforceatlowwages.Theprimaryspokespersonforadifferentvision,W.E.B.DuBois,wantednocompromiseswiththepowerfulwhiteelites.Instead,hewantedtochallengetheoppressivesoutherneconomy.HearguedthatblackeducationshouldbeaboutpreparingtheAfricanAmericanleadersofthefuture.HesupportedtheclassicaleducationthatwasavailableinblackcollegeslikeAtlantaandWilburforce.WhileWashingtonsupportedsegregatedschooling,DuBoisbecameoneofthefoundersoftheNationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople(NAACP)—theorganizationthatspearheadedtheefforttodesegregateschoolslaterinthecentury.By1915,theDuBoissupportershadprevailed;theHampton-Tuskegeemodelbegantolosefavoramongitsprevioussupporters(Spring,2011).
Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,mostAfricanAmericanchildrendidnotattendelementaryschoolbecausenoschoolsexistedforthem,andtheywerenotallowedtoattendtheschoolsthatwhitechildrenattended.Iftheywantedaschool,AfricanAmericanfamiliesintheSouthoftenhadtobuildtheirownschoolseventhoughtheypaidlocalandstatetaxestosupportwhitesegregatedschools(Spring,2011).WhenAfricanAmericanchildrencouldattendschool,theirschoolswereusuallyinferiortothoseattendedbywhitestudents.Theschoolslackedequipmentandsupplies.Theywereallocatedtextbooksaftertheyhadwornouttheirusefulnessinthewhiteschools.FamiliesandleadersintheAfricanAmericancommunityturnedtothecourtsforsupportinaccessingresourcesfortheeducationoftheirchildren.
SchoolDesegregation
Nearly100courtcasesfrom20statesandtheDistrictofColumbiawerefiledforequaleducationinthe19thcentury.AfricanAmericansintheNorthwonamajorityoftheircases,prohibitingsegregationintheirpublicschools(Hendrie,2000).Nevertheless,segregationcontinuedintheSouth.AfterHomerPlessywasarrestedforrefusingtorideinthe“colored”sectionofatraininLouisiana,heprotestedthathis
FourteenthAmendment
rightshadbeenabridged.TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtdisagreed,rulinginits1896Plessyv.Fergusondecisionthat“separatebutequal”facilitieswerelegal.Thisdecisionsupportedthesegregationofschoolsforthenextsixdecades.
TheNAACPdecidedtopursuealegalpathtowarddesegregatingpublicschools.FivecasesfromSouthCarolina,Virginia,Delaware,Kansas,andtheDistrictofColumbiawerepercolatinginthelowercourtsinthemid-1940s.ThefirstfourcaseswerearguedbeforetheU.S.SupremeCourtin1952and1953byThurgoodMarshall,wholaterbecamethefirstAfricanAmericanSupremeCourtjustice.In1954theCourtdeclaredthat“[i]nthefieldofpubliceducationthedoctrineof‘separatebutequal’hasnoplace.Separateeducationalfacilitiesareinherentlyunequal”(Brownv.BoardofEducationofTopeka,1954).Thefifthcase,Bollingv.Sharpe(1954),declaredthatthefederalgovernmentcouldnotsegregateschoolsintheDistrictofColumbia.
Mostschooldistrictsdidnotrespondtothismandateuntilafterthepassageofthe1964CivilRightsAct.Manywhitefamiliesfiercelyresistedthedesegregationoftheirschools.IncitieslikeLittleRock,Arkansas,theNationalGuardprotectedAfricanAmericanstudentswhowereenteringwhiteschoolsforthefirsttime.Virginia’sPrinceEdwardCountySchoolBoardresisteddesegregation,closingitspublicschoolsforfiveyears.WhitefamiliesestablishedprivateChristianschoolsormovedtothesuburbswherethepopulationwasprimarilywhitetoavoidintegration.The1971Swannv.Charlotte-Mecklenburgdecisionmoveddesegregationeffortstoanotherlevelwhenituphelddistrict-widebusingtoovercomesegregation.
Asschoolsweredesegregated,manyAfricanAmericanteachersandprincipalswhohadworkedinsegregatedschoolswerenotinvitedtoteachintheintegratedschools,leavingmanyofthemwithoutjobs.However,theraceofthestudentsinschoolsdidchangeinthethreedecadesfollowingtheBrowndecision.Inthemid-1960sonly2%ofblackstudentsattendedintegratedschools;bythelate1980s,45%ofthemwereinintegratedschools(Frankenberg,Lee,&Orfield,2003).Duringthisperiod,ruralandsmall-townschoolsacrosstheSouthwereintegrated.Theachievementgapbetweenblackandwhitestudentsclosedsubstantially,studentsofcolorhadgreateraccesstoqualityschoolsandcollegeadmission,andstudentswerebetterpreparedtoworkandinteractinamulticulturalsociety(Boger&Orfield,2005).EvenmoredramaticthanthedesegregationofschoolsduringthisperiodwasthedismantlingofPlessyv.Fergusonanditsresulting
JimCrowlaws
,whichdidnotallowAfricanAmericanstousethesamefacilitiesaswhites.
Bythemid-1980sfederalcourtsanctionsforintegrationbegantobelifted.AftertheSupremeCourtallowedfederalcourtstoenddesegregationplanswithBoardofEducationofOklahomaCityv.Dowellin1991,manyfederalcourtsprohibitedschooldistrictsfromvoluntarilyusingrace-consciousassignmentpoliciestomaintaindiversityintheirschools(Boger&Orfield,2005).Becauseof
defactosegregation
inmanycommunities,neighborhoodschoolswereoftencomprisedofstudentsofthesamerace.Segregationinschoolsbegantoreturntopre-1970levels.Atthebeginningofthe21stcenturyAfricanAmericanandLatinostudentswereagainmuchmorelikelythanotherstudentstoattendschoolsthatarecharacterizedbypovertyandtheirpeersarepredominantlyotherstudentsofcolor.Halfofthenation’sschoolsarehighlysegregatedwhiteschools,butthedegreeofpovertyinthoseschoolsisconsiderablyless.Althoughtheabilitytoattendlessimpoverishedschoolsprovidesallstudentsabetterchanceatbeingsuccessfulinschoolandlife,theone-timegoalofintegratingschoolshasbeenabandoned(Boger&Orfield,2005).
Latinos
WhetherMexicanAmericanstudentscouldattendthesameschoolsaswhitesdependedonwhethertheywereclassifiedaswhite.TherewasnocommonagreementontheraceofMexicanAmericans.In1897,TexascourtsruledthatMexicanAmericanswerenotwhite.However,CaliforniaclassifiedthemasCaucasianuntil1930whentheAttorneyGeneralcategorizedthemasAmericanIndians(Spring,2001).Asaresultofnotbeingwhite,mostMexicanAmericanchildrenattendedsegregatedschoolsthroughthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury.ThesameseparatebutequallawsappliedtothemastoAfricanAmericans.
AfricanAmericanstudentsoftenhadtobeprotectedbytheNationalGuardastheydesegregatedschoolsinthe1960s.
TheBattlefortheUseofSpanish
Inadditiontobeinginsegregatedschools,MexicanAmericanstudentsoftenwerenotallowedtospeakSpanishinschool.ToensurethatteacherswoulddeliverinstructioninEnglish,statespassedlawstothateffect.In1918TexasmadeitacriminaloffensetouseanylanguageotherthanEnglishforinstruction.Often,studentswereforbiddentouseSpanishatanytimewhiletheywereinschool.Inthelasthalfofthe19thcentury,MexicanAmericanssenttheirchildrentoCatholicornonsectarianprivateschools,bothofwhichweremorelikelytoprovidebilingualinstruction,toescapetheanti-Mexicanattitudesofpublicschools(Spring,2011).
ManyMexicanAmericanchildrenwerenotattendingschoolatthebeginningofthe20thcentury,inpart,becausefarmerswerenotwillingtoreleasethemfromworkinthefieldtoattendschool.Ontheotherhand,manyschoolofficialswantedtheminschoolstoAmericanizethemandridthemoftheirculturesandlanguage(Spring,2011).
DeeperLook
ReadmoreaboutLatinoeducation.
ConcernedaboutdiscriminationagainstMexicanAmericanstudentsinpublicschools,theLeagueofUnitedLatinAmericanCitizens(LULAC)calledforbilingualinstructionandthemaintenanceofMexicanculturaltraditionsinschoolsasearlyas1929.However,theEnglish-onlylawswerenotrepealeduntil1968whenthefederalgovernmentsupportedbilingualeducationasanoptionforteachingEnglish-languagelearners(Spring,2011).Asthefederalpolicyhasmovedawayfromsupportofbilingualeducationinrecentyears,somestateshavenowreturnedtolawsprohibitingbilingualeducationandtheuseofanylanguageotherthanEnglishforclassroominstruction.
MexicanAmericanfamilieswerefightingfortherighttoattendwhiteschoolsatthesametimethatAfricanAmericanshadturnedtothecourtsforassistance.Inthe1930stheTexascourtsupheldtherightofschoolboardstoprovidesegregatededucationforMexicanAmericans.Thefirstbreakthroughforintegrationoccurredwiththe1947Mendezv.WestminsterSchoolDistrictdecisionthatrequiredaCaliforniaschooldistricttoallowaMexicanAmericangirltoattendthewhiteschool.TheMexicanAmericanLegalDefenseandEducationFund(MALDEF)wasestablishedin1967tocontinuesuingforthecivilrightsandequalityofMexicanAmericanstudents.Courtcasessincethenhavefocusedondiscriminatorypracticesinthefundingofschools,thesoleuseofEnglishinclassrooms,andthedisproportionateplacementofSpanish-speakingchildreninspecialeducationclassesasaresultofbiasedtestsortestsbeinggiveninEnglish.
EquityforPuertoRicans
EducationforstudentsinPuertoRicohasbeeninterrelatedwithahistoryofoccupationbytheUnitedStates.PuertoRicohadjustreceiveditsautonomyfromSpainwhenitcameunderthecontroloftheUnitedStatesaspartofthespoils(alongwiththePhilippinesandGuam)fromtheSpanish-AmericanWarattheendofthe19thcentury.Withthe1900ForakerAct,CongressestablishedacolonialgovernmenttoreplacemilitaryruleinPuertoRicoandappointedthefirstU.S.CommissionerofEducationforPuertoRico.JustaswithAmericanIndians,thefederalpolicywastoAmericanizePuertoRicansthrougheducation.BecausethelanguageofinstructionwastobeEnglishandmanyPuertoRicanteachersspokeonlySpanish,teachersfromtheUnitedStateswerehired.NotonlywerestudentsexpectedtolearnEnglish;theywerealsosupposedtolearnAmericanways.EducationalpoliciesrequiredcelebrationoftheU.S.patrioticholidays,suchastheFourthofJuly.StudentswererequiredtopledgeallegiancetotheU.S.flagandstudyU.S.heroes.LocaltextbookswerereplacedwithU.S.textbooks.Whennewteachersappliedforateachingcertificate,theirtestincludedanEnglishexamination(Spring,2011).
PuertoRicanswerenotinterestedinbecomingAmericansandlosingtheirownnativelanguageandculture.In1912,thePuertoRicanTeachersAssociationbegantodefendSpanishasthelanguageofinstruction.WhenastudentatSanJuan’sCentralHighSchoolwasexpelledin1915forcollectingsignaturesinsupportofinstructioninSpanish,astudentstrikewassparked(Spring,2011).Callsfornationalismandindependencewerecommon.CongressgrantedPuertoRicanscitizenshipin1917,whichobligatedthemtoserveinthemilitary,butdidnotgranttherighttovoteinelections.
Tensionsincreasedinthe1920swhenaPuertoRicanwhosupportedtheUnitedStates’assimilationpoliciesbecametheCommissionerofEducation.Hepressedhispredecessor’spoliciesevenfurther.HerequiredseniorstopassanEnglishexaminationbeforetheycouldgraduate.HebannedschoolnewspapersinSpanish.TeacherswererequiredtouseEnglishinteachermeetingsandinformaldiscussionswithstudents.Protestsbyteachers,professors,andcollegestudentsexpanded.Collegestudentswereexpelledforparticipatinginanti-Americanmarchesandprofessorswerewarnedtostopsupportingstudentprotests(Spring,2011).
TheeffortstochangeU.S.educationalpoliciesinPuertoRicoresultedinthePadinReformof1934,whichrestrictedEnglishinstructiontohighschools.Spanishcouldbeusedatotherlevels.However,textbookscontinuedtobeprintedinEnglish.AftertheTeachersAssociationhadsuccessfullylobbiedthePuertoRicanlegislaturetopassabillrequiringtheuseofSpanish,PresidentHarryTrumanvetoedit.AfterPuertoRicowasgrantedcommonwealthstatusin1951,PuertoRicansgainedgreatercontroloftheirschoolsystems,restoringSpanishasthelanguageofinstruction(Spring,2011).
AsianAmericans
ThefirstChinesemigrantsarrivedinCaliforniainthe1850stojointhegoldrushasfreelaborers.Theyfacedagreatdealofhostilityanddiscriminationfromthedominantwhitepopulation.ThecourtsconsideredChineseimmigrantsashavingthesamestatusasAmericanIndians,andpoliciesrelatedtocitizenshipcontinuedtodiscriminateagainstAsians.Itwasnotuntil1943thattheChineseExclusionLawwasrescinded,allowingChineseimmigrantstherighttobecomenaturalizedcitizens(Spring,2011).
Whenthecourtruledin1885thatnative-bornMamieTapehadequalaccesstopublicschooling,theCalifornialegislaturerespondedbyallowingschooldistrictstoestablishsegregatedschoolsforAsianAmericans.By1905,thesegregatedsysteminSanFranciscowasbrokenasChineseyouthswereadmittedtotheregularcityhighschool(Spring,2011).SoutherncourtsretainedAsianAmericanchildreninsegregatedschoolsattendedprimarilybyAfricanAmericans.ThefamilyofaChineseAmericangirlarguedthatshewasnotblackandthereforeshouldbeabletoattendthewhiteschool.However,thecourtruledin1924thatshewasnotwhiteandgaveschoolstheauthoritytodeterminetheraceoftheirstudents(Spring,2011).
Afterthepassageofthe1965ImmigrationAct,thenumberofAsianimmigrantsbegantogrow.SchoolsincitieslikeSanFranciscowerefacedwithagrowingnumberofstudentswhospokelanguagesotherthanEnglish.BecausethelanguageofinstructionwasEnglish,parentsworriedthattheirchildrenwerenotabletoachieveatthehighacademiclevelstheyexpected.TheysuedtheSanFranciscoschoolsystemand,in1974,wontherighttohavetheirfirstlanguageusedininstructioninLauv.Nichols.Thecourtsaid“understateimposedstandards,therewasnoequalityoftreatmentmerelybyprovidingstudentswiththesamefacilities,textbooks,teachers,andcurriculum;forstudentswhodonotunderstandEnglishareeffectivelyforeclosedfromanymeaningfuleducation”(Lauv.Nichols,1974).
HOWHASTEACHINGEVOLVED?
Askedabouttheteachingprofessionitself,Mr.Kuhn,whohasservedonnegotiatingteamsfortheteachers’union,indicatedthat“teachersaregenerallyhighlyrespectedinmycommunity.Youhavetoearntheirrespect.Onceyouhavegainedthatrespect,studentsandtheparentswillrespectyou.”
Theroleofwomeninteachingdefinestheprofession.Becauseoftheirtraditionalrolesasnurturingmothers,womenhavebeenseenasthenaturalteachersofchildren.Historically,theyhaveprovidedastable,inexpensive,moralteachingforceforthecountry.Womenhavenotalwaysbeenthemajorityofteachers.Duringthecolonialperiod,teachersweremenexceptinthedameschools.AftertheRevolutionaryWar,femalesbegantoberecruitedasteachers.Teacherstodayareevenmorelikelytobewomenthaninthe19thcentury,whichmaycontributetothelowerstatusattributedtoteaching.
Theemergingpatterninthe19thcenturywasmenadministratorsmanagingwomenteachers.TheleadershipoftheNEAwasmaleschooladministrators,collegepresidents,andprofessorsthroughoutmostofitsfirst100years.Womenteachershadtoseekpermissionfromthemaleleadershiptospeakatthebusinessmeetingsoftheannualconference.TheAmericanFederationofTeachers(AFT),ontheotherhand,evolvedfromtheChicagoFederationofTeachers,wheretwoactivistwomenteachers—MargaretHaleyandCatherineGoggin—joinedforceswithorganizedlaborbecausetheyfelttheysharedthesameinterestsasworkers(Spring,2011).
Althoughteachersareheldresponsibleforpreparingstudentstomeetnationalstandards,theyhavenotalwaysbeenrepresentedinthegroupsdevelopingthosestandards.Theexpertiseandknowledgeofteachersarenotyetvaluedbythepolicy-makers,businessleaders,andthinktanksasreflectedbytheirlimitedinvolvementonmanynationalandstatecommitteesoneducationreform.TheCenterforTeachingQualityassertsthat“teachersmustbeseenassolutions,notproblems”toraisestudentachievementandservestudentseffectively(Berry,2011,p.20).
TeacherPreparation
Toensurethatteacherstaughtthecurriculumthateducationalleadersdesired,teachereducationprogramsweredeveloped.ReverendSamuelHalliscreditedwithestablishingoneofthefirstinstitutionsforpreparingteachersin1823inConcord,Vermont,butEmmaWillardhadopenedtheTroyFemaleSeminaryin1821,inwhichwomenearnedtheircertification,whichmanyschoolboardsrequired.However,certifiedteacherswerenotreadilyavailableinmanyruralareasforanothercentury(Spring,2011).
Womenteachersinthe19thcenturywereexpectedtobesingle andfollowstrictcodesofbehaviorsetbylocalschoolboards.
Normalschoolswereestablishedin1839inLexington,Massachusetts,toprepareteachersforelementaryschools.Moststudentsinnormalschoolswerewomenwhohadcompletedelementaryorcommonschools,buthadnotcompletedhighschool.Curriculuminthenormalschoolsrequiredonetotwoyearsofstudyinwhichtheelementaryschoolcurriculumwasreviewed,classroommanagementstudied,andteachingmethodstaught.Manyoftoday’sstatecollegesanduniversitiesbeganasnormalschools.Theychangedtheirnamesandexpandedtheirmissionsbeyondthepreparationofteachersinthemid-1900s.Today,theycontinuetopreparethemajorityofteachersinthecountry.
Teachersofchildreninthe1700shadnotalwaysfinishedelementaryschoolalthoughteachersofadolescentsmayhaveattendedcollege.Theamountofeducationincreasedineachcenturythatfollowed.Inthe1800s,agrowingnumberofelementaryschoolteacherscompletedhighschoolandbegantoattendteacherinstitutesandnormalschoolstofurtherdeveloptheirknowledgeofthesubjectstheywereteachingaswellastheirteachingskills.Itwasnotuntilthemid-1900sthatmostteacherscompletedafour-yearcollege,whichisnowrequiredforateachinglicense.Intothemid-1900steachershadmoreeducationthanmostmembersoftheircommunity.However,bythebeginningofthe21stcentury,alargerproportionofthepopulationhadabachelor’sdegreethaninpreviouscenturies.
TeacherBehavior
Teachershavelongbeenunderthecontrolofschoolboardsandadministrators.Notonlydidadministratorsoverseetheworkofteachersandselecttheirtextbooks;theyalsomonitoredtheirpersonalbehavior.Teacherswereexpectedtoliveexemplarymorallives.Theirsocialactivitiesweremonitoredbyschoolofficialsthroughoutthe19thcenturyandintothe20th.HoraceMannin1840indicatedthatateachershouldhave“perfect”knowledgeofthesubjectbeingtaught,anaptitudeforteaching,whichhebelievedcouldbelearned,theabilitytomanageandgovernaclassroomandmoldmoralbehavior,goodbehaviorasamodelforstudents,andgoodmorals(Spring,2011).
EventhoughmoralswereonlyoneofHoraceMann’sfivequalifications,itappearedtobeoneofthemostimportanttoschoolsuperintendentsandschoolboardmembers.Contractsforwomenteachersdidnotallowthemtosocializewithmenorbemarried.Theemphasisonhighmoralcharactercontinuedintothe20thcenturyasteacherswerewarnedthattheyshouldbeverycarefulabouttheirdressandbehavior.Althoughmoralcharacterisnotincludedintoday’steachercontracts,teachersarestillexpectedbythepublictobemodelsofhighmoralcharacter.
Teachers’Lounge
One-RoomSchool
ThisstorywastoldtoDr.Sturgeonin2003.Theinformationwasgatheredaspartofanundertakingtodocumenttheteachingexperiencesof1930sand1940sone-roomschoolteachersinMasonCounty,WestVirginia.
OK,I’lltellyouaboutfunthingsintheone-roomschool.Thechildrenlikeditwhenweplayed“button,button,whohasthebutton”becausetheyalwaysseemedsoexcited.Theyalsolookedforwardtoplaying“ISpy.”Whenweplayed“ISpy”youwouldhidethesescissorssothatmaybeonlythetipendwouldstickout.Thentheywouldhavetohidetheireyes;allbuttheonethatwashidingthescissorswasupandaround.Hewouldwalkaroundandaroundinsidetheschoolandthenafterhehadhiddenthescissorssomewherehewouldpretendhewasputtingtheminotherplacessothattheywouldn’tknowjustwhereyouwere.So,OKtheyarehiddenandthekidsgetupoutoftheirseatsandthentheteacherwouldsay“Wayne,you’regettinghot,you’regettinghot.”Thecloseryougottoit,thehotteryou’dget.Or,“Oh,Thelma,you’recold,you’rejustsocoldit’sawonderyouwouldn’tbefreezing,”youknow,stufflikethat.Anyway,thenwhoeverfounditgottohideitthenfromtherestofthem.Then,“Button,Button,WhoHastheButton?”you’dseatthemall;youhadthesefrontseats,youknow,wherethekidscameuptorecite,andsotherewouldbealongrowofjustpeoplesittingandtheywouldhavetoholdtheirhand.Thenyouhadabutton,anditwouldslidethroughtheirhands.Onlyonepersongotthebuttonupthere.Soyouhadtomake,pretendlikeyouweredroppingitwhenyouweren’tsothatwhenyougotthroughthenfinallyyou’dopenyourhandandshowittosomeoneelse.Thentheteacherwouldsay,“OK,button,button,whohasthebutton?”Thenshe’dsay,“CarlaMayhasit.”Thenshe’dsay,“NoIdon’t.”“Fred.Fredhasit.”“Nope.”Sofinallythey’dgetitandwhoeverhaditlast,theygottobethebuttonhider.Theywerefun,becausewedidn’thaveanytoysorplaygroundequipmentorcomputergames,youknow.Wewerealltogetherintheschool,inoneroom.Wehadabaseballbatandsoftball.Andthat’saboutallwehad.Alotdifferentfromtoday.ButIlovedeveryday.Thatschoolwasthecenterofthoselittlecommunities.
Dr.DouglasSturgeon
ShawneeStateUniversity
Portsmouth,Ohio
ChallengingAssumptions
Arecollegestudentspreparingtobeteachersasacademicallystrongascollegestudentspreparingforotherjobs?
TheAssumption
Someteachercandidatesarenotasacademicallytalentedasothercollegestudents,contributingtothelowerthanexpectedacademicperformanceofPreK–12students.
StudyDesignandMethod
AresearcherattheEducationalTestingService(ETS)examinedcollegestudents’performanceontheSAT,PraxisIIlicensuretestsofcontentknowledge,andundergraduateGPAstodeterminewhetherthisassertionwastrue.
StudyFindings
TeachercandidatestodayhavestrongerundergraduateGPAsthantheirpredecessorswithover80%ofthemreportinga3.00orhigherGPA.AsmallerproportionofcandidatestakingPraxisIIarepassingit,primarilybecausestateshaveraisedtheirlicensurerequirements.Bothcandidateswhohavecompletedteachereducationprogramsandthoseinalternaterouteprogramshavestrongeracademicprofilesthaninthepastacrossethnic,racial,andgendergroups.
TheresearchdataindicatedthatcandidatesinsecondaryprogramshadverbalSATscoresatleastasstrongasothercollegestudentsandsometimesstronger.TeachercandidatesinmathandsciencehadmathSATscoreswellaboveothercollegegraduates.AlthoughscoresontheverbalandmathportionsoftheSATareimproving,candidatesinelementary,special,andphysicaleducationscorelowerthanothercollegestudents.Theacademicprofilesofmiddlelevelteachercandidatesaremorelikeelementaryteachersthansecondaryteachers.
Implications
Toensurethatmorecandidatespassthecontenttestforlicensure,collegesanduniversitiesmayconsiderraisingrequirementssuchasGPAsforadmissionintoteachereducation.Ananalysisofcandidateperformanceonlicensuretests,theirperformanceonauthenticassessmentssuchasperformanceinstudentteaching,andtheachievementoftheirstudentsduringthefirstyearsofpracticecouldprovidevaluableinformationaboutthepredictabilityofcurrentassessmentsfordeterminingsuccessfulpracticeinclassrooms.
Source:Gitomer,D.H.(2007).Teacherqualityinachangingpolicylandscape:Improvementsintheteacherpool.Princeton,NJ:EducationalTestingService.
CONNECTINGTOTHECLASSROOM
Thischapterhasprovidedyouwithsomebasicinformationabouthowschoolsandtheeducationofdifferentstudentshaveevolvedtotheschoolsweknowtoday.Belowaresomekeyprinciplesforapplyingtheinformationinthischaptertotheclassroom.
1.Thehistoryofeducationhelpsusunderstandteachingpracticesthathavebeentriedpreviouslybyeducators,thereasonsfortheirfallingoutoffavor,andthepossibilityoftheirrecyclingagainasdesirablepractice.
2.Teachersinprimary,middle,andhighschoolsareexpectedtoprovideage-appropriateeducationforstudentsbasedonresearchonchildandadolescentdevelopment.
3.Goodteachersareabletoanalyzeandevaluatethedifferentcurriculumpackagestheirschooldistrictsarelikelytoimposeonthemduringtheircareersandmakewise,pedagogicallysounddecisionsabouttheiruseintheirclassrooms.
4.TheCivilRightsMovementofthe1960sand1970swasthefoundationforensuringthatanequaleducationcouldfinallybeaccessibletoallchildrenregardlessoftheirrace,ethnicity,socioeconomicstatus,language,gender,andabilities.
5.Expectationsforthehighacademicachievementofteacherscontinuestoriseinthesetimesofaccountability.
SUMMARY
Thischapterreviewedkeydevelopmentsoverthepastfourcenturiesthatestablishedpublicschoolsandinfluencedtheschoolsyouknowtoday.Thefollowingfivemajortopicswerediscussed:
· EstablishmentofpublicschoolsintheUnitedStates.TheConstitutiongavetheresponsibilityforeducationtostates,whichwereexpectedtoprovideschoolsfortheirchildren.
· Schoolsdesignedbystudents’age.Asscholarslearnedmoreaboutchildandadolescentdevelopment,schoolsweredividedintogradelevelstomeettheneedsofearlychildhood,elementary,middlelevel,andhighschoolstudents.
· Historicalinfluencesontheschoolcurriculum.Thecurriculumhasbeeninfluencedbystrongreligiousandnationalisticthemes,theindustrialrevolutioninthe1800s,theprogressivemovementintheearly1900s,andthelaunchingofthefirstsatellitebytheSovietUnionin1957.
· Educationandequality.Whenstudentsofcolorbeganattendingschool,theywereenrolledinsegregatedschools,whichdidnotchangeuntilschoolsweredesegregatedinthe1960s.
· Theevolutionofteaching.Thepreparationofteachershasevolvedfromtherequirementforcompletionofelementaryschoolincolonialdaystoacollegedegreetoday.
CLASSDISCUSSIONQUESTIONS
1.TodayAmericansassumethatafreeanduniversaleducationisa“right,”butthathasnotalwaysbeenthecase.Ifyouhadbeenaparticipantinthevariousdebatesofthepastthreecenturies,whywouldyouhavearguedfor,oragainst,thestateestablishingcommonschools?Howwouldyouhavearguedaboutcitizensbeingtaxedtopayforpublicschoolsforallchildren?Whatistherelationshipoftheseissuestodebatestodayaboutvoucherstoattendprivateschools,charterschools,anddecreasesinstatesupportofpubliceducation?
2.Youhaveprobablydecidedthatyouwanttoteachstudentsofaspecificage.Howlonghaveschoolsforthisgroupofstudentsexistedandwhatmakesstudentsofthisagedifferentfromstudentsatadifferentlevel?Whyhaveyouchosentoworkwithchildrenofthisage,andhowwillyoulearntheage-appropriatestrategiesforthesestudents?
3.TheIndustrialRevolution,progressiveness,andSputnikIareamongsocietalchangesthathaveimpactedtheschoolcurriculumoverthepast200years.Whatremnantsoftheseeventsandtheearlyemphasisonreligionandnationalismarereflectedintoday’sschools?
4.Historically,notallchildrenhavehadaccesstothesamequalityofeducation,sometimeslegallynotbeingallowedtoeitherattendschoolorattendschoolwithwhitestudents.Whatfactorsledtothechangesinequaleducationalopportunitythatoccurredinthe1960sand1970s?Howhaseducationchangedforstudentsofcolorsincethe1954Brownv.BoardofEducationdecisionbytheSupremeCourt?
5.Theeducationleveloftoday’steachersismuchhigherthaninthepast.Inwhatotherwayshavetheconditionsofteachingchangedoverthepasttwocenturies?Whatconditionsappeartoremainlittlechangedfromthepast?
KEYTERMS

