Annotated Biblio

Effects of alcohol and drug addiction on adolescents
American Public University
Effects of alcohol and drug addiction on adolescents
Addiction is a behavioral activity that brings enjoyment and comfort from inner distress, but it also involves a recurrent inability to regulate the behavior and a continuing of the behavior regardless of the negative effects (Amini Pozveh et al., 2020). Alcohol and drug addiction is defined as excessive and dangerous alcohol and drugs intake that is accompanied by withdrawal and side effects.
Statement of the problem
Adolescent drug and substance usage is a worldwide problem that must be addressed. Many adolescents are significantly involved in drug and substance addiction, posingsignificant threatsto the next generation of parents and grandparents.Young people from all over the globe have now tried a wide range of substances, from smoking and drinking to harder narcotics such as cocaine, marijuana, and opium, among others (Knopf, 2019). Over the course of several years, the prevalence of drug usage has increased. According to estimations from the World Drug Report, “approximately250 million individuals aged fifteen to fifty years have ingested illicit substances in the earth’s entirepopulation. Adolescents who take drugs out of control on a regular basis frequently encounter catastrophic consequences. The purpose of this proposal is to identify the root causes of alcohol and drug addiction with a particular focus on adolescents.
Importance of the study
The primary goal of this study is to provide actionable information, provide support for concepts, and contribute to the advancement of knowledge on drug and alcohol addictions. The findings of this study will facilitate the creation of evidence-based solutions to successfully address the underlying causes of drug addictionin adolescents. Effective techniques to prevent drug addiction will be established as a result of this research, lessening the probability of drug addiction among children. The findings of this study will also provide the knowledge needed to avoid potentially dangerous circumstances and the knowledge required to make good individual decisions. It will help in creating individual tactics for preventing both toxic peers and the natural societal expectations connected with drug addictions.
Literature review
There are several causes of drug addictionthat have been recognized and empirically validated, including peer pressure, parental influences, and socio-economic factors among others. Starting with peer influences, a number of researchers have looked into whether or not peer pressure is a contributory factor to adolescent drug misuse. People are typically characterized by their interactions with others and the events that take place in their immediate surroundings. The majority of adolescents like interacting with other people in groupings known as peer groups.According to Tam et al. (2020), the majority of persons get their first dosage of illegal drugs from a friends, family members, or theirromantic partners. Therefore, a limited number of those who use drugs in a group will most likely influence othersto engage in drug consumption. Humans are, in the vast majority of situations, strongly affected by the environmentsin which they spend the majority of their time.
Personal qualities are influenced by the structure and conduct of one’s family. The majority of modern households tend to live in attractive homes that have been impacted by western culture. Most people equate gullibility with a family that practices conventional values and etiquette (Tam et al, 2020). Modern society has seen an erosion of cultural norms that has resulted in the erosion of social standards and the resulting reduction in social values.
Sociological theories of drug addiction assumes that drug addiction is caused by particular personality features and difficulties. They connect drug usage to a variety of social factors, including peer pressure, a lack of strong social ties, and the prevalence of a drug cultures. As a result of his investigation into these theories, Knopf (2019), came to the conclusion that parental and peerrelationships are essential in influencing the thoughts and actions of people, and thus should be considered in the investigation of drug addiction causes. Because of rising rates of migration and urbanization, traditional cultural familial ties are becoming increasingly frayed, and old cultural beliefs are losing their significance in today’s globalized society. The majority of parents today can be seen openly consuming alcoholic beverages and taking drugs in the company of their children. This relationship is also compelled by congested urban centers.
Another denotative factor in drug addictionis a person’s socioeconomic condition. Rising population is accelerating at unprecedented rates, posing a number of economic issues for the world’s economies. According to Rotgers (2018), Unemployment is one of the most significant determinants of narcotics trafficking and illicit substance addiction in the United States. Individuals around the world, particularly in less developednations, are searching for alternate ways of subsistence as a result of the current state of joblessness around the world. Because of this, people become involved in drug trafficking activitiesnarrowing the gap between multinational barons and local drug dealers and making narcotics more readily available to teens as a result. Young people are being forced to participate in drug smuggling and illicit drug use as a result of high levels of unemployment in their communities nowadays.
Unemployment, on the other hand, is not the only social economic element that influences adolescents to engage in drug usage and addictions. Other factors include inequities in earnings and distribution money provided to adolescents in industrialized nations, both of which have an impact on drug misuse among the majority of young people. If the money given to adolescents are not handled responsibly and with necessary accountability, they can serve as a stimulant for drug usage and addiction. Individuals whoearn low wages may be enticed to participate in drug smuggling as a result of income inequality.
Key terms
· Adolescents: young people between puberty and adulthood stages
· Addiction: Addiction is the inability of an individual to cease using a substance or participating in a certain conduct.
· Drugs: a drugs is a chemical or other stimulants that make the humanwork differently.
· Drugs Smuggling: The illegal making and selling of illicit drugs.
Relevance to Field of Psychology
Drug addictionsare chronic conditions with a variety of features, including psychological, medical, sociological, and environment factors. The findings of this proposal will advance the knowledge of psychologists in understanding the causes of addictions in adolescent and how to best assist those who are affected. Following the identification of the underlying reasons of addiction, the field of psychology will utilizethe findings of this study to advance the development of efficientbehavioral and pharmaceutical treatments for addictive behaviors. The study will provide an in-depth look at the factors that lead to drug and alcohol addiction in adolescents. The findings may be useful to the area of psychology in the creation of more successful addiction counseling and treatment therapies in the near future.
Relevance to Students
Addiction is a complex subject, and this literature study will help students gain a better grasp of it. Having a better understanding of the repercussions of addiction can assist individuals avoid or stop othersfrom developing an addiction by educating them on the factors that can lead to addiction. Student who interest is the psychology field will benefit significantly from learning the possible causes of addictions in their clients therefore being able to develop effective intervention plans for their patients.
Drug misuse amongst young people is unquestionably a worldwide problem. A variety of causes have motivated adolescents to become involved in drug usage. Peer pressure is a contributing element to adolescent drug addiction, with individuals who have a history of drug addictionpersuading others to do the same thing (Knopf, 2019). Due to the widespread adoption of western culture by most families, which has resulted in the disintegration of cultural rules, which are vital in molding teenage behavior, household structure and family influences have an impact on drug addiction. Modernization and rural-to-urban migrations have both had a role in bringing about this situation.
Unemployment and other socio-economic conditions have had an impact on drug addiction amongst adolescents with numerous jobless residents attempting to find alternative means of subsisting. People who are unemployed are more likely to engage in drug misuse and human trafficking than those who are employed (Rotgers, 2018). Drug misuse is still the most difficult problem to deal with, and it is likely to continue to be a problem if the proper authorities do not take serious steps to bring the issue under control.
Amini Pozveh, Z., & Saleh, Z. (2020). The role of social skills in the prevention of drug addiction in adolescents.Advanced Biomedical Research,9(1), 41.
Knopf, A. (2019). Alcoholism starts in youth, so it should be screened for.Alcoholism &Amp; Drug Abuse Weekly,31(9), 3-4.
Rotgers, F. (2018). What Causes Addiction? Research on Motivation.Psyccritiques,49(Supplement 13).
Tam, C., Benotsch, E., & Li, X. (2020). Sexual enhancement expectancy, non-medical use of prescription drugs, and sexual risk behaviors in college students.Substance Abuse,42(4), 577-586.

