6 peer responses due in 48 hours

Respond to at least two classmates’ postings.
To ensure your lesson is aligned to the CCSS framework, you may have to view exemplar text from the grade band in which your instruction will occur.  Appendix B of the Common Core provides exemplar texts for ELA or Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Select one exemplar text from a grade band of your choosing. Unpack one standard from that grade level and write an instructional objective that includes a reference to the selected exemplar text. Use the following resources:
Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks
Unpacking a Standard
I picked 6th to 8th-grade social studies.
Exemplar Text:
United States. Preamble and First Amendment to the United States Constitution. (1787, 1791)
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:
By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
According to Hansen (2015), instructional objectives outline short-term learning outcomes in precise terms. They are the tool that translates the meaning of the standard being addressed (an unpacked standard) into observable student behaviors. Instructional objectives are usually aligned with the curriculum map’s content (and/or pacing guides).
The students will learn about the Preamble and the 1st Amendment and why they are important. We can also create groups, discuss each one, and discuss why they think learning the two is important.
Common Core Standards. (N.D.). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RH/6-8/ (Links to an external site.)
Common core standards. (N.D.) Common Core State Standards For English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf (Links to an external site.)
Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century. Bridgepoint Education. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/
Select one exemplar text from a grade band of your choosing.
Grade 2-3 Text Exemplar Read Aloud Stories
Kipling, Rudyard. “How the Camel Got His Hump.” Just So Stories. New York: Puffin, 2008. (1902)
Unpack one standard from that grade level.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.3.3 (Links to an external site.)
Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events
Write an instructional objective that includes a reference to the selected exemplar text.
Students will read “How the Camel Got His Hump.” by Rudyard Kipling. Then they will talk about the different animals as a class. They will discuss how each animal felt or how each animal was the same or different from one another. Then they will talk about what each animal did in the story that was important.
Common Core Standards. (N.D.). Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/RL/3/3/ (Links to an external site.) 
Common core standards. (N.D.) Common Core State Standards For English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf
Respond to at least two classmates’ postings.
Choose one grade-level band, and read the reading standards presented in the Common Core Standards (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.).  
Grade level: 1 
Key Ideas and Details 
 (Links to an external site.)Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. 
How do the reading standards at this level support the development of critical reading and thinking skills? Give at least one example. 
This ELA standard support critical reading because the children must comprehend the text in order to answer the questions that are being asked within this standard.  Along with critical reading they are going to be using their thinking skills.  When looking at Bloom’s Taxonomy the children are going to be remembering what they are reading which is why it’s so important that they understand the text that is being read.  They will “state, name, list, describe, label and find” (Hansen, Buczynski & Puckett, 2015).  They will need to be understanding the text in which this means that they will “explain, interpret, compare, discuss, predict, describe, give an example” (Hansen, Buczynski & Puckett, 2015).   
An example of this standard is a student using a graphic organizer to fill out after reading a story.  They will describe the characters within the book, where the book took place and talk about the events that happened within the book using specific details right from the book.  This is how an educator can decide if they have met the standard.  To add an extension to this they can draw a picture of their favorite part of the book.  This also can help the educator to understand how the student views the book in a visual aspect. 
Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2020). “English Language Arts: Reading Literature: Grade 1”. Retrieved from English Language Arts Standards » Reading: Literature » Grade 1 | Common Core State Standards Initiative (corestandards.org) (Links to an external site.) 
Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S. (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century. Bridgepoint Education 
Hello Classmates,
Grade Level: Kindergarten
When looking at the break down of CCSS reading there are three sections, reading: literature, reading: informational text and reading: foundational skills. after taking the time to read all the standards they have different ways to prompt discussion about the text being read. the students can also predict before the reading in a group session about what may take place, who is the main character and so on. So the standard that really stood out to me was CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1.A. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom and page by page. when children start learning to read they will notice words on the page that they are familiar with. Once they start understanding more words it’s important that they know where to start and in which direction to go. From experience with my students when they look at books in the book/ library center I notice they mimic how I read to the class when pointing at the starting point of the text and they tell the story by what they see in the pictures. Some retell stories by memorization if we read it often in class. 
Desiree Beck 
Hansen, C.B., Buczynski, S., & Puckett, K.S.  (2015). Curriculum and instruction for the 21st century [Electronic Version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/
Respond substantively to a minimum of two peers. Inquire about your fellow students’ resources and discussion pertaining to the cultural differences conveyed through nonverbal communication. 
HUM6100 – Group Theories & Human Systems
Week 2 – Discussion: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Groups
        As we go about our day, our personality and emotional maturity are indicated in how we represent ourselves in the many hats we wear. No matter what setting, role, or hat we wear, one factor that does not change is that we communicate. Even when we are not actively engaged in conversation, what and how we send a message is critical because it is silent. Our verbal and non-verbal communication can drastically affect how we intend the information to be implied and how others interpret the message. By ensuring our communication matches between verbal and non-verbal cues, our messages are correctly communicated (Lucas, 2015).