Authoritarian

Compulsoryattendance

Freeanduniversaleducation

Catechism

Deculturalizing

JimCrowlaws

Charityschools

Defactosegregation

Manifestdestiny

Commonschools

FourteenthAmendment

Morals
SELF-ASSESSMENT
WHATISYOURCURRENTLEVELOFUNDERSTANDINGANDTHINKINGABOUTTHEHISTORYOFSCHOOLSINTHEUNITEDSTATES?
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.Afteryouanswerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan,rateyourknowledgeontheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanapplytheideaspresentedinthischapter.
1.Whoaresomeofthekeyeducatorsandscholarswhocontributedtotheestablishmentofthecommonschoolsinthe1800sandtheearlychildhoodandmiddleschoolmovementsinthe1900s?
2.Howhasthefieldofchilddevelopmentcontributedtothetypesofschoolsthatexisttoday?
3.Whywerehighschoolsinitiallyestablished?Whyandhowhavetheychangedsincethoseearlydays?
Whatisyourcurrentlevelofunderstandingofwhyschoolsdevelopedintoeducationalsettingsforstudentsofdifferentagelevels?

ComplexityofThinkingRubric

Parts&Pieces

Unidimensional

Organized

Integrated

Extensions

Indicators

Elements/concepts aretalkedabout asisolatedand independententities.

Oneorafew conceptsare addressed,while othersareunderdeveloped.

Deliberateand structured considerationof allkeyconcepts/ elements.

Allkeyconcepts/ elementsare includedinaview thataddresses interconnections.

Integrationofallelements anddimensions,with extrapolationtonew situations.

Understanding ofhistory ofschool development

Identifiessomeofthe keypeopleinvolved inestablishing commonschools,early childhoodeducation, andmiddlelevel education.

Identifiestheroleof childdevelopment increatingthetype ofschoolsthatexist today.

Describesthe developmentof schoolsbasedonthe ageofstudents.

Discussesthe developmentofschools basedontheageof studentsandthework ofthescholarsand educatorswhocontributed totheirdevelopment.

