Technology and Education
The modern period of development of civilized society characterizes the process of informatization. Informatization of the society is a global social process, a feature of which is that the dominant activity in the sphere of social production is the collection, storage, production, processing, storage, transmission and use of the information carried on the basis of modern microprocessor and computer technology (Edwards, 2012), as well as on the basis of a variety of facilities of information exchange. Informatization of the society provides:
· The active use of the ever-expanding intellectual potential of society, concentrated in the Printing Fund and the scientific, industrial and other activities of its members,
· The integration of information technology (Thaung, 2012) with scientific, industrial, initiating the development of all spheres of social production, the intellectualization of work;
· A high level of information services, the availability of any member of the public to sources of reliable information, the visualization of the information provided, the significance of the data used.
The use of open information systems is designed to use the entire array of information available at present to society in a particular field it allows improving the mechanisms of public control device contributes to the humanization and democratization of society, increases the welfare of its members. The processes taking place in connection with the computerization of society, not only contribute to accelerating scientific and technological progress, the intellectualization of all human activities, and the creation of a qualitatively new information society environment that ensures the development of the creative potential of the individual. One of the priorities of the process of informatization of modern society is the informatization of education is the process of education to ensure the methodology and practice of development and optimal use of modern or, as they are called, the new information technologies (NIT), focused on the implementation of psycho-pedagogical objectives training. This process triggers:
· Improving the mechanisms of management of education through the use of automated data banks of scientific and educational information, information and teaching materials, as well as communication networks;
· Improving the methodology and strategy of selection of the content, methods and organizational forms of training, consistent with the objectives of the individual student in the current conditions of information society;
· Creation of methodical system of training, focused on the development of intellectual potential of the student, on the formation of their own abilities to acquire knowledge, to carry out information and training, experimental – research, various types of self-employment processing information;
· Creation and use of computer testing, diagnosing techniques of monitoring and evaluation of the level of knowledge of students.
There is an informatization of education as a process of intellectualization of activities of the teaching and learner-paced but through the implementation capabilities of new information technologies, supports the integration trends of knowledge of the laws of subject areas and the environment (social, environmental, informational, and others.), combining them with the benefits of personalization and differentiation of training ensuring that the most synergies pedagogical influence. The current paper will discuss technology and education, its specifics and the best way of studying.
Possible facilities of new information technologies
Facilities of new informational technologies (FNIT) are software and hardware and devices that operate on the basis of a microprocessor, computer technology and modern facilities of information exchange systems and to ensure collection operation, the production, stockpiling, storage, processing, transmission of information. FNIT includes: computers, PC; sets of terminal equipment for all classes of computers, local area networks, input-output, the input and manipulation of text and graphic information facilities of archiving large amounts of data and other peripheral equipment of modern computers; apparatus for converting data from graphic or audio data representation forms to digital and vice versa; tools and devices to manipulate audiovisual information (technology-based multimedia systems and “virtual reality”); modern facilities of communication; artificial intelligence; computer graphics system, programming systems (programming languages, compilers, compilers, operating systems, software packages, etc.) and others.
The role of new information technology in education
The acceleration of scientific and technological progress, which is based on the introduction in the production of flexible automated systems, microprocessors and device software management, robots and machining centers, has set a modern pedagogical science important task – to educate and prepare the younger generation (Tettegah, Hunter, 2006)that can be actively involved in a new stage of development of modern society of information. Solution of the above tasks – implementation of the social order of society – fundamentally depends on the technical equipment of educational institutions electronic – computer equipment with the corresponding peripheral equipment, training, demonstration equipment, functioning on the basis of FNIT, and on the willingness of students to perceive the ever-increasing flow of information, including training.
The widespread use of information resources that are the product of intellectual activity the most qualified of the working population of society, determines the need for training in the younger generation of creative activity of the reserve. For this reason, it becomes urgent to develop specific methodological approaches to the use FNIT to implement the ideas of developmental education, the development of the individual student. In particular, for the development of the creative potential of the individual formation of the student skills (Goldin,Katz, 2008) to forecast the results of its activities, to develop a strategy to find ways and methods of solving problems are both educational and practical.