Verbal and non-verbal mix match
        We have all had situations where someone asks about our well-being beyond a typical salutation. We may be puzzled about why anyone thinks something is amiss simply because we are slightly different in our apparel, posture, or tone. Does a question come of how does the person know if we are out of alignment? Non-Verbal signals are the reason our presentation can be questionable. Non-verbal communication is directly associated with human nature and is the primary influence of ourselves toward others (Navarro, 2020, 11:31). Reflecting to the week one journal about synergy, our output effects our input and that of others. If we answer with confidence, people respond with optimism compared to a dramatic sigh and shoulder shrug which triggers a disconnect with others.
Non-verbal Virtual and Digital Communication
        It is imperative in a digital world to understand how we exude emotion even if not by posture, movements as a substitute, expression, or tone that a message is being sent and received. We can even send a message through an emoticon or emoji, representing a message other than intended. These same non-verbal cues can be construed incorrectly in our correspondence if we use all capitalization or bold, known as supplements. There is a noticeable difference in an e-mail that reads, “Please, see me in my office now.” compared to a SKype instant message that reads “PLEASE SEE ME IN MY OFFICE NOW.” According to Adams & Galanes (2017), the lack of social presence does not convey non-verbal cues. For instance, if your superior is messaging with recognition instead of disappointment, no expression is seen, nor tone heard. Communication necessitates appropriate environment, timing, and usage to be clear, concise, and avoid misleading or alarming others.
Cultural Communication
        Misleading or misunderstanding is another issue that can arise from verbal and non-verbal communication. Both communication forms vary from one culture to another. Whether it be gender, age, ethnicity, or religious founded, communication is crucial in everyday life. For instance, the offering of rendering aid by the left hand to Islamic culture is executable as it is interpreted as dirty while the Russian culture is set on a firm handshake. In most countries, pointing is considered rude, yet it is instructive to an inanimate object in others. At the same time, waving a finger may indicate scolding, a farewell wave of endearment, or a derogatory term. Cultural wisdom in non-verbal communication is crucial in interactions due to ethnocentrism. Gestures can be insulting or unforeseen as discriminatory (Phuleta, 2015)
Adams, K., & Galanes, G. (2017). Communicating in groups: Application and skills (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. eISBN-13: 9781259983283
Lucas, A. (2015, April 15). The Importance of Verbal & Non-Verbal Communication [Web page]. https://www.livestrong.com/article/156961-the-importance-of-verbal-non-verbal-communication/ (Links to an external site.)
Navarro, J. (2020, March 31). The Power of Nonverbal Communication. TEDxManchester.The Power of Nonverbal Communication | Joe Navarro | TEDxManchester (Links to an external site.)
Phutela, D. (2015). The Importance of Non-Verbal Communication. IUP Journal of Soft Skills, 9(4), 43-49.
The relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication is intertwined and dependent on the other. Therefore, effective communication involves both verbal and nonverbal implications. An individual learns to communicate both verbally and nonverbally from interactions within one’s cultural environment. Throughout an individual’s life, one’s culture is immersed in teaching the individual how to behave, what to wear, what to eat, and most importantly how to interact with others (Riggio & Feldman, 2005, p. 260). Often, one’s culture shapes the way in which an individual responds within group settings. This is because the methods in which an individual chooses to interact with others is embedded in their cultural values, constraints, and expectations. For example, in my culture it is appropriate during conversation for the listener to nod, shake one’s head, and reply with brief statements to identify that one is listening. However, if the listener fails to respond appropriately, does not respond in a timely manner, or fails to respond at all, it be may be concluded that the listener is uninterested in the conversation or is simply ignoring the speaker.  
Moreover, nonverbal communication has been described as all and nothing at the same time (Hall & Knapp, 2013, p. 70). This is because nonverbal communication simultaneously sends cues that may be interpreted without the use of verbal symbols. Nonverbal behaviors include: “appearance, proximity, expression, body movement, vocal cues, and timing” (Adams, K., & Galanes, G, 2017, p. 74-78). When this is applied to the categories of nonverbal behaviors, it is evident that nonverbal communication cannot be taken at face value. When referring to nonverbal communication many individuals often pinpoint that nonverbal behaviors include one’s facial expressions and body movements, however these factors alone do not completely describe one’s nonverbal communication. In order to accurately identify the way in which an individual communicates nonverbally, all nonverbal behaviors must be included. One important factor, I learned this week in regards to one’s nonverbal behaviors is that one’s mental health directly correlates with the ability to communicate nonverbally. For example, an individual who is depressed may maintain an isolated disposition (Philippot, Feldman, & Coats, 2003, p. 32).
In summation, when taking into consideration the significance culture has in an individual’s ability to communicate it is very important that we interact with individuals through the lens of one’s culture. In addition to this, for a group to function effectively one must also eliminate egocentrism. Most importantly, when interacting in the group setting misconceptions should be addressed for clarity, rather than developing an assumption.
Adams, K., & Galanes, G. (2017). Communicating in groups: application and skills (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Hall, J. A., & Knapp, M. L. (2013). Nonverbal Communication. De Gruyter, Inc.
Philippot, P., Feldman, R. S., & Coats, E. J. (2003). Nonverbal Behavior in Clinical Settings. Oxford University Press, Incorporated.
Riggio, R. E., & Feldman, R. S. (2005). Applications of Nonverbal Communication. Taylor & Francis Group.

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