Exploresthemajor developmentsovertime oftheleveloftheschool inwhichhe/sheplansto teachanddiscussesthe majorissuesfacedatthat schoolleveltoday.
STUDENTSTUDYSITE
VisittheStudentStudySiteat
www.sagepub.com/hall
toaccesslinkstothevideos,audioclips,andDeeperLookreferencematerialsnotedinthischapter,aswellasadditionalstudytoolsincludingeFlashcards,webquizzes,andmore.
FieldGuide
forLearningMoreAbouttheHistoryofSchoolsintheUnitedStates
AskaTeacherorPrincipal
Identifyateacherwhohasbeenteachingformorethan10yearsandaskhimorhertodescribesomeofthecurriculumpackagesorprogramstheschoolsystemhasaskedteacherstouseovertheyears.Howlongdidmostofthemsurvive?Whyweretheysuccessfulornotsuccessful?Whatdoestheteacherthinkarekeystoacurriculumpackagebeingsuccessful?
MakeYourOwnObservations
Whenyoubeginteaching,youwillprobablyworkinapreschool,kindergarten,orprimary,elementary,middle,orhighschool.Yourteachinglicensemayallowyoutoteachobservationsattwoormorelevels.Thelevelsaredifferentnotonlyinthecurriculumtaught,butalsotheorganizationofaschooldayandtheinteractionsofstudentsandteachers.Asyouobserveteachersinschoolsattwodifferentlevels(forexample,middleandhighschool),makenotesofthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenthelevels.Youcouldorganizeyournotesintoatableornarrative.Writeabriefpaperonwhatlevelyouwouldprefertoteachandwhy.
ReflectThroughJournaling
Expectationsforeducationhavechangedgreatlysincecolonialtimes.Takeafewminutestoreflectinyourjournalonwhathaschangedandremainedthesamesincetheprimarygoalofeducationwastolearntoreadthescripturesandbeamoralandpatrioticperson.Inyouropinion,whatshouldbethegoalsofeducationtoday?
BuildYourPortfolio
Whatisthelargestgroupofcolorinyourcommunityorstate?Whatdoyouknowaboutthehistoricaleducationalexperiencesofthisgroupinyourcommunityorstate?Writeabriefpaperonthehistoricandcurrentsegregationorintegrationofschoolsinyourarea.
Teachershaveahistoryofnotbeingincludedasmembersofcommitteesorpanelsdevelopingpoliciestoreformeducation.Whyaretheynotincluded?Howcouldteachersbecomemoreinvolvedintheseactivities?Prepareabriefpaperabouttheimportanceofteacherinvolvementonpolicygroupsthataremakingrecommendationsforimprovingteachingandpublicschools.
ReadaBook
Formoreinformationontheissues,trends,andpersonalitiesthathaveshapededucationintheUnitedStatessince1900,checkthesearticlesbyEducationWeekstaff:EducationWeek,LessonsofaCentury:ANation’sSchoolsComeofAge(2000;Bethesda,MD:EditorialProjectsinEducation).
TolearnmoreaboutthecourtcasesthatledtoBrownv.BoardofEducationofTopekaandtheonesthatstoppeddesegregationlaterinthe1900s,readtheSpring2004issueoftheSouthernPovertyLawCenter’smagazineTeachingTolerance.
SearchtheWeb
CheckoutthereferencestotheConstitutionoftheUnitedStatesandtheamendmentsmentionedinthischapter(
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution.html
).
ListentoNationalPublicRadio’sdiscussionandbackgroundonthehistoricSupremeCourtcaseBrownv.BoardofEducationofTopekabyhistorians,politicalleaders,andeducators(
http://www.npr.org/news/specials/brown50/
).
Toreviewthe200-yearhistoryofeducationintheUnitedStateswithimagesofschools,classrooms,andstudents,visit
http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/timeline.html
,apartofthewebsiteofthePublicBroadcastingSystem(PBS).
CHAPTER16
SucceedinginYourTeacherEducationProgram,andBeyond
TeacherInterview:AmberVelasquez
AmberVelasquezisasecond-gradeteacher atChandlerOaksElementarySchool,in RoundRock,Texas.Ms.Velasquezisinher secondyearofteaching.Shegrewupin RoundRock,didherstudentteachinginthe schooldistrict,andisnowasecond-yearteacher.FromthetimeIwas5yearsold IknewthatIwantedtobeateacher.IwenttoschoolinRoundRock,graduatedfrom there,andnowIteachthere.
Whatisyourschoollike?
TheschoolhasgradesK–5andisinitssecondyearwith600-plusstudents.Ourfamiliesaremiddleandupperclass,dependingonwheretheylive.Thetwo-storybuildingisbrandnew,withlotsoftechnology.OurdistricthasacontractwithDell,abigcompanyinAustin,sowehavelotsoftechnology.
Wehavewindowsontheoutsideofeachclassroom.Theyarefairlybig.Wealsohavewindowslookingintothehallway.Theschoolexpectationisthatyourblindsarealwaysupforthewindowslookingoutsideandtheonesfacinginside.Inmanywaysyouareteachinginafishbowl!
Allsixofthesecond-gradeclassroomdoorsfaceabigcentralareacalledthe“Village.”Thisareaisanextensionofourclassrooms.TheVillagehousestechnologyincludingabigdocumentcameraandSmartBoardthatwecanuseforgrade-levelpresentationsandlessons.Eachclassroomhasabathroom,sotherearenobigbathroombreaks.Also,thereisabackwalkwayjoiningeachclassroom.
Whatadvicedoyouhaveforteachereducationcandidates?
LetmefastforwardtosomethingIwishIhadknown:Ijustwanttosharethatthisprofessionisachangingprofession.Therearegoingtobelotsoftrendsthathappen.Thereisgoingtobealotofcurriculumthatyouwilllearnisthe“rightway,”andtheonlywayduringyourteacherpreparationclasses.Thenyouwilllearnthatintherealworlditwillbetaughtinadifferentway.
Bestpracticeisagrowingpractice.ItisOKtofeelpassionateaboutthewayacurriculumistaught,butyoustillneedtobeknowledgeableaboutotherwaystodeliverthesamecurriculum.Sethighexpectationsforyourselfasapersonallearner.Asyoumoveclosertosecuringateachingpositionandevenafteryouhaveobtainedone,seekoutprofessionaldevelopmentopportunities,conferences,seminars,andbooks.Thepressureoflearningbestpracticeincreasesonceyouearnyourlicense.Holdyourselfaccountableformeetingyourlearningexpectations.
Towhatextentareparentsinvolvedinyourschool?
Ourparentsareveryinvolved.Theyareoncampusallthetime.Ifteachershavesomethingtheyneeddone,suchasabulletinboard,copies,orsomethingcutout,aparentwillvolunteertodothatforyou.ThereisaroomcalledtheProCenter.Parentscanworkonprojectsthere.Whatiswonderfulaboututilizingparentvolunteersisthatateachercanspendhertimeworkingonthingsthataremoreacademic,ratherthanspendingtimeputtingupbulletinboards.Theyreallyhelpout!
Ourparentssupporttheschoolbeyondtakingonbulletinboardsandcopying;theyorganizeeventsandfundraisersthatdirectlybenefitthecampusandthestudentsaswell.Wehada“CheetahWalk”—thatwasanamazingfundraiserheldattheschoolinthefall.Lotsofhardworkwaspouredintotheeventtomakeitasuccessfulfundraiserbytheparentsandtheteachers.TheparentsroutinelyorganizemonthlySpiritNightsatsurroundinglocalrestaurantsalso.Thelocalrestaurantsdonateapercentageoftheirearningsbacktotheschoolbetweenthesethours.Parentsalsolendtheirhandoutsideoftheschool;severalvolunteersjointeachersonfieldtripstohelpchaperonesmallgroupsofchildren.Theparentsworkhardtomakesureallneedsoftheteachersandstudentsaremetdaily!
Whatbringsyoujoyinteaching?
KnowingIamgivingbacktomycommunity.That’sahugepartofit.Igetachancetoteachinmyowncommunity.Seeingthechildrengrow.Youcanseeachildgrowinreading.Youcanseeachildgrowinwriting.Andyoualsocanseethemgrowsociallythroughtheirinteractionseveryday.
Also,youbecomeapersonofmanystrengths.Youstartthedayasateacherandasthedayprogressesyouadaptintoseveraldifferentsiderolestoaccommodatetheneedsofyourstudents:mother,nurse,confidant.Thejobisnotone-dimensional.It’sfastpaced;thenextdaywillneverbethesameastheonebefore,andeachdaywilltryyou.That’sprettyrewarding.
QuestionstoConsider
1.Howwouldyoufeelabouthavingsomanywindowsinyourclassroomandteachingina“fishbowl”?
2.InMs.Velasquez’sschool,parentsareintheschoolallday,everyday.Inwhatwayswillyouexpecttoinvolveparents?
3.Ms.Velasqueztalksalotabouthowimportantitistocontinuelearningonceyouareateacher.Isthisanewexpectationforyou?
INTRODUCTION
LearningOutcomes
Afterreadingthischapter,youshouldbeableto
1.Nameandhaveplansforwhatyouwillwanttoaccomplishduringyourteachereducationprograminorderforyoutobecomeahigh-qualitybeginningteacher.
2.Havenotesaboutthekeystepsyouwillneedtotaketogetyourfirstteachingposition.
3.Describewaysteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherscanbeleaders.
4.Identifyquestionsandtopicsrelatedtowhatyoucanlearnfromtalkingwithahighlysuccessfulteacher.
Teachingisoneofthemostimportantprofessions.Now,morethanatanyothertimeinhistory,students,parents,communities,andthenationneedoutstandingteachers.AshasbeendescribedinChapters1through15,becausetheneedissogreatandteachingissocomplex,thepreparationtobecomeateacherismorerigorousthaneverbefore.Theexpectationsforbeginningteachersarehighertoo.Forallofthesereasonsitisveryimportantforyoutotakeadvantageofeveryopportunitypresentedthroughoutyourteacherpreparationprogram.Nowisthetimetobeginanticipatingwhatyouwillneedtoknow,beabletodo,andhaveonrecordasyouseekandobtainyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition.Failuretobethinkingaheadcouldresultinnotobtainingyourmostpreferredbeginningteachingposition.
Thischapterbeginswithrecommendationsforsucceedinginyourteachereducationprogram.Theremainderofthechapterdescribesthemes,offersrecommendations,andidentifiesissuesrelatedtobeingasuccessfulandinfluentialbeginningteacher.Again,itisnottooearlyforyoutobeginthinkingabout,preparingfor,andanticipatingwhatyouwillneedtohaveandbeabletodotobeasuccessfulbeginningteacher.Howwillyouapplyforateachingposition?Whatkindsofdocumentationwillyouneedtohave,andhowcanyouprepareforthepositioninterview?Ifyoustartanticipatingandplanningnowyouwillseehowmuchofwhatyoudointheremainderofyourpreparationprogramwillbeusefultoyouinseeking,applyingfor,andobtainingtheperfectteachingposition.
Walkingintotheschoolasateacherforthefirsttimeisexcitingandalittlescary.
WHATAREKEYSTOSUCCEEDINGINYOURTEACHEREDUCATIONPROGRAM?
Somethingthatisveryimportantisreflection.Ikeptajournalmyfirstyearofstudentteachingandmyfirstyearasateacher.Iwouldwritedownthingsastheyhappened.ThenIwouldlookbackathowIhandleddifferentsituations.SometimesIwouldtweakitandwritewhatIwoulddothenexttimethathappened.Istillhavethatjournal.Iwouldrecommendreflection,becauseyoucanlearnsomuch.—Ms.Velasquez
Therearethreeveryimportantcomponentstoreflection.Thefirstistoappreciatehowimportanttheprocessofreflectingcanbetoyourlearningandcontinuallyimprovinginyourteaching.Second,keepingajournalprovidesarecordofyourefforts,whatworkedwell,andwhatyouwillwanttododifferentlynexttime.Thethirdimportantaspectisthatreflectionisapersonalexperience.Yourjournalingandthinkingaboutwhatyouhavedone,whatyouaredoing,andwhatyouwilldoisallaboutyourbecominganexceptionalteacher.Thesesamenotesandinsightsalsobecomeimportantexamplesforyoutodrawfromwhenyouareapplyingforyourfirstteachingposition.
Tohelpyouinrefiningyourreflectionefforts,weoffertwosetsofconceptualtools.Eachoftheseisagenericframeworkthatyoucanuseinreflectinguponyourteachingandthinkingabouthowwellyourstudentsarelearning.Thefirstprovidesaresearch-basedmethodtoreflectaboutyourdevelopingperceptionsandfeelingsaboutbecomingateacher.Thesecondframeworkintroducestwoveryusefulwaystothinkaboutlearning-centeredinstruction.
VideoLink
Learnmoreaboutteacherreflection.
Asyoucontinuewithyourpreparationstobecomeateacher,youwilltakeanumberofprofessionaleducationcoursesandhaveavarietyofclinicalandfieldexperiences.Asyouwillhaveheardalreadyfromyourfellowcandidates,somecoursesandexperiencesareperceivedasbeing“better”thanothers.Whatyouwilldiscoveristhatregardlessoftheperceivedqualityofthecourseorexperience,thereallygoodcandidatesusethemtoadvantage.Theyuseeveryassignmentandactivityasanopportunitytolearnmoreaboutteaching,studentlearning,andwhatclassroomsandschoolsarelike.Regardlessofthesituation,thehigh-qualitycandidateslearnandcontributetothelearningofothers.Theyareabletodothisbecausetheyunderstandthemselves,whatteachingisabout,andtheimportanceofusingeveryexperienceandopportunitytolearnmore.Theyalsocollectevidencetodocumenttheireffortsandwhattheyhavelearned,andartifactsthatindicatethedifferencestheymake.Theydoallofthisinspiteoftheirfeelingsofnotknowingitallandbeingverybusy.Thefollowingframeworkscanhelpyouunderstandanduseeverysituationasalearningexperience.
Teachersneedtosharetheirconcernsaboutindividualstudentsaswellashowthewholeschoolisdoing.
UnderstandingYourConcerns
Inordertounderstandtheirstudents,teachersmustfirstunderstandthemselves.Thisdoesnotrequireacomplexpsychologicalanalysis;however,eachofuswillhavecertainfeelingsandperceptionsabouteverysituation.Inaddition,eachofusmayperceivethesamesituationdifferently.Dependinguponourownperceptions,weconstructourpersonalinterpretationsofwhateachsituationmeans.Teachersdothisallthetimewhentalkingwithstudentsandcolleagues,andwhenthinkingaboutwhattheyandothersaredoing.
WhatAreYourConcernsRightNow?
Teachereducationcandidatesworryaboutgettinggoodgradesandwonderingwhatitwillfeelliketobeinfrontofawholeclassofstudents.Understandingthatallofusfilterandascribepersonalmeaningtoeventsandactionsisveryimportant,especiallyforteachers.Thisisthepersonalsideofteaching:understandingour
concerns
.Atanytimeyouwillhaveamixtureoffeelings,perceptions,worries,andpreoccupationsaboutteaching.Toillustratethisidea,takeaminutetorespondtothefollowingtask.
Open-EndedConcernsStatement
Asyouthinkaboutyourbecomingateacher,whatareyourconcerns?Don’tsaywhatothersareconcernedabout;instead,whatareyourconcernsatthistime?(Write/typeadescriptionofyourconcernsusingcompletesentences.)
Don’treadanyfurtheruntilyouhavewrittenyourresponse.
Theactivityofwritingyourconcernsiseasy.Developinganunderstandingofwhatyouhavewrittenisguidedbymorethan40yearsofresearch.Researchershavedocumentedthattheconcernsofteachereducationcandidatescanbeplacedincategoriesandusedbycandidatesandtheprogramfacultytoimprovelearning.Intheendteacherswhounderstandtheirownconcernsarebetterabletounderstandtheconcernsoftheirstudentsandcolleagues.
Itturnsoutthatourconcernscanbesortedintoasetofeasy-to-understandcategories.TheoriginalresearchonteacherconcernswaspioneeredbyFrancesFuller(1969),aprofessorattheUniversityofTexasatAustin.Sincethentheanalysisofconcernshasexpandedbeyondteachersandnowincludesunderstandingtheconcernsofpeopleinvolvedinchange(Hall&Hord,2011).
Table16.1StagesofConcern
StagesofConcernAbouttheInnovation
Source:Formoreinformation,seeHall,G.E.,&Hord,S.M.(2011).Implementingchange:Patterns,principlesandpotholes(3rded.).UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:Pearson.
DescribingTeacherConcerns
Teachereducationcandidates,teachers,andotherswilltypicallyhaveconcernsinoneoffourareas:Unconcerned,Self,Task,andImpact.Researchershavedividedthesemajorareasofconcernintoasetof
StagesofConcern
thatpeoplemaymovethroughastheyexperienceanytypeofchange.Sincebecomingateacherrepresentsamajorchangeprocess,theConcernsModelcertainlyapplies.AtypicalquestionthatateacherwouldaskwhensheorhehasconcernsineachoftheseareasandstagesispresentedinTable16.1.Thefollowingaregeneraldescriptionsofeachoftheseareasofconcern:
UnconcernedThereislittleornoconcernaboutteaching.Insteadtheconcernsareaboutothertopicssuchaswork,afamilyproblem,gettingalongwitharoommate,oranupcomingeventsuchasgettingticketsforaconcert.
SelfConcernsHavingenoughinformationandwantingtoknowmoreareofconcern,aswellasconcernsaboutone’sadequacyandabilitytobeasuccessfulteacher.Doubtmightbeaboutknowingenoughcontent,controllingtheclass,knowinghowtoteachaparticularlesson,orbeinguncomfortablewhenstandinginfrontoftheclass.Theseconcernscanpopupeachtimeyouenteranewclassroomoraregettingreadytoteachalessonforthefirsttime.
TaskConcernsFindingthetimetofiteverythingin,gettingallthematerialsorganized,preparinglessonplans,andgradingpapersarelikelytopicsofconcern.Learningthehow-to-do-itsofteachingandcoordinatingschedulesareotherindicatorsofTaskconcerns.Teachershavealottodo,sobeingconcernedaboutgettingitalldoneshouldmakesensetoyou.
ImpactConcernsHavingideasaboutwhatcouldbedonetofurtherimproveyoureffectivenessasateacherandespeciallyconcernsaboutstudentlearningareindicatorsofImpactconcern.Thinkingaboutwaystoincreaseallstudents’learning,improvingone’seffectivenessasateacher,andgettingthelasttwostudentstounderstandareclearindicatorsofImpactconcern.Anotherconcerncouldbeaboutworkingwithoneormorefellowteacherssothattogetheryoucanhaveagreatereffectonstudentlearning.
ThereIsaDevelopmentalPatterntoTeacherConcerns
Itisveryimportanttokeepinmindthatthereareno“bad”areasofconcern.Allareasofconcernarepossible.Infact,therearesomegeneralpatternstohowteacherconcernsevolve.TeachereducationcandidateswillhavemoreSelfandTaskconcerns,whileexperiencedteachershavemoreImpactconcerns.Ifyouthinkaboutit,thisdifferenceinthedistributionofconcernsmakessense.Beginnersaremorelikelytohavedoubtsabouttheirabilitytodosomething(Selfconcerns)andtobemorepreoccupiedwithlogisticsandgettingeverythingdone(Taskconcerns).Theseareasofconcernarealsocharacteristicoffirst-yearteachers.
Impactconcernsaremorelikelytobepresentwiththosewhoarecomfortableandconfidentwithwhattheyaredoing.Thisisthetimewhenteacherconcernscantrulyfocusonimprovingstudentlearning.Mostteacherswon’thaveamajorityoftheirconcernsbeingaboutImpactuntilaftertheyhavetaughtforseveralyears.
AssessingYourConcerns
Assessingone’sconcernsiseasytodo.OncethereisanunderstandingofthefourareasofconcernandthemorespecificStagesofConcern,asoutlinedinTable16.1,aperson’sconcernscanbeanalyzed.Whetherwrittenorspoken,mostconcernscanbesortedintooneofthefourareasandthenthespecificstagecanbeidentifiedusingthedescriptionsinTable16.1.
Asafirstexampleofhowtoassessanopen-endedconcernsstatement,readwhatyouwroteinresponsetotheopen-endedconcernsstatementthatwaspresentedabove.Dothefollowing:
1.Whichareaofconcern(Unconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact)ismostpresent?Wereyourconcernsmainlyrelatedtoteaching,ormoreaboutotherthings?Wereyourconcernscenteredmainlyonyourabilitytosucceedinyourcollegecourses?Didtheyrelatetohowyouwillmanageteaching?Didanypartofyourstatementrelatetostudentlearning?Asyoureadwhatyouwrote,whatistheoverallview—Unconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact?
2.WhichStage(s)ofConcernwasmostpresent?UsethedefinitionspresentedinTable16.1astheguidefordeterminingwhichStagesofConcernaremostoftenreflectedinyourstatement.Sometimeswhatyouhavewrittenwillnotbeaseasytofigureout,butwithalittlepracticesortingconcernstatementsbecomeseasier.
3.Keepthisanalysisofyourconcernsinmindasyoureadbelow.
ImplicationsoftheConcernsModelforTeacherEducationCandidates
Onceateacher’sconcernshavebeenanalyzed,theveryimportantfollow-upquestionshouldbethis:Whatneedstobedonetoaddresstheconcernsandtofacilitatetheteachercontinuingtoimprove?ThisquestioniswhatmakestheConcernsModelsoimportantforteachereducationcandidatesandinserviceteachers.Whenyouunderstandyourconcerns,youcandosomethingaboutthem.Effectiveteachereducationprogramsaredesignedwithcandidateconcernsinmind.Forexample,mostcandidateshaveconcernsaboutmanagingtheclassroom(Taskconcerns),somanypreparationprogramsincludeacourseonclassroommanagement.Anotherimportantcomponentofeffectiveteachereducationprogramsishowtoassessstudentlearning(TaskandImpactconcerns).
Candidatesthatunderstandtheirconcernscandomanythingsontheirowntoaddressthem.Forexample,candidateswithSelfconcernswillbemorehesitanttoaskquestionsofothers.“Whatiftheythinkmyquestionisstupid?”Understandingthistendencycanhelpyoutoassertyourselfmore.ThisinsightshouldalsohelpyoutobemoreunderstandingwhenyourstudentshaveSelfconcerns.
VideoLink
Watchavideoaboutprofessionalteachingconcerns.
MonitoringYourConcernsAboutTeaching
Asyoucontinueinyourteachereducationprogramandasyoubecomeafirst-yearteacheritwillbeimportantforyoutodocumenttheevolutionofyourconcerns.Atregularintervals,respondagaintotheopen-endedconcernsstatement.Youwilllikelyseeaprogressioninyourconcerns.Ideally,bytheendofstudentteachingyouwillhavefewerSelfandTaskconcernsandmoreImpactconcerns.However,asyoubecomeafirst-yearteacher,whatdothinkwillhappentoyourconcerns?
Mostfirst-yearteacherswillreturntohavingmoreSelfandTaskconcerns.Theyhavealottolearn,manylessonstoprepare,andmeetingstoattend,andtheyalsohavetogettoknowtheircolleaguesandtheprincipal.Itmakessensethatfirst-yearteacherswillhavemoreSelfandTaskconcerns.ThisisOK.Itiswhathappenstoanyofuswhenweareexperiencingsomethingnew(Hall&Hord,2011).
ImplicationsforYou
Wehaveintroducedtheideaofconcernswiththehopethatunderstandingyourconcernswillhelpyouinbeingreflective.Thisunderstandingwillhelpyoutotakestepstoresolvemanyofthem.Aswestatedabove,themoreyouunderstandaboutyourself,themorequicklyyoucanbecomeanexceptionalteacher.
TheConcernsModelcanhelpyouinanotherwaytoo.Whataboutyourclassmates?Whatdoyouhearabouttheirconcerns?DoyouhearmoreUnconcerned,Self,Task,orImpactconcerns?Theconcernsideaalsoappliestoyourstudents.Whatconcernsaretheyreflectingwhentheysay,“Idon’tknowifIcandothis”;“Ah,homeworktonight;Ialreadyhavetwohoursofitfortwoofmyotherclasses!”;or“Ihavecomparedmywritingtotherubriconthewall.Ineedtoworkontopicsentences.”
WhatAboutMs.Velasquez’sConcerns?
RereadtheopeninginterviewwithMs.Velasquez.WhichareasofconcernandwhichspecificStagesofConcerndidshetalkabout?ClearlyheroverallperspectiveisbasedinImpactconcerns.Shenotonlyexpressedconcernsaboutherstudentslearning(Stage4,Consequence);shealsoofferedsuggestionsforyourlearningasateachereducationcandidate(Stage4,Consequence).Ms.VelasquezalsoexpressedImpactconcernsabouttheimportanceofworkingwithcolleagues(Stage5,Collaboration).Giventhatatthetimeoftheinterviewshewasnearingtheendofhersecondyearofteaching,intermsoftheConcernsModelsheclearlyalreadyisahigh-qualityteacher.
StriveforQualityinYourTeaching
Ineverythingthatyoudoinyourteacherpreparationprogram,striveforquality.Ifaninstructormakesanassignmentthatisconfusing,askforclarification.Ifyouarenotfullysatisfiedwithafieldplacement,thinkthroughwhatyoucandotostilllearnfromtheexperience.Useeveryassignmentandexperienceasanopportunitytolearnmoreaboutteaching.Ineverysituationthereisthepotentialtofindanideathatcanhelpyoubecomeabetterteacher.Findingtheseideasisyourresponsibility.Herearethreeparticularlyusefulstrategies:
1.Haveinmindagenericteachingmodelthatcanbeusedtoexamineanyteachingsituation.
2.Takeadvantageofeveryfieldexperiencetolearnsomething.
3.Wheneverpossible,collectsamplesofteacherandstudentwork.
Teachersneedtospendtimethinking/reflectingandconsideringwhattodonextbasedonwhattheirstudentsaredoingnow.
Elliott’sGeneralModelofEffectiveInstruction
Throughoutthistexttheauthorshaveemphasizedtheimportanceofteachersfocusingonstudentlearning(backtoImpactconcerns).Wehavedescribedabroadarrayofcontextualfactors(e.g.,studentdiversity,specialneeds,andELL)andintroducedseveralinstructionalstrategies(e.g.,differentwaysofgroupingstudents).Theimportanceofassessingstudentlearningandmethodsfordoingso(e.g.,rubrics)hasbeenemphasized.Giventhelargenumberofmethods,strategies,andfactorsthathavebeenintroduced,itnowshouldbehelpfultoofferageneralmodelthatcanserveasanoverallorganizer,reminder,andguide.Suchamodelcanhelpyoukeepinmindallthatteachersneedtodotohavehigh-qualityteachingthatresultsinallstudentslearning.
OnesuchmodelhasbeenproposedbyEmersonElliott(2005)(seeTable16.2),whoisanationalexpertonaccreditationofteachereducationandassessinghigh-qualityteaching.Hismodel“definesexpectationsforevidencethatPreK–12studentlearninghasoccurred,constructedaroundacoreofactivitiesinwhichthecandidatetakesresponsibilityforasignificantunitofinstruction”(p.1).Thismodelisgeneric;itcanbeappliedtoalllevelsofschooling,differentkindsofstudents,andallsubjectareas.Eachofthecoreactivitiesisbasictoeffectiveandhigh-qualityteaching.TheelementsoutlinedinTable16.2havebeenintroducedandemphasizedthroughoutthistextbook.
Oneofyourmajorresponsibilitiesasyoucompleteyourpreparationprogramistobecomeknowledgeableandskilledatdoingeachoftheelementsoutlinedinthismodel.Theymaybegivendifferentnames.Whatevertheyarecalled,thesearetheessentialcomponentsofhigh-qualityinstruction.Bytheendofyourprogramyouwillneedtohaveartifactsinyourportfoliothatdocumentyourcapabilitiestodoeachofthecomponentsofthismodel.Besuretocollectspecificexamplesandartifactsrelatedtoeachcomponentofthemodel.
OneusefulapproachthataddresseseachoftheactivitiesofthisgenericmodelistheTeacherWorkSample(TWS)methodologythatwasdescribedinChapter13.
TheImportanceofEachandEveryFieldExperience
Strivingforqualityinfieldexperiencesisveryimportantforaspiringteachers.Candidatesconsistentlyreportthatthemostimportantpartoftheirpreparationprogramwasstudentteaching.Thisisthecapstoneexperiencewhereeverythingthathasbeenintroduced,studied,anddissectedthroughoutyourprofessionaleducationcoursesisbroughttogetherinthe“real”world.Thisisthetimewhenyougettoteach.Naturallyyourfirstconcernswillbeaboutpreparingeachlesson(Taskconcerns).However,donotlosesightofwhyyouarethereandpresentingthelesson:Itistohelpeachandeverystudentlearn.Besuretoincorporateformativeassessmentquestionsandtasks,andobtainevidenceoftheextenttowhichyourstudentsarelearning.
Table16.2CoreActivitiesforaSignificantUnitofInstructionThatLeadstoPreK–12StudentLearning

