Benchmark: Psychological Report Assignment Instructions
You will write a Psychological Report Assignment based upon four (4) psychological evaluations and information reported in the Initial Interview Assignment and Mental Status Examination (MSE) Assignment. Counselors are commonly required to write a psychological report that presents assessed and observation information about a client. This Psychological Report Assignment will require students to synthesize and report information about the character depicted in the Initial Interview Assignment and Mental Status Examination (MSE) Assignment.
· Length of Psychological Report Assignment
: 2100-2400 words (not including the title page)
· Format of Psychological Report Assignment
: APA for font (Times New Roman, 12 pt.), title page, margins, and section headings
· Number of citations: none
· Acceptable sources: none
Using your character from the Initial Interview Assignment and Mental Status Examination (MSE) Assignment, you will take the assessments with the goal of answering one (1) of the referral questions posted below:
1. Would this examinee be a good candidate for participation in a summer missions trip in a very challenging environment?
2. Would this examinee be a good candidate for Senior Pastor at a large urban church?
3. Would the examinee make a good Resident Assistant (RA) at Liberty University?
You will report on four (4) assessments. For one of your assessments, you must use the IPIP-NEO assessment (see Psychological Report Resources for the link). There are two versions (short/long) of the IPIP-NEO assessment. Please use the longer version. Copy and paste the NEO description and chart into the report. This will give you a nice template for writing an assessment description. Once you have the results of the IPIP-NEO, you will plug in your own numbers into the chart.
The three (3) additional tests may come from the assessment listed on Blackboard: Jung Personality Test, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. However, you may select other assessments to replace these assessment. Please make sure that any assessments that you select are designed to provide some of the information needed to answer the referral question. For example, if going on a mission trip is stressful, then you will want to pick an assessment that measures stress; you would not pick one that can be used to diagnose schizophrenia. When you have completed scoring the assessments, begin writing the psychological report.
You may not use the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ); Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) or the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS). These assessments are used in the sample paper, so you may not use them in your report. This would be plagiarism.
Please refer to the Psychological Report – Diagnostic Report Sample to ensure that you correctly format your Psychological Report Assignment paper. For this, you will not use APA formatting for the headers and page numbers. You will write it in a format consistent with a psychological report which you can use for future reference. Be sure to head your Psychological Report Assignment paper “Psychological Report.” Underneath this heading, fill in the following information (include the labels given):
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.
Be sure to review the criteria on the Psychological Report Grading Rubric before beginning this Psychological Report Assignment.
See Psychological Report Resources under the Psychological Report Assignment page.
Sections of the Psychological Evaluation Report
Client’s Name: (you can use a fictitious name)
Date of Report:
II. REFERRAL QUESTION/REASON FOR TESTING: In this section, you will write a brief description (3-4 sentences) of why your subject is being tested.
III. ASSESSMENT METHODS: List the full names of all the tests administered. The Examinee Biography should be the first measure on your list.
IV. EXAMINEE BACKGROUND: In no more than 2-3 paragraphs, use information from the Initial Interview (or Mental Status Exam) and write a well-organized succinct summary of the examinee’s background based on the information in the initial interview. Note that you will not include everything from the initial interview in this section. For example, you might decide certain pieces of information (e.g., perceived strengths and weaknesses, goals and aspiration, etc.) fit better in the Psychological Impressions section because they support or illustrate your interpretations of test results. See the Diagnostic Report Sample’s Psychological Impression section for more information.
V. SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS: The name of each test should be underlined and serve as subheadings in this section. The following information should be reported for EACH test:
A. A brief description (4-5 sentences) of the test. The information you report on each test will vary considerably, but must include the purpose of the test, a general description of any subscales, and a statement relating to scores and norms (e.g., T-scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, specific raw score means, and standard deviations, etc.).
B. Delineation of your subject’s scores: both raw scores and standard scores or percentiles (if applicable) should be reported.
C. Additional Notes
i. In this section, do NOT make any interpretive statements. Just report the scores.
ii. In “real-world” settings, most likely you would NOT include clients’ actual scores in the written report. Whether actual scores are reported depends in large part on the intended audience (e.g., other psychologists, attorneys or judges, parents, etc.).
