1) Which of the following is not one of the ideas contributed to the criminological literature by labeling theory?
A) Deviant individuals achieve their status by virtue of social definition.
B) Deviance is the consequence of a quality inherent in human activity.
C) Labeling by society tends to perpetuate crime.
D) Negative self-images follow from processing by the formal criminal justice system.
2) The dramaturgical perspective was developed by
A) Ronald Akers.
B) Edwin Lemert.
C) Erving Goffman.
D) Howard Becker.
3) Elder’s principle of __________ refers to the fact that the developmental impact of a succession of life transitions is contingent on when in a person’s life they occur.
A) historical time and place
B) linked lives
C) timing in lives
D) human agency
4) According to Moffit, a __________ results when adolescents begin to desire autonomy but are prevented from achieving it because of preexisting social expectations.
A) moral enterprise
B) social bond
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