SettingappropriateexpectationsforevidencethatPreK–12studentlearninghasoccurred,constructedaroundacoreofactivitiesinwhichthecandidatetakesresponsibilityforasignificantunitofinstruction,and

JUDGESPRIORLEARNING

Undertakesasystematicassessment(basedinstandardsandbenchmarks)tounderstandthepriorPreK–12studentlearningintheareaheorshewillteach;

PLANSINSTRUCTION

PlansanappropriatesequenceofinstructiontoadvancePreK–12studentlearning,basedonthepriorassessment;

TEACHES

TeachesPreK–12studentstoacquireandusecontentknowledgeinmeaningfulways,engagingthosewhobringdifferingbackgroundknowledgeandlearningneeds,andprovidingstudentsopportunitiestodemonstratetheuseofcriticalandcreativethinkingskills;

ASSESSES

Conductsaconcludingobjectivetestoralternativeassessment(s);

ANALYSES

Analyzestheresultsoftheconcludingassessment(s),documentingthestudentlearningthatoccurredatindividualandgrouplevels,includingexplanationsofresultsfromstudentswholearnedmoreorlessthanexpected,andresultsfromeachsubgroupofstudents;and

REFLECTS

Reflectsonchangeinteachingthatcouldimproveresults.
Source:Elliott,E.(2005).StudentlearninginNCATEaccreditation.Washington,DC:NationalCouncilfortheAccreditationofTeacherEducation.
Asimportantandsignificantasstudentteachingis,donotunderestimatetheimportantlearningopportunitiesthatcomewitheveryotherclinicalactivityandfieldexperience.Whetheritisobservingalesson,ormonitoringstudentbehaviorontheplaygroundorinthecafeteria,thereareopportunitiestolearn.Yourlearningwillnotalwaysbeaboutteaching;itmightbeaboutcharacteristicsofstudents,orclassroomorschoolprocedures.TheImpact-concernedcandidatealwaystakesadvantageofeveryactivityasanopportunitytolearnsomethingnew.Onewaytodothisistosetapersonalobjective:IneveryexperienceIwillseektolearnatleastonenewthing.Whenyouengageeachexperiencewiththeexpressedintentionoflearningsomethingnew,youwill!
Besuretoexpressyourappreciationtotheteacher(s)whopermittedyoutobethere.Theydidnothavetoopenthedoor.Teachersareundertremendouspressuretomakeeveryminutecount.Manyareself-conscious(Selfconcerns?)aboutlettinganyoneobservethem.WithouttheiropennessyouwouldhavetolearnthebasicsofteachingOJT(onthejob).Sobesuretosay“thankyou.”
UnderstandingandUsingEvidence
AnalyzingTeachers’ConcernsAboutTeaching
Inmostofthechaptersinthistext,theUnderstandingandUsingEvidenceboxhasrequiredyoutoworkwithquantitativedata.Thetaskrequiredworkingwithnumbersorgraphicrepresentationsanddevelopinganinterpretation.Inaddition,eachoftheseactivitieswasbasedindataaboutstudentsorschools.Thetaskforthischapterisdifferentintwoways.Firstofall,thesubjectisteachersandaspiringteacherslikeyou.Second,thedataarequalitativeinsteadofquantitative.
Open-EndedConcernsStatementsFromThreeStudentTeachers
Thefollowingparagraphswerewrittenbystudentteachers.
JoAnne
Yesterday,rightinthemiddleofmylesson,oneofmystudentsraisedhishandandaskedmewhoIwentoutwithSaturdaynight!Isaidthatwewereinthemidstofthelessonnow.Ijustwentonwiththelesson.Itreallyshookme.Idon’treallymindsayingwhateverIwasdoing,becausetheyreallydidseemeSaturdaynight.ShouldIhavehadhimstayafterschoolforasking?Ifeltlikeignoringit—itwastheonlythingIcoulddo.ButI’mnotsureifIwaslosingcontrol.Willtheydisrespectmeforit?Idon’tknowhowtoreacttoit.
Greg
Now,Iamlessconcernedabouttheirlearningthefactsandmoreinterestedintheirseeingthegeneralpatternsandunderstandingtheconcepts.Ifthereisawordorconcepttheydon’tunderstand,westopandgooverit.Irealizemoreclearlynowhowlittletheyknowandhowlackingtheirbackgroundis.WhenIcanhelpthemmaketheconnections,theyreallygetit.
Sue
Myfatherwantsmetogetateachingcertificate.RightnowIammostconcernedaboutgettingmarried.Wehavebookedthehotelandhavethephotographertoo.Butthereissomuchtodointhenexttwomonths!
YourTask
Analyzingconcernsstatements:UsethedescriptionsofthefourareasofconcernpresentedinTable16.1toassesseachoftheconcernsstatements.WhatareasandStagesofConcernarerepresentedineachstatement?Firstrereadeachconcernsstatementanddetermineitsoverallflavor.DoesitsoundmostlikeUnconcerned,Self,Task,orImpact?ThenreadeachsentenceandassignaspecificStageofConcerntoit.Howcouldyousummarizeyouranalysis?
AnalyzingandSummarizingTeacherConcernsStatements
Thethreeopen-endedconcernsstatementsreflectverydifferentStagesofConcern.Onewaytosummarizeeachteacher’sconcernswouldbetoconstructatable.