D. Example of a Test Summary:
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2): The MMPI-2 is a structured, self-report personality test that was designed to assist in the assessment of personality and the diagnosis of major psychiatric disorders. The MMPI-2 consists of 10 clinical subscales measuring different domains of psychological functioning or symptomology, several validity scales assessing subjects’ approaches to taking the test (e.g., defensiveness, acquiescence), and content scales relating to a specific content areas (e.g., anger). Distinct norm are provided for male and female examinees. MMPI-2 scores are reported in standard T-scores (mean=50, SD=10), with scores above 65 falling in the clinical range.
John’s scores on the MMPI-2 are presented below; standard scores are given in boldface type followed by raw scores in parentheses:
Scale 1, Hypochondriasis: 45 (11).
Scale 7, Psychasthenia: 72 (39).
VI. PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPRESSIONS: This section is the most important (approximately 600-900 words). Your goal in this section is to integrate test results into a cohesive summary. In other words, rather than simply reporting each interpretation on a test-by-test basis, you will integrate your interpretations. For example, you should address how the examinee is likely to interact with others. Findings from most of the tests will be relevant to this question. While you will specify your sources of information following each interpretive statement (e.g., Examinee Biography, specific subscales of a named test, etc.), you must also make interpretations based on an integration of findings from multiple sources.
A. Additional Notes
i. You are NOT expected to interpret every single result of each test! After examining test results, try to identify consistent patterns or characteristic styles that emerge on several measures. Address findings that seem most relevant, important, or interesting in the context of the referral question.
ii. In this section, you are stating hypotheses about the examinee’s functioning. You can express the probabilistic nature of your interpretations as follows:
a) “Test results indicate (or suggest) that…” (instead of “Test results show that…”)
b) “John seems (or appears) to be…” (rather than “John is…”)
c) “It is possible that John could…” or “John is likely to…” (not “John will…”)
B. Example (this represents only a portion of this section, not the entire section):
In regard to interpersonal functioning, results of Test X (list relevant scales here), Test Y (list relevant scales here), and Test Z (list relevant scales here) suggest that John generally interacts well with others. Specifically, he seems to be aware of the needs of others and is likely to respond in a positive manner if asked to help others. John’s family likely fostered his sense of interpersonal responsibility; in his biography, John reported that a primary influence in his life was his father, to whom John credits his “unfailing loyalty to the people in my life.” In addition, Test X (list relevant scales) and Test Z (list relevant scales) indicate that John is rather extraverted. He likely will enjoy having a lot of contact with people. He seems motivated to seek out situations that will allow him to help others solve problems and to feel good about themselves.
On the other hand, John may experience difficulties in certain kinds of interpersonal situations. Results of Test Q (list relevant scales here) and Test Y (list relevant scales here) indicate that he tends to be somewhat anxious and unsure of himself. Coupled with his strong need for affiliation (i.e., for others to like and accept him) suggested in Test Z (list relevant scales here) and supported by Projective Test A, John’s anxiety is likely to surface in situations requiring assertive interpersonal responses. For example, it is possible John feels somewhat intimidated when challenged by others, and might acquiesce to the wishes of others rather than assert his own opinions or needs. In support of this hypothesis, John stated that one of his perceived weaknesses was “speaking up for myself.” It appears John would make a good team player because he is interested in considering others’ views, but could be challenged in leadership roles requiring him to direct others or to make independent decisions that might not be popular with peers, colleagues, or subordinates.
C. Questions you might address in this section include (but are not limited to):
How does this person view himself/herself? What are this person’s intrapersonal resources or strengths? What kinds of situations might pose challenges to this person? Is this person motivated more by internal or external influences/factors? How is this person likely to deal with stressful situations of a personal nature?
Is this person a “loner” or a “people-person?” What are this person’s needs for interpersonal contact? How does this person interact with others? How would you describe this person’s interpersonal style? How might this person respond to interpersonal stressors or conflicts? Does this person seem responsible and able to follow through on commitments?
VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Begin this section by writing 3-4 sentences summarizing the examinee’s background and the referral question. Next, you will address the referral questions by:
A. Stating an opinion or recommendation (e.g., acceptance or rejection) relevant to the referral question.
B. Providing a set of statements that clearly and logically tie your recommendation to integrated psychological impressions. This section should highlight important findings that led you to your conclusion.