This assignment will be submitted to Turnitin®.


Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography is an APA formatted listing and description of the sources used to develop the Integrated Project Literature Review. No further coursework will be accepted unless this assignment is submitted in Week 3.
Peer-reviewed and evidence-based articles (articles published in academic journals) must be used for the annotated bibliography. Each article must be current (within the last ten years) and a primary source, that is a single experiment conducted by the article author(s) only. Articles cannot be used if the author is writing about a topic in an essay style and/or if the article includes citations of multiple other authors’ articles or summaries of multiple study findings in the same article.
The Week 3 Annotated Bibliography must include 24 current (within the last ten years) peer-reviewed, evidence based articles formatted as per APA guidelines. The annotated bibliography should be titled “References” centered at the top of the page, followed by the full APA citation of the article and a paragraph (4-6 sentences) describing the following:
1. Purpose of the study
2. Methodology
3. Findings
4. Relevance to the thesis topic
These paragraphs must be written in the student’s own words.Quoting is not permitted for this assignment.
PSYC699 Week 3 Assignment: Annotated Bibliography





Did not attempt

Source Selection
50 pts

Includes 24 primary sources from an academic journal. Sources are published within the last 10 years.

Includes 24 primary sources from an academic journal. Sources are published within the last 10 years.

Includes 24 sources, 20 sources are primary sources from an academic journal. Sources are published greater than 10 years ago.

Includes 24 sources, 15 sources are primary sources from an academic journal. Sources are published greater than 10 years ago.

Does not include 24 sources.

Content- Summary
50 pts

Detailed summary of each source includes purpose of the study, methodology, and findings.

Summary of each source includes purpose of the study, methodology, and findings. Some details are vague.

Summary of each source includes purpose of the study, methodology, and findings. Needs clarification and elaboration.

Summary of each source is missing important elements: purpose of the study, methodology, and/or findings.

Does not include summary of each source.

Content- Relevance
50 pts

Thorough evaluation of the usefulness, limitations, and validity of each source.

Evaluation of the usefulness, limitations, and validity of each source. Some details are vague.

Some evaluation of the usefulness, limitations, and validity of each source. Needs clarification and elaboration.

Minimal evaluation of the usefulness, limitations, and validity of each source. Relevance to thesis is unclear.

Did not attempt to evaluate usefulness, limitations, and validity of each source.

30 pts

Work is presented in a logical and coherent way. Writing is clear, articulate, and error free. Citations are composed in proper format with few or no errors. Student uses original writing. APA formatting of Title Page and References.

Work is grammatically sound with a few minor errors. Citations are composed in proper format with some errors. Student uses original writing.APA formatting of Title Page and References.

Work contains frequent grammatical errors. Citations are inaccurate or improperly formatted. Student uses original writing. Minor errors in APA formatting of Title Page and References.

Work does not demonstrate appropriate graduate level writing. Citations are inaccurate or improperly formatted. Student’s writing is not original. Errors in APA formatting of Title Page and References.

No attempt to cite information or format in APA style. Scholarly resources not used.

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