StudentTeacher

OverallAreaofConcern

Stage(s)ofConcern

JoAnne

Self

Stage2Personal

Greg

Impact

Stage4Consequence

Sue

Unconcerned(aboutteaching)

Stage0Unconcerned
AddressingTheirConcerns
Givenhowdifferenteachstudentteacher’sconcernsare,probablyeachpersonshouldbesupportedindividually.
JoAnne’sconcernscouldbeaddressedthroughatalkwithhercooperatingteacherorstudentteachersupervisor.Therewilldefinitelybetimeswhenstudentsaskinappropriatequestionsoraskthematthewrongtime.JoAnne’snotlettingthequestiondisrupttheflowofthelessoncertainlymadesense.Inthisparticularcase,JoAnnemightalsoconsidernotgoingtothecertainplacesontheweekendwhereherstudentswillseeher.
GregclearlyhasImpactconcernsatStage4,Consequence.Heisfocusedonhowwellhisstudentsarelearning.Healsoisdiscoveringhowimportantitistobeknowledgeableaboutthelearningbackgroundandexperienceseachstudentbringstohisclasses.Nowhischallengeisinhelpingstudentsbuildabridge/scaffoldfromwheretheyaretounderstandingtheconceptsthatGregisteaching.Hemightwanttoreadmoreaboutinformalwaystoassessstudentunderstanding,andlearnmoreabouthisstudents’backgroundofout-of-schoolexperiencesthatcouldbeusedtohelpthemunderstandin-classcontent.
Suedoesn’tseemtohaveteaching-relatedconcerns.Althougheachofuswillhavepersonalthingsgoingoninourlives,whenitcomestobeingasuccessfulteacherthenonteachingconcernsneedtobesetaside.SomeoneneedstohelpSuefocusonherresponsibilitiesasateacher.Shealsoshouldseriouslyconsiderthisquestion:Doyoureallywanttobeateacher?
ChallengingAssumptions
Shouldstudentteachingbedoneinthemostdifficultandhard-to-staffsettings?
Manysuggestthatstudentteachingassignmentsshouldbeinthemostchallengingschools—schoolswithmorelow-performingstudentsandmoreteacherturnover—therationalebeingthattheseschoolsarethemostlikelysettingsforthefirstassignmentsofbeginningteachersandthatmorecanbelearnedfromhavingintensiveexperiencesinthesesettings.Thecounterrationalisthatstudentteacherscanlearnmoreinschoolsthatareeasiertostaffandofferdesirableteachingconditions.
Moststudiesoflearningoutcomesfocusonwhattheschoolstudentslearn.InthestudyreportedbyMatthewRonfeldt(2012),thefocuswasonexaminingtheoutcomesoftheschoolplacementsofstudentteachers.Twoofthestudyquestionswere(1)Wereteacherswhohadstudenttaughtinadifficult-to-staffschoolmoreorlesslikelytoleaveteachinginthefirst5years?and(2)Didteacherswhohadstudenttaughtinadifficult-to-staffschoolhavehigherorlowerstudentgainswhencomparedwithteacherswhohadstudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschools?
StudyDesignandMethod
Administrativeandsurveydatafromnearly3,000NewYorkCityteachers,theirstudents,andtheirschoolswereanalyzed.Theteachersinthestudysamplewere,onaverage,30yearsold,65%white,andthree-fourthsfemale.Forty-sevenpercentofthesamplecamethroughanearlyentryteachereducationprogram,eitherTeachforAmericaorTeachingFellows.
StudyFindings
Thestudyfoundthat:(1)teacherswhostudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschoolshadhigherretentionrates,(2)teacherswhostudenttaughtineasier-to-staffschoolsweremoreeffectiveatraisingtestscores,and(3)teacherswhodidtheirstudentteachingineasier-to-staffschoolshadbetterretentionandachievementgainseveniftheyhadtheirfull-timeteachingassignmentsinthehardest-to-staffschoolswiththemostunderservedstudentpopulations.
Implications
Thefindingsfromthisstudysuggestthatfutureteacherslearnmoreaboutteachingwhentheirstudentplacementisinschoolsthatarefunctioningmoreeffectively.Inthesesettingstheycanexperiencemoreeffectiveinstruction,bementoredbymoreeffectivefunctioningteachers,andexperiencewhatitisliketobeinaschoolthatoverallisdoingwell.ThefindingsfromtheRonfeldtstudysuggestthatwhatislearnedinthesesettingsiscarriedintotheirsucceedingyearsasfull-timeteachers.
Asyourtimeforstudentteachingnears,youwillwanttothinkaboutthealternativebeliefsaboutwheretobeplacedforstudentteachingandtoconsidercarefullythefindingsfromthisstudy.
Source:Ronfeldt,M.(2012,March).Whereshouldstudentteacherslearntoteach?Effectsoffieldplacementschoolcharacteristicsonteacherretentionandeffectiveness.EducationalEvaluationandPolicyAnalysis,34(1),3–26.
WHATARETHEKEYSTOBEINGHIREDASABEGINNINGTEACHER?
IamRoundRockbredandhavemadethefullcircle.Iwenttoschoolhere,graduatedfromhere,Ididmystudentteachinghere,andnowIteachhere.Also,Ialwayshavebeenamentortochildren,eveninhighschool.ItissomethingIenjoydoing.Ifeelsostronglyaboutdoingsomethinginmyowncommunity.Iwanttohelptheupcominggeneration.ThisismywayofstayingintunewithwhatIliketodo.—Ms.Velasquez
VideoLink
Learnmoreaboutteachertraining.
BackinChapter1weintroducedyoutothebigpictureofwhatisentailedinbecomingateacher.Ineachofthesucceedingchaptersanothermajoraspectofteachingwasintroduced.Itisnottooearlyforyoutonowbeginthinkingaboutwhatwillbeneededandwhatitwillbeliketoseekandgetyourfirstteachingposition.Therewillbeanumberofapplicantscompetingformostpositions.Thisisespeciallytrueforlow-needareassuchaselementary,socialstudies,andphysicaleducation.AswasintroducedinChapter1,thereareanumberofstepsandrequirementsthatmustbecompletedtobecomeafullyqualifiedteacher.Nowisthetimetobeginanticipatingandpreparingwhatyouwillneedtohaveaccomplishedandbeabletodemonstratesothatyouaretheonethatwillbehiredfortheteachingpositionyouwouldmostliketohave.
RequirementsforObtainingaTeacherLicense
Thelicensingrequirementsforpublicschoolteachersaresetbyeachstate.Inaddition,federallegislation,suchaswhathappenedunderNCLB,canmandatethateachstatehastoestablishcertainrequirementsforteachersthatare“highlyqualified.”Forexample,overthelastseveralyearseachstatehashadtodevelopateacherevaluationmodelthatisatleastinpartbasedinstudenttestscores.
DeeperLook
Readaboutteachercertificationrequirements.
Thefollowingaretypicalbasicrequirementsforobtainingateachinglicense:
· Successfulcompletionofastate-approvedpreparationprogram.Programsmaybeofferedbyahighereducationinstitution,aschooldistrict,oranotheragency.
·
Criminalbackgroundcheck
,includingfingerprinting.Noonewithacriminalrecordmayteach.
· Passingstate-requiredtests,typicallyofcontentandpedagogicalknowledge.Insomestatesexamplesofteachingperformance,suchasaportfolioorteacherworksample,mayberequired.
· Havingamajorandperhapsadvancedstudyinthesubject(s)youplantoteach.
Inajobinterviewitislikelythatteacherapplicantswillbeaskedtoprovideevidenceofhowtheyhaveaffectedstudentlearning.
Inadditiontostaterequirements,eachschooldistrictmayhaveadditionalrequirements.Ifyouhavenotdoneso,checkbothyourstateandyourpreferredschooldistrictwebsitesforthespecificrequirementsyoumustmeetinordertobeeligibletoapplyforateachingposition.
GettingYourFirstTeachingPosition
Alloftheeffortthatyouareputtingintobecomingateacherwillbefornaughtifyouarenotsuccessfulinobtainingateachingposition.Untilrecentlytherewasademandforteachersinallareas,especiallytheSouthwest.Nowwithbudgetcutsthereisheavycompetitionforeachandeveryopening.Thefollowingareafewsuggestionsforbeingsuccessfulinthesearch.
WheretoLookforTeachingPositions
Allpublicschoolopeningswillbepublishedandopentoallqualifiedapplicants.Theplacetobegin,ifthereisaparticularschooldistrictwhereyouwouldliketoteach,isbycheckingitswebsite.Thedistricthomepagewillincludealinktothehumanresourcesdepartmentormaydirectlylinktopositionsthatarecurrentlyopen.Evenifyouwillnotbeteachingforseveralyears,nowwouldbeagoodtimetocheckadistrict’swebsiteandstudythepositionrequirements.Takecarefulnotesaboutwhatisentailedinmakinganapplication.
AnotherusefulresourceforfindingoutaboutopeningsisEducationWeek.ThisisthenationalnewspaperfortheK–12educationprofession.Itispublishedweeklyduringtheschoolyearandreportsonnational,state,andlocaleducationtopics.Atthebackwillbemanypagesofclassifiedadvertisements,whereschooldistrictspublishtheirpositionopenings.
Don’tforgettocheckoutstateeducationdepartmentwebsites,manyofwhichlistjobopenings.Ifyouareinterestedinteachingoverseas,itispossible:
DepartmentofDefenseEducationActivity(DoDEA)
ToservethefamiliesofU.S.militarypersonnelstationedoverseas,theDepartmentofDefense(http://www.dodea.edu)operatesschoolsanddistrictsinmanylocationsinEurope,Japan,Korea,andtheMiddleEast.DoDEAalsooperatesschoolsonsomemilitarybasesintheUnitedStates.
OverseasSchools
TheU.S.DepartmentofState(http://www.state.gov)andmanyothergovernmentagencieshavepersonnelworkinginothercountries.Manyofthesefamiliessupporttheoperationofindependentlocalschools.TheseschoolsarenotfundeddirectlybytheU.S.government,buttheyaresupportedbythemthroughteacherprofessionaldevelopmentandwebsitelinks.Althougheachschooldoesitsownhiring,schooladministratorsandteacherrecruitersregularlyvisitassociationmeetingsintheUnitedStates.
PrivateSchools
TherearemanyprivateschoolsinothercountriesthatemployAmericanteachers.Forexample,childrenofoilcompanyemployeesbasedintheMiddleEastcanattendcompany-supportedschools,whichuseAmericancurriculumandteachers(e.g.,AramcoinSaudiArabia,http://jobs.saudiaramco.com).Variouschurchgroupssupportschoolsinothercountriestoo.Probablythebestapproachtofindingoutaboutopeningsforteachersistomakedirectcontactwithaparticularschool’soffice.
TeachingEnglishAbroad
AnotherstrategyforgainingateachingpositionoverseasistoteachEnglishtostudentsofthehostcountry.AnumberofcountriessuchasJapan,SouthKorea,andChinaareveryactiveinrecruitingteachersofEnglish.Apotentialdownsidetothisstrategyisthatmanyofthepositionsprovidelittleifanysalary.Manyoftheopportunitiesareinveryruralareas,whichmeansoneneedstobemoreadventuresomeandreadytolive,andteach,withfeweroftheaccustomedamenities.
IdeasforYourProfessionalResume
Animportantdocument,thatyoucanbeginpreparingnow,isaprofessionalresume(seeFigure16.1).Thisisaone-(ornomorethantwo-)pagesummaryofyourqualificationsandrelatedexperiences.Althoughmostofthecategoriesseemobvious,preparingastrongresumewilltakesometimeandthought.Yourportfoliotasksandartifactswillbeausefulresource.Keepinmindthatemployersarelookingnotonlyforteacherswhohavegoodgrades,butalsoforoneswhocandocumentthattheycanmakeamajordifferenceinstudentlearning.Theyalsowillbelookingforteacherswhowillbearesourcetotheschoolandcontributetothecommunity.(WhatdidMs.Velasquezhavetosayaboutthis?)Theywillbeinterestedinyourpastworkexperiences,eveniftheywerenotineducation.Yourresumeprovidestheopportunitytodocumentnotonlythatyoumeetthebasicrequirementsforthepositionbutalsothatyoubringadditionalrelatedexpertiseandvaluableexperience.
Figure16.1ProfessionalResume:SuggestionsforTopicsandElements

NAME

ADDRESS

PHONENUMBER

E-MAIL(DON’TUSEASILLYE-MAILADDRESS.)

Philosophy/BioParagraph:Inoneparagraph,describewhoyouareandwhyyouwanttobeateacher.Whatdoyoubelieveaboutteachingandstudents?Whyareschoolsimportant?

QUALIFICATIONS

Education:Listcollegedegreesandanyspecializedcertificates.Don’tforgettonametheinstitution(s),andprobablythedatesforeach.YoumightwanttoincludeGPAorotherindicatorsofstrengthandquality.

Licensure:Namethelicenseandareasofcertification.

SpecialCertifications:Nameanyendorsements,suchasspecialeducationorELL.

Recognitions:Listhonors,awards,andotherformsofrecognition.

SpecialSkills:Doyouhaveareasofexpertiseorspecialskills,suchasspeakingasecondlanguage?Haveyoulivedindifferentplaces,orabroad?Haveyouhadleadershipexperiencesinwork,yourcommunity,oryourchurch?

ExamplesofYourTeaching:Haveavailableartifactsoftheworkandevidenceofthelearningthathastakenplacewhenyouhavebeenteaching.Beabletoprovidephotosofstudentsandtheirwork(don’tforgettohaveparentpermissions)and/orvideosofyourteaching.

WorkExperience:Listpastworkexperiences.Thesemayincludenonschoolwork.Listthosethatdemonstratethatyouarereliable,thatyoucanholdajobovertime,andthatyouwillbringarangeofexperiencestotheclassroom.

CommunityService:Describewaysthatyouhavebeen,orare,involvedingivingbackthroughvolunteeractivities,orinotherwaysprovidingservicetooneormorepartsofyourcommunity.