There is equally important the task of providing psycho-pedagogical and methodological developments aimed at identifying the optimum conditions of use FNIT to intensify the educational process, increase its efficiency and quality. The relevance of the above defined not only social order but also the needs of the individual to self-determination and self-expression in a modern society ethane information. Special attention deserves the description of the unique features FNIT, the implementation of which creates the preconditions for unprecedented in the history of pedagogy intensification of the educational process, as well as the creation of procedures aimed at the development of the individual student. There is a list of these features:
· Immediate feedback between the user and FNIT;
· Computer visualization of educational information about the objects or patterns of processes and phenomena as actually taking place, and the “virtual;”
· Archiving sufficiently large volumes of information with the possibility of transmission, as well as easy access and circulation by the central bank data;
· Process automation computer information retrieval activities, as well as processing the results of the educational experiment with the possibility of multiple repetition or fragment of the experiment;
· Automation of the process of information and methodological support, organizational management training activities and monitoring the results of assimilation.
The implementation of the above FNIT features allows organizing activities such as:
· Registration, collection, accumulation, storage and processing of information about the studied objects, phenomena, processes, including the really occurring, and the transfer of sufficiently large amounts of information, presented in various forms;
· Interactive dialogue – user interaction with the program (software and hardware) system, characterized in contrast to the dialogue, involving exchange of text commands (requests) and response (invitations), the implementation of more advanced facilities of dialogue (i. e., the ability to ask questions in an arbitrary manner, using the “key” word, in the form of a limited character set); This provides a choice of options for the contents of educational material, mode of operation;
· Management of real objects (i. e., educational robots, simulating industrial devices or mechanisms);
· Control the display of on-screen models of different objects, phenomena and processes, including actual proceeding;
· Automated control (self-control) of the results of training activities, the correction on the results of monitoring, training, testing.
The above activities are based on the information interaction between the learner (student), the teacher and the facilities of new information technologies and at the same time aimed at achieving educational goals, which is called the information and training activities. The development of the individual student, preparing the individual to live comfortably in the information society:
· The development of thinking (i. e., visual-motor, visual-figurative, intuitive, creative, theoretical forms of thought);
· Aesthetic education (for example, by taking advantage of computer graphics, multimedia technologies);
· Development of communicative abilities
· Formation of abilities to make optimal decisions or to propose solutions in a difficult situation (for example, through the use of computer games aimed at optimizing the activities of decision making);
· Development of skills to carry out experimental research activities (for example, due to the implementation possibilities of computer modeling or use of equipment, matched with the computer);
· Formation of information culture, abilities to process information (for example, through the use of integrated custom packages, different graphics and music editors).
Implementation of the social order, due to the computerization of modern society:
· Training of specialists in the field of computer science and computer engineering;
· Preparation by facilities of new information technologies.
Intensification of all levels of the educational process
· Improving the efficiency and quality of the learning process through the implementation of capacity FNIT;
· Provide incentives (incentives), causing the activation of cognitive activity (i. e., due to computer visualization of educational information, blotches of game situations, management capabilities, the mode of training activities);
· Deepening of interdisciplinary connections through the use of modern facilities of information processing, including the media, in solving various subject areas.
Areas of FNIT implementation in education
FNIT may be used as:
1) Teaching, improve the process of teaching, increase its efficiency and quality. This provides:
· Using the software and methodical support of modern computers in order to knowledge, simulation learning situations. implementation of training, monitoring learning outcomes;
· The use of object-oriented software and systems (i. e., word processing systems, spreadsheets, databases) in order to create a culture of learning activities;
· Implementation possibilities of artificial intelligence in the process of applying the teaching of intelligent systems.
2) The instrument of knowledge of reality and self.
3) The facilities of the individual student.
4) The object of study (i. e., through the development of computer science course).
5) By facilities of information and methodological support and management of the educational process, educational institutions, the school system.
6) Facilities of communication (i. e., based on an asynchronous telecommunications) in order to disseminate the advanced educational technologies.
7) Due process automation control, correction of the results of training activities, computer pedagogical testing and psycho-diagnostics.
8) Automation processing of the experimental results (laboratory, demonstration) and management of educational facilities.
9) Facilities the organization of intellectual leisure, educational games.