OutsideInterests:Perhapsyouwillwanttolisthobbiesorotheractivitiesthatareanimportantpartofyourlife.Thesecanbeespeciallyusefulforhighschoolteacherswhoareexpectedtoworkwithco-curricularactivities.
TeacherDispositionsAreVeryImportant
Asnecessaryasmeetingtheofficiallicensurerequirementsandcompletingprogramrequirementsare,anunstated,butveryimportantcriterionforbecomingateacheris
dispositions
.Theattitudes,beliefs,andvaluesthatteachersholdaboutstudents,thesubjectstheyteach,theircolleagues,parents,andtheschoolarecritical.Teacherswhoarenotexcitedaboutthesubjectstheyteachcannotdevelopenthusiasmforthesubjectintheirstudents.Teacherswhodonotbelievethatcertainstudents(boys/girls,poor,brown,specialneeds,orELL)canlearncannothelpthosestudentslearn.Teacherswhodonotseevalueintheircolleagues,parents,andtheschoolcannothelptheschoolbesuccessful.ReflectbackontheinterviewquotesfromMs.Velasquez.Thereisnothingnegativeorundercuttingaboutanythingthatshesays.Sheisenthusiastic,andshereflectsabeliefthatallstudentscanlearnandthatshecanbeapositiveinfluenceonstudents,colleagues,andhercommunity.Everythingthatshesaidhadtodowithopportunitiesandpossibilities,notbarriers.High-qualityteachersalwaysthink,teach,andleadwithaviewthattheglassishalffull,nothalfempty.
DeeperLook
Readabouttheimportanceofteacherdispositions.
INWHATWAYSCANCANDIDATESANDTEACHERSBELEADERS?
Ihavecolleagues,specialists,theprincipal,andmanyparentscomingintomyclassroom.Also,IamontheDistrictAdvisoryCouncil.Ateacherfromeveryschoolisonthiscouncil.Wemeetwiththesuperintendentonceamonthtodiscussissuesgoingonwithinthedistrict.Hebouncesideasofftheteacherstoseewhichwayhewantstogo.Iwillcontinuetoworkonmyteachingcraftduringthesummermonths,teachingenrichmentcoursestostudentsforthedistrictandbyattendingprofessionaldevelopmenttrainingsfocusedonmypersonallearninggoals.
Asaleader,Igobacktotheideathatitisbusiness,notpersonal.Ifanythingneedstobeaddresseditisbecauseitisgoingtoaffecttheoverallwellnessofmykids.So,Ijustlayoutexpectations.IfIhaveaproblemwithaparent,Iaddressitwiththem.
Asaleaderyouareresponsibleformaintainingprofessionalismatalltimes.Problemsthatthreatenyourgoaloftheacademicachievementofyourstudentsneedtobeaddressedimmediately.Layingoutexpectationsandnormswiththecolleaguesyouworkwithnotonlypromotescollaboration,butguaranteesrespectforallprofessionals.Concernswithparentsneedtobehandledconfidentiallyandimmediately.Establishapositiverapportwithparentsatthestartoftheyear.Concernscaneasilyberesolvedifyouarebothawarethateachisworkingtowardtheacademicachievementoftheirchild!—Ms.Velasquez
Contrarytowhatyoumayhavethought,leadershipisnotreservedtotheprincipalorthesuperintendent.Allmembersofanorganizationhaveleadershipresponsibilities.Thisistrueforschools,businesses,churchgroups,andfamilies.Unfortunately,toomanyteachereducationcandidatesandteachersassumethattheyhavenoleadershipresponsibilities.Infact,theoppositeistrue—everymemberoftheschoolstaff,includingthosewhorefusetoparticipate,affectspotentialprogressandsuccess.Leadershipskillsandfunctionscanbelearned,andparticipatingindifferentwayscanbeinformative,influential,interesting,andevenfun.Therearemanyunofficialandinformalwaystocontributetoleadership,andthereareformalleaderpositionsandcareerpathsforthosewhoaremotivatedtomakeadifferenceinwhatthewholeschoolordistrictaccomplishes.
VideoLink
Watchavideoaboutteacherleadership.
DifferentWaysTeachersCanLead
Teacherstendtofirstthinkaboutleadershipassomethingthatadministratorsdo.Inthiswayofthinkingtheonlypeoplewhoareleadersarethosewhohaveofficialtitlesandresponsibilitiessuchastheprincipal,departmentchair,viceprincipal,andsuperintendent.However,scholarsmakeacarefuldistinctionbetween
leaders
and
leadership
.Leadersarethosewithformal,andinformal,rolesandresponsibilitiesrelatedtoagrouporthewholeschoolaccomplishingitsobjectives.Leadershipencompassestheactionsofleading.Allmembersoftheschoolstaffhavealeadershipresponsibility.Youcannotescapethisresponsibility;youeitherhelporhindertheattainmentofthedesiredends.Teacherleadershipisaccomplishedthroughanumberofways.
FormalTeacherLeadership
Therearemanyopportunitiesforteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherstohaveformalleaderresponsibilities.Forexample,Ms.Velasquezisprovidingleadershipwithinhersecond-gradeteamofsixteachers.“Ourcampusisverybigoncollaborativeplanning.Wewriteourlessonstogether.Thenthereistheexpectationthatwewilltweakthemtomeetourstudents.”Otherwaysthatabeginningteachercanleadincludechairingschoolcommittees,servingasgrade-levelteamleader,andbeingthecoordinatorofaco-curriculumsuchaspepsquadoryearbook,orbybeinganassistantcoach.
Duringtheremainderofyourteachereducationprogramtherewillbeanumberofopportunitiestobeaformalleader.Theseincludeservingastherepresentativetoorganizecandidatesforanaccreditationvisit,chairingthestudenteducationassociationorhonorsociety,andservingonthestudentadvisoryboard.Duringstudentteachingtheremaybeopportunitiestoassumesomeresponsibilitywithintheschool.Thebasicmessagehereisthatratherthanavoidingleaderassignments,takethemon.Thisisthebestwaytolearnmoreaboutbeingaleader—bydoingit!
Therewillbeopportunitiesthroughouttheschoolyearforbeginningteacherstoshareandlearnfromcolleagues.
WorkingWithParents
Thereisabigdifferencebetween
engagingparents
and
involvingparents
.Itisrelativelysimpletoengageparentsbyhavingoccasionalnotesforstudentstotakehome.Amuchhigherlevelofinvestmentisneededtofullyinvolveparentsintheschoolandteachers’classrooms(seeFigure16.2).Involvingparentsmeansmakingthemanecessarypartofwhatgoeson.Involvingparentsintheschoolisveryimportantformanyreasons.Themoreparentsunderstandaboutwhatisgoingonthemoresupportivetheycanbe.Thestudentsofinvolvedparentsarelikelytohavebetterattendanceandbettergrades.Theyalsoaremorelikelytocompletehomeworkassignments.Anadditionaloutcomeinmostschoolsisadditionalfundingfortheschool.Insomeschoolsparentswillbeadirectsupporttoteachers.Forexample,inMs.Velasquez’sschoolthereisadesignatedroomforparents.Therearethreetosixparentsthereeveryday!
Figure16.2SuggestionsforIncreasingParentInvolvement

1.Giveyourstudents“talkingpoints”totellparentsaboutwhattheyarelearning.

2.Helpparentsdevelopahomeenvironmentthatsupportstheirchildrenlearning(e.g.,“NoTVnights”).

3.Provideparentswithawaytoguideandcheckontheirchild’shomework(e.g.,arubric,oradescriptionofthelearningobjective,oranassignmentthatparentscandowiththeirchild).

4.Establishawaytohavetwo-waycommunication:Teachertoparentsandparentstoteacher,intheirlanguage.

5.Encourageparentstovolunteerinyourclassroom(e.g.,puttingupbulletinboardsand/orguidingsmall-groupwork).

6.Attendeventsandactivitiesinthecommunity.

7.Surveyparentsaboutwhattheirchildrenlikeaboutyourclassroomandaboutanyconcernstheymighthave.

8.Placeyourlessonplansandassignmentsonline.(ThisisastatemandateinAlabama.)

9.KeepinmindthatparentsarelikelytohaveSelfconcernsaboutmeetingyou,sobecalm,supportive,andinformed.

10.Keepyourschooladministratorsinformedaboutthewaysyouareplanningtoinvolveparentsinyourclassroom.
Ourparentsareveryinvolved.Theywillbeoncampuseveryday.Ifteachershavesomethingtheyneeddone,suchasabulletinboard,copies,somethingcutout,aparentwillvolunteertodothat.ThereisaroomcalledtheProCenter.Thatiswheretheparentsareandtheytakeonjobsthatateachermightnothavetimefor.Theyarethereallthetime.Also,theyorganizeeventsandfundraisers.
Ataminimum,teachersmustcommunicatewiththeparentsofthestudentsintheirclassroom.Thisisanotherformofleadership.Insomeschoolsparentswillbeavailabletohelpintheclassroom.Inthosesituations,teachersmustdevelopskillorganizingandguidingwhatparentsdo.InMs.Velasquez’sschoolthereismore:
Inmycaselotsoftheparentshavecollegedegrees.Twoofmyparentsareformersecond-gradeteachers.Sotheyconductsmallreadinggroups.Wealsohaveaprogramcalled“WatchD.O.G.S.”(DadsofGreatStudents;http://fathers.com).Itisprettymuchadads’organization.Thedadstakeofffromworkandcometoourschoolforthewholeday.Theycometotheirchild’sclassroomandgotootherclassrooms,ortheyhelptheteacherwithwhateversheneeds.
InformalTeacherLeadership
Asimportantasformalleaderrolescanbe,theinformalrolesareimportantalso.Oneoftheleastunderstoodisthatof
followership
.Asgoodastheformalleadermaybe,heorshewillaccomplishlittleunlessthemembersofthegroup/team/committee/staffdotheirparts.Beingaconstructivememberofthegroup,offeringtohelp,contributingpositivelytothediscussions,andbeingsuretocompleteassignedtasks,withqualityandontime,areimportantskillsforallfollowers.Eachofushasexperiencedthecolleaguewhositsinmeetingswithfoldedarms,andtheonewhogradespapersratherthancontributingtothediscussion.Wealsohaveexperiencedtheteammemberwhopromisestodoataskandthendoesn’tdeliver.Effectivefollowershipentailsparticipatingandvolunteeringhelp.Ms.Velasquezoffersthesethoughts:
OutsideofschoolIvolunteerfortheNeighborhoodConferenceCommittee(NCC),whichaddressestruancywithintheRoundRockSchoolDistrict.Itdealswithfirst-timetruancyoffenders.Oncetheyhavebeenvisitedbyatruancyofficer,theirlaststepbeforetheyarereferredtothecourtsistocomebeforeNCC.Theymakeapositiveactionplantohelpthiskiddoseethelight,sotospeak.
Arelatedconceptisthatof
distributedleadership
.Theprimaryassumptioninthismodelofleadershipisthatratherthanleadershipbeingthesoleresponsibilityoftheformalleaderatthetopoftheorganization,akatheprincipal,leadershipshouldbedistributedtomanypeopleandbeseenasasharedresponsibility.Distributedleadershipisparticularlyusefulinschoolswhereteachersareseenasprofessionalswhoseworkisnottobecloselysupervised.Asprofessionals,teachersareexpectedtoassumeandshareresponsibilitiesforleadership.
LeadingAdultsIsaBigChallengeforBeginningTeachers
Asgoodasbeingateacherleadermaysound,therewillbechallenges—especiallyforfirst-yearteachers.Basedonherexperience,Ms.Velasquezofferedthefollowinginsights:
Idofinditchallenging.LastyearIfounditmorechallenging,becausenotonlydidIhavethefirst-yearteacherstigma,Ihadmyage.Whatparentwantstobetalkedtoaboutanyproblemwiththeirchildfroma22-year-old?Itwasdifficult.IfoundthatInotonlyhadtohaveinnerconfidence,butthatIalsohadtohaveouterconfidence.ThemoreconfidencethatIshowedthebetterIwasreceived.
Asmuchofaclichéasitsounds,dressingprofessionalhelpedalot.Throughmyactions,showingthemthatIknowwhatIamtalkingabout.Theircomingintomyclassroom,seeinghowIrunmyclassroom,howmyclassroommanagementskillsare,andhowIinteractwiththeirchildreallycalmeddownmyparentswhoknewIwasafirst-yearteacher.Atthebeginningoftheyear,Ihadareallylotofparentinvolvement.ThenaroundDecemberitallwentaway.Soitwaskindofliketheyweretestingmeout,thenonceIbuiltarelationshipwiththem,andtheyknewwhatIwasabout,allmyparentskindofeasedup.
CareerPathOptionsforTeachers
Althoughatthispointyouarethinkingmostlyaboutcompletingyourinitialteachereducationprogram,becominglicensedtoteach,andobtainingyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition,itisnottooearlytolearnaboutthevariouscareeroptionsthatareopentoteachers.Inthepastmostteachersstayedintheclassroomasteachersfor20or30years.(Oneofyourauthorsonceinterviewedateacherwhohadtaughtkindergarteninthesameschoolandinthesameclassroomfor26years!)Today,thecareeroptionsforteachersaremanyincludingchanginggradelevelsandschoolswithinthesamedistrict.
BecomingaSchoolAdministrator
Themostobviouscareerstepisto“moveup”theadministrationladder.Becomingadepartmentchair,anassistantprincipal,andthenprincipalisthecareerpathchosenbysometeachers.Nearlyallschoolanddistrictadministratorswillhavebeenteachersearlierintheircareers;thisincludesthesuperintendent.Therealsoaremanystaffassignmentsopentoteachers.Withinschoolsthereareanumberofspecialistpositionssuchasforliteracyortechnology,aswellascommunityliaisonsandspecialeducationresourceteachers.Manyotherstaffpositionsareavailableinthedistrictoffice,includingcurriculumcoordinators,staffdevelopers,technologydirectors,andtheprofessionalsthatworkwithfederalfundssuchasTitleI,bilingual,compensatoryeducation,andspecialeducation.Inbrief,therearemanycareeroptionswithinschoolsandthedistrictofficeforteacherswhowishtoexpandtheirhorizonsandmoveintoleadershippositions.
GraduateStudies
Pursuingoneormoregraduatedegreesisanotherwaytokeeplearningandtoadvanceyourcareer.Inmostschooldistrictsobtainingacertainnumberofhoursofadvancestudyoragraduatedegreewillbereflectedinincreasesinsalary.Therearemanypossibilitiesintermsofdegreeoptionsandareasofconcentration.Thefirststepformostteachersistotakegraduatecourseworkandobtainamaster’sdegree.Thisdegreecouldbeincurriculumandinstruction,educationaltechnology,orasubjectareasuchasliteracy,history,mathematics,orscienceeducation.Otherteacherswillwanttoreceiveadvancepreparationinspecialeducation,learning,orassessment.Master’sdegreesinspecialeducationoreducationalpsychologywilladdresstheseareas.
Anotherdirectionforgraduatestudyiseducationalleadership.Mostoftheseprogramswillincludemeetingthestatequalificationsforanadministratorlicense.Somefocuslessonlicensepreparationandmoreonleadershipdevelopmentperse.Mostmaster’sdegreeswillentailaround35semesterhoursofcoursework.
Onceamaster’sdegreehasbeencompleted,thereisthepossibilityofpursuingthedoctoraldegree.Dependingontheinstitutionofhighereducation,oneoftwodoctoraldegreeswillbeavailable.TheEdDisadoctoraldegreespecificallydesignedforeducators.Inmostinstitutionsthiswillbeapractitioner-orientedcourseofstudy.ThePhDmaybepractitionerorientedbutmoreoftenismoreresearchfocused.Ineithercase,theprogramwillincludefurthercourseworkandthepenultimatecomponentwillbethedissertationstudy.Thiswillbeanoriginalresearchstudyaddressingsomeaspectofteaching,learning,curriculum,orleadership,orsomeotheraspectofschooling.Mostdoctoralprogramswillinclude30to40hoursofcoursework“beyondthemaster’s,”andapproximately12hoursofcreditforthedissertation.
Teacherswhowishtobecomefacultymembersincollegesoruniversitieswillneedadoctoraldegree.Althoughthispossibilityforyouisanumberofyearsaway,beginningtounderstandnowwhatthestepsandqualificationsareforcareeradvancementintroducessomeofthemanypossibilitiesandprovidesbackgroundinformationforuseinfutureplanning.
Teachers’Lounge
UseWhatYou’veGot!
Terror!ThatwastheonlywayIcandescribemyreactionwhenmymentorforstudent-teachingtoldmehewasbeingmovedfromthemiddleschoolbacktothehighschool,wherehehadtaughtthirteenyearsago.“So,”hesaid,“insteadofteachingIntroductoryFrenchtoseventhandeighth-gradestudents,youwillbeteachingninth-gradeFrenchHonors,andtenth-andeleventh-gradeFrenchRegents.”Honors!HowwasIgoingtobesmartenoughtodothat?Eleventhgrade?Iwasnineteenyearsold,5′2″talland105poundssoakingwet!Whywouldtheylistentome?Hesensedmyconcern.“Look,asteachersweusewhateverwe’vegottoreachthestudents.I’m6′4″withaboomingvoice.Youhaveawarm,exuberantsmileandtremendousenergy.That’swhatyou’lluse.”
Believeme,IpracticedmyFrench(andmysmile)nonstopduringthesummerleadinguptostudent-teaching.Tomyamazement,mymentorteacherwasright.Iwasabletobuildrapportquicklyandeasilyandmakemybehaviorexpectationsclear.Ineverneededabigvoice,notthennorinanyphaseofmyteaching.
Asanewteacher,IwantedtolearnasmuchasIpossiblycould.IembracedeveryprofessionaldevelopmentopportunityIcouldfind.Iwassucharegularparticipantinworkshopsthat,aftertenyearsofteachingchildren,Iwashiredtoteachworkshopstoteachers.
Terroragain!Iwasthirtyyearsoldandgoingtotellveteranteachershowtodotheirjobsbetter?WhatwasIthinking?Idiscussedthiswithmyboss.Hisreply?
“Wehaveaphrasearoundherethatmighthelpyou—Fakeituntilyoumakeit!”IthoughtthatsoundedlikegoodadviceuntilIlookedatthelistofteacherswhowouldattendmyworkshopthenextweek.Myfifth-gradeteacher(whoIhadadored)wasattending!IknewIcouldn’tfakeit.ItwasthenthatIrememberedmystudentteachingmentor’sadvice.“Usewhatyou’vegot”becamemymantraand,stillteachingworkshopstwenty-fouryearslater,thesmileandenergyseemtobeworking!
LauriPepeBousquet
LeMoyneCollege
HOWDOESAMASTERTEACHERTHINKABOUTTHEJOYOFTEACHING?
Oneofthemajorthemesembeddedwithineachchapterofthistextisthejoyofteaching.Theauthorsseethisthemebeingcritical,sincehavingjoyinwhatyoudoasateacherissoimportanttoyouandtothestudentsandadultsyouworkwith.Joyisaboutemotions.Itisseeingsuccessineachstudent,takingdelightintheirlearningandhowtheclassisgrowing.Joyincludesthegreatpleasurethatcomesfrommakingadifferenceineachandeverystudent.Itcomesinthesatisfactionofhavingalessongowell.Italsocomesingrapplingwiththemajorchallengesinteachingandschooling,andknowingthatbeingateacherisimportant.
WhenaskedaboutjoyMs.Velasquezobserved,
KnowingIamgivingbacktomycommunity.That’sahugepartofit.Igetachancetoteachinmyowncommunity.Seeingthechildrengrow.Thereisveryquantitativedata.Youcanseeachildgrowinreading.Youcanseeachildgrowinwriting.Andyoualsocanseethemgrowsociallythroughtheirinteractionseveryday.
VideoCase
KeystoSucceeding
1.Whataretheseteacherssayingarethemostimportantreasonsforbecomingateacher?
2.Howwelldoyourexpectationsalignwiththeviewsoftheseteachers?
Peopleinbusinessgainagreatdealoftheirsatisfactionfromtheamountofmoneytheymakeandthroughtheireffortstogrowabusiness.Teachersmostcertainlyarenotjoyfulwhentheyseethesizeoftheirpaychecks.Forteachersthejoycomesfromthedifferencetheymakeinthelivesoftheirstudents.Thereisjoyinseeingthelightbulbcomeonforastudentwhohasbeenstrugglingtounderstandaconcept.Thereisjoyinseeingthewholeclassworktogethertosharestrategiesforsolvingapuzzlingproblem.Teachershaveenormousresponsibilities.Almostcompletelybythemselves,elementaryteachersareresponsibleforthecareandlearningof30studentsforanentireschoolyear.Secondaryteacherswillberesponsiblefor150studentseachday!Thereissatisfactionandpurposeinthislevelofresponsibilityandinmakingapositivedifference.
JoyandSatisfactioninTeachingCanBeCareerLong
Teachingisaverysignificantandspecialprofessionthatmostpeopledonotgettheopportunitytodo.Mostadultsneverhavetheopportunitytoteach.Yet,nearlyeveryadultcanreadilynameone,two,oreventhreeteachersthatmadeallthedifferencetothemandwhattheyhavebecome.Thisisanotherofthemanywaysthatteachersexperiencejoyinteaching.Whenoneoftheirformerstudentsreturnsanddescribesthedifferencetheteachermadeintheirlivesandhowsuccessfultheyarenow,theirteacherwillbedelighted.
Yourauthorscanreadilypointoutelementsofthisthemewithineachchapter.However,someoftheelementsofthisthemearemoresubtle.Theinclusionoflessobviouselementsofjoyhasbeenintentional.Seeingthejoyinteachingisinlargeparttheresponsibilityoftheobserver.Someteacherscanlisteverythingthatiswrongwithteachingandhavetothinkhardtorememberthegoodparts.Otherteachersonlyseethejoyintheirstudents,themselves,andtheirschool.Thisdifferenceinteachersisnotsimplyamatterofhowoldtheyare,orhowlongtheyhavebeenteaching.Itisapartofone’sspirit.Therearereallyoldteacherswhoarestillenthusiasticandlookingforopportunitiestolearnnewthings.Someteachereducationcandidatesalreadyaregrumps,whileothersarelaughingatthemselvesandoverflowingwithexcitementaboutlearningtoteach.Inmanyways,experiencingthejoyinteachingisyourresponsibility.
Toillustratethejoyofteachingandhowmasterteachersneverlosethisperspective,weendthistextwithaninterviewwithMrs.JoyceSchneider.Sheretiredafter42—yes,42—yearsofteaching!ParentswouldpresstheprincipaltohavetheirchildrenassignedtoMrs.Schneider’sclassroom.Shewasknownacrosstheentireschooldistrictasbeingaphenomenalteacher.Asaresultofherstatusasamasterteachershewasaskedtoserveondistrictandstatecommittees,toleadteacherworkshops,andtoteachteachereducationcourses.Sheworkedwiththelocaluniversity’sstudentteachingsupervisorstodeveloptheirstudentteachinghandbook.Sheisknownbyallasamasterteacherwhoalwaysseesthejoyinteaching.
Weaskedheraboutwhereshefoundjoyinteaching.Asyouwillseeintheinterviewexcerpts,shecontinuestohavehighenthusiasmaboutteachingandcontinuestobeinvolved.Asaresult,ourinterviewwanderedovermanytopicsandexperiences,andconcludedwithoneofthoseunplannedhappeningsthatsoclearlyillustratesthejoyofteaching.
“FirstofAll,ILoveKids”
Ilovekids.That’sthekey.WhenIwalkedintotheclassroom,Iwantedeveryonetofeelvalued.TheyhavetofeelthattheyareaveryimportantpartofthefamilythatIwasworkingwithasmyclassroom.Ineverlookedatmyclassasaclass.Ilookedatthemasindividualsthatcametogether.
EveryyearIgottoknowthemascompletelyasIcouldandthensay,howcanIhelpthatpersonbethebestheorshecanbe?Itwasfun!Iwoulddoalotofactivitiestogetthemtoempowerthemselves.
Forexample,atthestartofeveryyearIwouldwatchthem.Iwouldgreetthematthedoor,welcomethemtomyroom,andsay,“Iamsohappyyouarehere.”Wewouldexchangesmilesandpositivethings.IftheywereworkingonsomethingIwouldmakesurethatIasked,“Howdidyoudoonyourwritinglastnight?”“Didyoufinishthatchapterinthebookthatyouwereenjoying?”Therewasthatpositiveconnection,anditwasindividual.Iwasneveraphony;kidspickuponthatrealquick.
Ididthesamethingwhentheyleft:“OKnow,Iknowthatyouaregoingtoworkonyour5sinmultiplicationtonight.Whichonesareyoustillstrugglingwith,andwhichonesareyougoodat?”Iwouldbespecificandalwaysfocusonthepositives.“Iseeyouimprovinginyoursentencestructureandhere’swhy.”Thosekidswouldskipoutoftheroom.DoyouthinktheywantedtocomebackonMonday?Absolutely!
Iamapositiveperson.Itaughtthewholeclasstofocusonthepositives.Astheysawmedoit,theywouldbegintoseethesamethingsIsaw.Theywouldseethatthiskidimprovedonhiswriting,orreading,orbecameamuchbetterthinker.
RetiredteacherMrs.JoyceSchneidercontinuesgivingandlearning.
“ISawThatIWasMakingaDifference”
IstayedinteachingbecauseIsawthatIwasmakingadifference.Ilovetalkingwithkids.Ilovebuildingandempoweringpeople.Iwasnotalwaysastrongperson.Iwasveryquiet.Ihadtobuildpositivenessinmefirst,andthenIcouldbuilditinothers.Notonlydiditworkintheclassroom;parentswouldcometomeandsay,“Whateveryouaredoingismakingahugedifferenceinourfamily.”It’sthesameinbusinessandelsewhere;ifyouvaluethathumanbeing,theresultsaremagnificentandthejoyisthere.
Howadultsthinkandhowkidsthinkissodifferent.Theyaresoliteral.OnetimeweweresellingsomethingforPTA.Itwaschocolateorsomething.Therealsowasacouponthatthebuyercouldexchangeforsomething.Ipointedouttothekidsthatitdidn’tcostthemthatmuchforthechocolatebecausetheywouldgetthepricebackthroughthefreecoupon.Thekidswentouttosellandonecamebackandsaid,“Thisdidn’twork.Wedidn’tgetitforfree.”Hehadthoughtthatitwasreallyfree,insteadofhavingtobuythechocolate.Theythinkinveryliteralwaysandhavetodevelophigh-levelthinking.
Iknowthatpeoplekeepsayingthat“kidsaredifferenttoday,”butIdidn’tseethatdifference.Ialwaystaughtthechild.Whenyouteachthechildandaddresstheirneeds,itisn’tawholelotdifferent.Youlookatthepersonandsay,“Heneedsorganizationalskills.”Thisotherpersonneeds…Ithinkalotofpeopleusethosestatementsascop-outs.Ineverfeltthatway.Ialwaystaughtindividualkids.Itaughtkidstolovetolearn.
Thereismuchjoytobefoundinteachingandlearning—forstudentsandtheirteachers.
My[students’]parentswouldsaytome,“Ican’tputmyfingeronit,butwhatyoudowithkidsisphenomenal.Youbringincurrentevents.Youbringinhumanintereststoriesandyoutalkaboutthem.Yougetthemtolookatthewholeworldinadifferentway.Thentheycomehomeandteachusthesamethings.”
“ILovedSharingWithOthers”
Ifsomethingworkedforme,Ilovedsharingitwithothers.Ilovedstartingsomethingthatworked,sharingit,andmakingitevenbetter.Or,ifsomebodywouldsay,“Boy,amIhavingastrugglewiththis,”Ilovedsharingideaswiththem.Theywouldgoback,andthenIwouldsaytothem,“Howdidthatwork?”And,ifitdidn’tworkwewouldspendsomemoretimefiguringoutwhattotrynext.
Igotalotofjoyoutofstudentteacherstoo.Ihadatleast25studentteachers.Wewouldevaluatelessons,howtheythoughtitwent,whattheylikedaboutit,andwhattheydidn’t.Forthethingstheydidn’tlike,Iwouldsay,“OK,whatcanwedodifferently?”
However,someteachersdidn’twanttoshare.Youjustlearnnottoshareiftheydidn’twantto.Youjuststaybeingapositiveteacher.
Principalscanmakeorbreakyouintheclassroom.Iloveditwhenprincipalswouldsayspecificthingstheysaw.Notthatyouwereagoodteacher.Butwhentheywouldsay,“WhenIwalkedintoyourclassroom,Icouldnottellwhichofthestudentswerestruggling.”ThatwasoneofthehighestcomplimentsIwouldget,becauseIwouldalwaysinvolvemykidsindiscussionsandteachthemhowtothink.Whentheprincipalwouldcomeandshewouldsay,“Icannottell.Allofthemareinvolved.Theyhavetheirhandsupandallofthemarecomingupwithgreatideas.”ThatwasoneofthehighestcomplimentsIcouldget.
Iwasveryfortunatetoseekoutthosekindsofprincipals.Italwayswasthesamething.Theysawmyloveforteaching,theysawthesuccessIhad,andtheresultsIgot.Whentheywereassignedtoanewschooltheywouldalwaystakemewiththem.
Ionlyhadoneprincipalthatwasnotthatway.Hewasinsecure.Ialwaystellmystudentteachers,“Itdoesn’tmakeanydifferencewhetheryouworkforamanorwoman,youlookforthatsecurepersonandthenyouwillhaveawonderfultime.”
“IWasAlwaysBringingHumanInterestStoriestoShareWiththeKids”
Mrs.Schneidercontinuallykeptinformedabouttheworldatlarge,notjustwhatwasrequiredtoteach.“IlistenedtotheTodayShow.Ilistenedtoallnews.”Shealsoreadbooksandwouldreadthemtoherclasses.Forexample,atthetimeofourinterviewshehadjustcompletedreadingThomasFreidman’sbookTheWorldIsFlat:ABriefHistoryoftheTwenty-FirstCentury.
Infrontofmyclassroomis“YesIcan.”Yousee,theonlythingthateverstopsusfromdoingsomethingisourselves.Ithinkwecandoanythinginlifeifwebelievewecan.Iwouldconstantlyreinforcethisthroughhumanintereststoriesthatwereappropriatetotheirlevel.Forexample,IreadthemMichaelJordan’sbook,ICan’tAcceptNotTrying:MichaelJordanonthePursuitofExcellence.Whenhewasinhighschoolhetriedoutforbasketballanddidnotmakeit.Hesaidheneverwantedtofeelthatwayagain.Sohepracticedandpracticed.Sowetalkedaboutthatandhowimportantitistopractice.Iwouldalwaysbringbookslikethatandreadthemtokids.Myclassroomswerealwaysliteraturerich.
YouNeedtoHaveaNotionofWhatYouWantYourClassroomtoBeLikeBeforeYouGetThere
OurlastinterviewquestionforMrs.Schneiderwas,“Whatadvicedoyouhaveforteachereducationcandidates?”
Firstofall,theyneedtohaveanotionofwhattheywanttheirclassroomtobelikebeforetheyeverstepinit.Iwouldalwayssay,whatisitthatIwouldwantmychildtoexperienceinmyclassroom?Youhavetohaveaworkingknowledgeinyourheadofwhatyouwantyourclassroomtobelike.Hereismine:Theyhadtogetreadyforlife.ItmadeahugedifferencewhenIdecidedthat,becauseallofthethingsItaughtwerethenrelatedtothisgoal.
Onceyoudecide,youneedtohaveconsistentroutines.Iwasconsistentinmyexpectations.Igreetedthematthedooreverymorning.Myonerulewasrespectforyourself,respectfortheearth,andrespectforeachother.Whywouldyounotputyourhandsonthewall?Becauseyouwouldjustmakemoreworkforthecustodian.Ialwaysfocusedontheiractionsandmadesurethattheydidn’tthinkthatIwasnotsupportingthemasaperson.
Today,Ithinkweareovertesting.WhenIwasintheclassroom,Ineverletitbotherme.ButIknowthatitishugeonteachers’minds.Iwouldjusttest,getitoverwith,andgetbacktoteaching.Ineverworriedabouttestingbecausemykidsalwaysdidwell.Ijusttaughtthecurriculum,andtheyalwaysdidwell.
Themostimportantthingonenteringtheclassroomisthatyouhaveapositiveoutlookonlife.Ineverallowedthingstonotbeajoy.
SerendipityOccursasWeAreConcludingtheInterviewWithMrs.Schneider
OurinterviewwithMrs.Schneidertookplaceinaneighborhoodcoffeeshop.Justaswewereconcludingtheinterview,amiddle-agedwomancameup.Mrs.Schneiderstoodup;theygreetedeachotherwithsmilesandahug.Itturnsoutthatthewoman’ssonhadbeeninMrs.Schneider’sclassroom.Henowwasaseniorincollege.ThemotherproudlyreportedonhowhewasdoingandacknowledgedtheimportantcontributionsMrs.Schneiderhadmade.Mrs.Schneidersmiledandshowedgreatinterestinherformerstudent’ssuccesses.Whatawonderfulanecdotetoillustratethejoyofteaching.
AnEpilogue
WecanreportthatMrs.Schneidercan’tstayawayfromteaching.Oneyearshecalledupaprincipalandvolunteeredtoserveasthementorforallthenewteachersinthatschool.ForthelastsevenyearsshehasbeenthevicechairpersonoftheDiscoveryChildren’sMuseum,whichopeneditsdoorsin2012.“Havingworkedwiththewholechildinmyclassroomformanyyearshashelpedmetocommunicatewiththefabricatorsanddesignersforourexhibitsandtoemphasizehowimportantitistobuildexhibitsthatinspiretheloveforlifelonglearning.”ShealsohasservedonandbeenchairoftheDevelopmentCommitteefortheUNLVCollegeofEducation.WhatmorecanbesaidaboutMrs.Schneider’slifelongengagementwithteachingandlearning?Perhapsherfinalquoteduringourinterviewsaysitbest:
Mygrandchildreninspiremetostayinvolvedandfeedthatgrowingmindwiththebestpracticesweknow.
Becomingateacherisanexciting,intense,andtime-consumingprocess.Teachersarededicatedprofessionalswhohavetolearnalotinordertohelpalloftheirstudentslearnalot.Therearegoingtobemanynewexperiences,challenges,and,yes,concernsalongtheway.Asbusyasyouwillbe,besuretostilltaketimetoreflectandtoenjoythemanyopportunitiesaseachunfolds.
Halfwaythroughhersecondyear,second-gradeteacherMs.Velasquezsummedupherfirstyearofteachingthisway:
Iamveryfamilyoriented.InmyfirstyearofteachingIalsoworkedonmymaster’sdegree.Itwasvery,veryhard,butIamsogladIdidit.IwouldfindmyselfcryinglotsoftimewhenIcouldn’tgoseemyfamilybecauseIhadtocompleteanassignment,orIhadtofinishlessonplans.Somylifewasbalancedoutbetweengraduateschoolandbeingatthisschool.TheninDecember,asmylifetransitionedfromcollegetobeingayoungprofessional,Ibegantohavemorebalance.Istartedtoforcemyselftoleaveat4:30andonlytocomein30minutesaheadoftime.Butitwasaveryhardthingtodo,becauseifyouaresocommittedtosomethingitbothersyouifitisnotperfect.
CONNECTINGTOTHECLASSROOM
Keythemesinthischapterhavebeenrelatedtoyourbeingsuccessfulinyourteachereducationprogramandbeingsuccessfulinyourfirstyearofteaching.Twoimportantadditionalthemesaddressedtheimportanceofteacherleadershipandlookingforthejoyinteaching.Thefollowingsuggestionswillhelpyouapplythesethemesasyouadvancethroughyourteachereducationprogramandanticipateyourfirstyearasateacher.
1.Understandingyourconcernsisasimportantasunderstandingtheconcernsofyourstudents.NoonehasImpactconcernsallofthetime.Forexample,teachereducationcandidateshavemanySelfandTaskconcerns,whichisunderstandablegivenallthattheyhavetolearnandbeabletodo.
2.Eisner’sGenericTeachingModeloutlinesthebasictasksandstepsthatshouldbeapartofplanning,presenting,andevaluatingeachlesson.Keepthesecomponentsinmindwhenobservingotherteachers,andinreflectingonyourteaching.Themodelalsocanbeaguideforreflectingonawholedayorweekofinstruction.
3.Asyoumovethroughyourteacherpreparationprogramcheckcarefullyandmakesurethateachcourseyoutakewillcountintwoways:(1)towardprogramcompletion,and(2)towardobtainingateachinglicensefromthestate.Alltoooftencandidatesgettowhattheythinkistheendoftheirprogramandthendiscoverthatacoursedidnotcountortheyhavenottakenonethatisrequired.
4.Approacheveryfieldandclinicalexperienceasanopportunitytolearn.Makeitapersonalchallengetoidentifyonelearningaboutteachingfromeveryassignment.
5.Makeapersonalcommitmentnotjusttoparticipatebuttoleadsometypeofactivityorefforteachterm.
6.Schedulea15-minuteperiodeachweekwhereyoustopdoingandreflectonthisquestion:WhatwasjoyfulaboutthethingsIdidthisweek?
SUMMARY
Thischapteraddressedachievingsuccessinyourteachereducationprogramandinyourfirstyearofteaching.Thesekeytopicswerediscussed:
· Takeadvantageofeveryexperiencetobesuccessfulinyourteachereducationprogram.
· Understandingyourconcernsandtheconcernsofothersisausefulguideforyourownprofessionallearning.
· Ageneralteachingmodelcanbeaguideforallgradelevelsandsubjectareas.
· Obtainingyourfirstrealteachingpositionrequiresadvancepreparation.
· Continuedevelopingyourleadershipexperiencesandskills.
· Muchcanbelearnedfrommasterteachers.
CLASSDISCUSSIONQUESTIONS
1.Howdoyouthinkthedifferentareasofconcern(Unrelated,Self,Task,andImpact)relatetowhetherateacherexperiencesjoyinteaching?DoyouhavetohaveImpactconcernstoseethejoy?
2.Amajorthemeinthischapteristeacherleadership.Howrealisticdoyouthinkthisthemeis?Whatopportunitiesdoyouhavenowtopracticeleadership?Followership?
3.WhatdidyoulearnfromtheinterviewwithMrs.Schneider?Doyouthinkyouwillbeteachingfor42years?Ifyoudid,howmanystudentswouldyouhavetaught?
4.Whattipshaveyoupickedupaboutstepsyoushouldtakeintheremainderofyourteachereducationprogramthatwillhelpyouobtainyourdesiredteachingjob?
KEYTERMS