Prospects for use of new information technologies in education
In today’s civilized society informatization stage all its members, regardless of their social status, use information and knowledge in their work, solving constantly arising out their tasks. In this ever-increasing store of knowledge, experience, and intellectual potential of the whole society, this is concentrated in the books, patents, journals, reports, ideas, actively, in the state of the art involved in daily industrial, scientific, educational and other kinds of human activity. The value of information and share of information services in modern society has increased dramatically. This gives grounds to say that the main role in the process of informatization plays proper information, which in itself does not produce wealth. Under the information (with common positions), there is meant information about the evidence and the body of knowledge about the dependencies between them, that is, the facilities by which society can be aware of itself and to function as a unit. It is natural to assume that the information should be scientifically-accurate, accessible in the sense that its receipt, understanding and mastering; data from which information is retrieved, should be essential to meet modern scientific level.
The stage of information society characterizes the process of the active use of information as a social product, and therefore is the formation of a highly organized information environment affects all aspects of life of the members of this society. Information environment includes a plurality of objects and the relationships between them, tools and technologies for the collection, storage, transmission, processing, production, and dissemination of knowledge itself, as well as organizational and legal structures supporting information processes. Society, creating an information environment it operates in, changes, and improves it. Modern scientific research convinced that the improvement of information environment initiates the formation of progressive trends of development of the productive forces and processes of intellectualization of the activities of members of society in all its spheres, including education, changes in the structure of social relationships and interactions.
Due to the special importance of the above, there will be a focus on the description of the main directions of the formation and establishment of tools, techniques and technologies that lead to a restructuring of the information environment, opening up new opportunities for progressive social development, which is reflected in the field of education.
Mathematisation and information domains
The use of modern information technologies in the implementation of the device capabilities of mathematics, including mathematical statistics, allows automating the processing of information, the results of a scientific experiment, to intensify the use of tools of mathematics in sociological research. Mathematisation (Nickerson,Zodhiates, 2013) gives opportunities to improve the quality of decision-making at all stages of the decision-making person or a computer through the use of modern methods of multivariate analysis, forecasting, simulation and evaluation of options, optimal planning. This allows going on to develop evidence-based approaches to make better decisions in a particular situation, to use the methods and facilities of computer science in the process of solving a variety of subject areas.
The implementation capacity of hardware and software of modern information technology makes it possible: to provide information management; interacting with the user in natural language, pattern recognition and exercise situations, their classification; effectively teach the logic of evidence; to accumulate and use knowledge; organize the various forms of activity and self-extracting knowledge representation. All of the above contributes to the development of intellectual potential of the individual, implements the idea of developing training. Integration of modern information technologies provides operationally systemic effect, the result of which becomes a “technological breakthrough” that has taken place and in pedagogy. However, the use of modern information technology supports the general trend of the integration process of knowledge of environmental information; social environment contributes to realizing the benefits of specialization and personalization of the learning process.
Improving the educational infrastructure and management tools
Easy access to information resources, and education – to information and methodological support of the learning process, replicability advanced educational technologies based on the use of new information technologies provides the expansion and strengthening of ties between the individual structures of the education system, resulting in the improvement of its infrastructure. Process automation of clerical work in an educational institution, the feasibility of controlling the individual stages of the learning process leading to the improvement of the institutional mechanisms of the education system control, eliminates the routine, “paper” work. It is natural to assume that the development and improvement of the information environment of education depends on ensuring that the education system as a whole and each institution means individually specialized units adapted for the organization of activities by facilities of new information technologies.
Finally, there can be made a conclusion that there is a following composition of the new generation of training tools, and that includes learning tools that operate on the basis of new information technologies, noting the appointment of components:
· Learning tools that are designed to support the teaching of a subject (course), including software;
· Object-oriented software system, which is intended to generate information and culture, particularly culture learning activity;
· Training, demo equipment is matched with computers designed for self-study training material while providing objective activity, its practical orientation, and, in addition, allows the student to realize the range of possibilities FNIT (manage a real object, do input and manipulation of text and graphic information, receive and used for educational purposes about regulated physical parameters or process);
· Artificial intelligence system that is designed to organize the process of self-study;
· Subject is an oriented environmental training and development purposes, including one possible implementation – information – subject environment with built-in elements of technology education.
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