Concerns

Engagingparents

Leadership

Criminalbackgroundcheck

Followership

StagesofConcern

Dispositions

Involvingparents

Distributedleadership

Leaders

SELF-ASSESSMENT
WHATISYOURCURRENTLEVELOFUNDERSTANDINGANDTHINKINGABOUTSUCCEEDINGINYOURTEACHEREDUCATIONPROGRAM,ANDBEYOND?
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.Afteryouanswerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan,rateyourknowledgeontheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanapplythelawtoyouasateacherandfutureschoolemployee.
1.Wheredoyouseeyourselfatthistimeintermsofthedifferentareasofteacherconcerns?Whatdoyouplantodonexttoaddresstheseconcerns?
2.WhatarethedifferentelementsofElliott’steachingmodel?Whichoftheseelementscanyounowdowell?Whatwillyoudotolearnmoreaboutthoseelementswhereyoufeellessproficient?
3.Whatitemsareimportanttoincludeinaresume?Fortheitemsyouhavealready,whatdoeseachrepresentaboutyourpotentialtobeahigh-qualityteacher?
4.Whataspectsofleadership/followershipdoyouneedtoworkon?Whenandwherewillyoubeengagingthese?
5.Whatareasofknowledgeandskilldoyouneedtotargetinordertobewellqualifiedforyourfirstteachingposition?Explainwhyyouseetheseasbeingsoimportant.
Oneoftheindicatorsofunderstandingistoexaminehowcomplexyourthinkingiswhenaskedquestionsthatrequireyoutousetheconceptsandfactsintroducedinthischapter.
Answerthefollowingquestionsasfullyasyoucan.ThenusetheComplexityofThinkingrubrictoself-assessthedegreetowhichyouunderstandandcanusetheorganizationideaspresentedinthischapter.
Whatisyourcurrentlevelofunderstanding?Rateyourselfusingthisrubric.

ComplexityofThinkingRubric

Parts&Pieces

Unidimensional

Organized

Integrated

Extensions

Indicators

Elements/concepts aretalkedabout asisolatedand independententities.

Oneorafew conceptsare addressed,while othersareunderdeveloped.

Deliberateand structured considerationof allkeyconcepts/ elements.

Allkeyconcepts/ elementsare includedinaview thataddresses interconnections.

Integrationofallelements anddimensions,with extrapolationtonew situations.

Succeedingin yourteacher education program& beyond

Offersonlygeneral orvagueitemstobe learnedabout;does notnamedifferent areasofconcern, orelementsofa genericmodelof instruction.

Identifiesonlyone areaforgrowth, suchasclassroom management; providesno elaborationofwhy thisisimportant.

Namesmajorcategories suchaspartsofa resume,areaswithin theConcernsModel, and/oraspects ofleadershipand describeswhythese arepriorityareasfor growth.

Goesbeyondnaming majorareasand identifiesspecific knowledgeandskill areas,andexplains howeachwillhelp increaseteaching expertise.

Describesmajor areasforgrowth, identifiesknowledge/ skillsthatneedto bedeveloped,and chartsactionstobe takenshorttermand longertermtolearn more.
STUDENTSTUDYSITE
VisittheStudentStudySiteatwww.sagepub.com/halltoaccesslinkstothevideos,audioclips,andDeeperLookreferencematerialsnotedinthischapter,aswellasadditionalstudytoolsincludingeFlashcards,webquizzes,andmore.
FieldGuide
forLearningMoreAboutSucceedinginYourTeacherEducationProgram,andBeyond
InChapter1youwereintroducedtotheconceptofafieldguideforlearningmoreaboutyoursurroundings.Theartifactsandinformationyouhavecollectedforeachoftheearlierchaptersprovidesaricharrayforyoutoconsiderasyoumovewithyourteacherpreparationprogram.Forthischapterthefieldguidetasksandactivitiesneedtobeviewedasacombinationthatisasummaryofthewholeandafoundationforchartingyourprofessionalgrowthfromhere.Remembertokeeptakingfieldnotesasyoucompletetheactivitiessuggestedhere.Thesenotesshouldincludefactsanddescriptionsofyourobservations.Yourfieldnotesshouldalsoincludedate,timeofday,thegradeorgroupyouareobserving,andyourreflectionsandah-hamoments.AsMs.Velasquezpointedoutinherinterview,notingyourreflectionisimportanttoo.Youwillbeabletolookbackatthesenotesatvarioustimesinthefuturetoseehowyourconcernshavechanged,andtoreviewhowparticularteachingsituationswerehandled.Allofthisisaformofjournalingthatwillhelpyouunderstandthestepsyouaretakingtobecomingateacher.Remember,also,tocollectpicturesandsamples.Apicturecanbeworthathousandwords.
AskaTeacherorPrincipal
Askafirst-orsecond-yearteacherwhatknowledgeorskillheorshewishedheorshehadlearnedmoreaboutduringhisorherpreparationprogram.
Askaprincipalwhatsheorhelooksforinhiringabeginningteacher.Comparewhattheprincipalsayswithwhatyounowhaveonyourresume.
MakeYourOwnObservations
Therearemanyindicatorsofjoyinteaching.Walkaroundyourcollegeclassroomsandbuilding,oraschool’sclassroomsandbuilding.Takefieldnotesontheactivitiesandindicatorsofjoy.Whichstudentsandwhichteachersseemtobeenjoyingwhattheyaredoing?Whichseemnottobejoyful?Whatexplainsthedifferences?
UsethetopicspresentedintheinterviewwithMrs.Schneidertointerviewoneortwoveryexperiencedteachers.DevelopacharttocomparetheirviewswiththoseofMrs.Schneider.UseTable16.1toassesstheirconcernsaboutteaching.Whichseemtobetheirbiggestareasofconcern?Inwhichareasdotheyseemtohavelittleornoconcern?
ReflectThroughJournaling
TheConcernsModelprovidesausefulframeworkforyoutochartyourcontinuingdevelopmentasateacher.Reviewyourjournalnotesforeachoftheprecedingchapters.
Howhaveyourconcernschanged?Whatnewareashavepoppedup?Doyouseeanytype
ofpatternintermsofhowtheamountofconcernsateachlevel(Unconcerned,Self,Task,Impact)hasevolved?Howdoyouthinkyourconcernswillchangeoverthenextyear?
Inthischaptertherehavebeenexcerptsfrominterviewswithasecond-yearteacherandaretiredteacher.Asyoureadthesequotesandnowasyouthinkaboutyourselfasafutureteacher,whatareyourthoughts,feelings,andconcerns?Whatareyourprioritytopicsandareaswhereyouknowyoumustlearnmore?Inwhatareashaveyoualreadyexperiencedjoy?Jotdownyourcurrentthoughtsandreflectionsabouthowyouaredevelopingasateacherandwhatyourlearningprioritiesareforthenextpartsofyourteachereducationprogram.
BuildYourPortfolio
Startafolderforstoringeachoftheopen-endedconcernsstatementsthatyouwrite.Bytheendofyourprogramyoushouldhavesixtotenofthese.Developatableorgraphtoillustratehowyourconcernshavechangedovertimeinyourteachereducationprogram.
Aspartofyourreflections,writeashortanalysisofhowyourconcernshaveevolved.
ReviewthelistofsuggesteditemsforaprofessionalresumeoutlinedinTable16.1.Startnowcollectingdocuments,artifacts,andtherecordsthatyouwillneedtohavetoprepareyourresume.Whenthetimecomestoapplyforyourfirstfull-timeteachingposition,youwillfinditveryhelpfultohavecollectedmaterialsandexamplesalongtheway.Also,besuretonotethoseitemareaswhereyoucurrentlyhaveverylittleornothing.
Atvarioustimesasyouhavebeenreadingthistextyouhaveprobablythoughtaboutoneormoreofyourteacherswhomadeasignificantdifferenceinyourlife,andperhapsinyourdecisiontobecomeateacher.Nowisthetimetowritealettertothatteacher.Tellhimorherwhatyouaredoingnowanddescribetheway(s)thatteacherimpactedyou.Thefollowingiswhatoneaspiringteacherwrotetooneofherteachers.Inyourteachingcareerhopefullysomeofyourstudentswilltakethetimetowritesimilarletterstoyou.
ReadaBook
AsthetitleofAlanM.Blankstein’sbookFailureIsNotanOption:6PrinciplesforMakingStudentSuccesstheOnlyOption(2010;ThousandOaks,CA:Sage)makesclear,themissionofeveryteacherandschoolneedstobehavingallstudentslearning.Thisaward-winningbookprovidesapositiveandproactivestanceaboutwhattodoandwhatnottodo.Leadershipbyteachersisessentialtoaschoolhavingtrust,asharedvision,afocusonstudentsuccess,andengagedparents.
Buildingandsustainingpartnershipsbetweenschools,parents,andcommunitiesrequiresongoinginvolvementofteachers.EducationalPartnerships:ConnectingSchools,Families,andtheCommunity,byAmyCox-Peterson(2011;ThousandOaks,CA:Sage)goesbeyondpresentingtheneedandprovidesstepsfordevelopingandsustainingconnectionswithfamiliesandthebroadercommunity.
AnnLiebermanandLynneMiller,theauthorsofTeacherLeadership(2004;SanFrancisco,CA:Jossey-Bass),arenationallyrecognizedprofessionaldevelopmentexpertsandhavechampionedteachersbeingleadersformanyyears.Inthisbooktheydescribewhyteacherleadershipisimportant,summarizetheresearch,andpresentcasestudiesofteacherleaderswhohavemadeadifference.
SearchtheWeb
Surfthewebusingtheterm“teacherleadership.”Youmaybesurprisedatthenumberofresourcesandeffortstosupportteacherleaders,theirprofessionaldevelopment,andwaystonetwork.Forexample,theCenterforTeacherQuality(http://www.teacherleaders.org)hasorganizedtheTeacherLeadersNetwork.Theyofferafreenewsletter,provideinformationaboutteacherleaders,andfacilitateconversationsthroughlistservdiscussions.VirginiaCommonwealthUniversityhasaCenterforTeacherLeadership(http://www.ctl.vcu.edu)thathasbeenestablished“topromoteandsupportteacherleadershipinordertoimproveteachingandlearning.”
Exploreseveralofthesewebsitesandcontactoneortwotolearnmoreaboutthewaysthatteachereducationcandidatesandbeginningteacherscanlearnaboutandserveinleadershiproles.
Asanotheractivity,carefullythinkaboutthecharacteristicsofteacherleadersthatarebeingidentified.Developachecklistofdifferentknowledgeandskillsthatteachersshouldpossess.Addacolumntoassessyourcurrentlevelofleadershipexpertise.Addanothercolumnwhereyoucannameactivitiesyouhavedoneandplantodotofurtherdevelopyourleadershipskills.
Checkoutthewebsitefortheschooldistrictwhereyouwanttoteach.GototheHumanResourcessectionandreviewtheteacherpositiondescription.Makenotesaboutwhatyouwillneedtohaveinordertoqualifyforaposition.Also,whatcanyoudobetweennowandthentomakeyouextrawellqualifiedtobehiredtoteachinthatdistrict?
E-mailFromaFirst-YearTeacher
(toOneofHerTeacherEducationFaculty)
InmypreviouslifeasanAirForceairman,weweretaughtthreecorevalues:(1)IntegrityFirst,(2)ServiceBeforeSelf,and(3)ExcellenceinAllWeDo.Itusuallytakesafewyearsofworkingaspartofateamtotrulyinternalizehowthosevaluestranslateintoconsistentmissionaccomplishment.ButsincethemomentIgotit,I’vefoundthatthosethreeguidelinescanapplytoalmostanyendeavorinlife.
Asafirst-yearteacher,I’vefeltallthenormalpressures.Pressureeveryweektoproduceanorganizedlessonplan.Pressureeveryhourtokeepthestudents’attention.Pressureeveryminutetoavoidmakingmistakesthatthekidscanuseagainstmelater.Pressuretostayconsistentwiththerestofthedepartment.And,ofcourse,pressuretopreparemystudentsfortheproficiencyexams.Afterawhile,IrealizedthatIwantedtospendmoretimeactuallyteachingandlesstimeanalyzingallthevariouspressuresofthejob.
Ilearnedthat,inthecrucibleoftheclassroom,theonlythingIreallycaredaboutwerethekids.Theotherworriesonlycamelater.Theywerelikeirritating,butmeaningful,afterthoughts.IteventuallygotonmynervesthatIwasevenspendingtimethinkingaboutit.Andslowly,asIbecameabetterteacher,IstartedtounderstandwhyIwasbecomingmoreirritatedandlessworried:Irealizedmyheartwasintherightplace,andIwasdoingmybest.
Ibelieveweshouldallstopworryingaboutthe“tensions”ofteachingandsimplyusetheAirForcecorevaluestoguideus.
Integrity:Haveaphilosophyaboutwhatyouwantyourstudentstolearninyourclass.Makesureitincludesoverarchingthemesandspecificlearninggoals.Sticktoyourphilosophy—always.
ServiceBeforeSelf:WhenyousignuptoteachAmerica’syouth,youareintheserviceofourcollectivefuture.Yeah,that’salittlesoap-boxy,butit’strue.UnderstandthateducatingisreasonNo.1whyyougotowork,aboveyourpaycheck,yourbenefits,oryoursummervacation.
ExcellenceinAllWeDo:Thewordisexcellence,notperfection.Doyourbest,anddon’tletmistakesgetinthewayofyourperformance.Keepyoureyesopen.Don’tjustlearnfromyourownmistakesandsuccesses;learnfromothers’,too.Beinvolvedenoughwithotherteachersthatyoucanaccruesecond-andthird-degreeexperience,whichwillmakeyouasexcellentaspossible.
Ibelieveteacherswhocanadoptthosethreeconceptswillbehappierandmoreeffective.Andthey’llrealizethattheother“tension”isjustnoisethatcangetinthewayofthemission.
—ElissaRichmond

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