John Doe is an unmarried 23-year-old Hispanic male who holds a bachelor’s degree in Literature. Currently, John is employed as an editorial assistant for a large publishing company. John was referred for psychological testing as part of his application to the Walden Three community. Based on findings from a battery of psychological tests, it is the recommendation of this examiner that John (should/should not) be accepted to the Walden Three community for the following reasons…
i. Regardless of your final opinion, decision, or recommendation, you must adequately support it! All the reasons you give should combine elements of your psychological impressions with specific aspects of the referral question. In other words, you should provide evidence justifying your recommendation.
ii. The reasons you provide for your recommendation should summarize material presented in the body of your Psychological Report Assignment paper, and should NOT contain new interpretations.
Refer to the
Assessment Psychological Report: Diagnostic Report Example document to see examples of how each section must be completed and how the Psychological Report Assignment must be formatted for final submission. Contact your instructor if you have any questions.
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Psychological Report — Diagnostic Report Example
Client’s Name: Ann Generic
Date of Report: 01/16/2013
REFERRAL QUESTION/REASON FOR TESTING:
Mrs. Generic was referred by The Mission Group for evaluation concerning the appropriateness of her participation in a mission trip to rural India. The summer trip will consist of a 3-week excursion into remote villages with a team of 10 others. Living accommodations for the team will likely be primitive and possibly changing with little notice.
Symptom Questionnaire (SQ)
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS)
Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS)
Mrs. Generic, a 45-year-old, married Caucasian female, works as a secretary in a medical office. She lives with her husband and 3 children. She is of normal height, slightly overweight, and looks younger than her age. She dresses neatly and maintains a well-groomed appearance. Mrs. Generic is very outgoing and friendly. She has a warm smile and remained attentive during the initial interview. She enjoys and values performing her work to the best of her abilities. She gains a sense of pride in accomplishing her tasks well. Her family relationships appear to have little conflict. She reports that she, her husband, and children generally get along well. Her outside friendships are limited, mainly consisting of her co-workers. Mrs. Generic reports that these friendships are not very close. Mrs. Generic reports that she suffers from diabetes, which is successfully managed by medication. Her obesity mildly affects her mobility and energy levels. She recently began taking an antidepressant under her physician’s direction. This is reportedly in response to circumstantial mood disruptions related to her menstrual cycle.
SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS:
The IPIP-NEO is an assessment used to estimate a person’s level on each of the 5 broad personality trait domains, and 30 sub-domains of the Five-Factor Model. It consists of 300 items. Answers are provided according to a 5 point Likert-type scale. The numerical scores represent a percentile estimate above other subjects of the same sex and age. Scores lower than 30 for a trait or sub-domain are characterized as “low;” scores between 30 and 70 are identified as “average;” and scores above 70 are labeled “high.”
The following chart reports Mrs. Generic’s IPIP-NEO scores.
Openness to Experience
Symptom Questionnaire (SQ)
The SQ is a 92-item instrument for measuring four aspects of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, somatization, and anger-hostility. Subjects respond to a descriptive word or phrase with true/false and yes/no answers. Mrs. Generic’s score was 6 on the relaxation component of the anxiety/relaxed sub-scale, which was above average compared with the non-clinical sample. Her score was 5 for the depression/contented sub-scale, reflecting that she compared with the average of the non-clinical sample. Mrs. Generic’s score of 7 for the somatic/somatic well-being sub-scale was slightly above average for the clinical sample. Her score of 7 on the hostility/friendly sub-scale was slightly above the non-clinical sample mean for the friendly component.
Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS)
The DASS is a 42-item instrument that measures depression, anxiety, and stress within the past week prior to its administration.Each scale is composed of 14 primary symptoms.Subjects respond to statements on a 4 point Likert-type scale according to the degree to which that statement was experienced.Mrs. Generic’s depression and anxiety scores were well below the mean for the non-clinical samples, 2 and 1 respectively.Her score of 13 for the stress sub-scale was elevated for the non-clinical sample, but compared far below the average of the clinical sample.
Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS)
The CAS is a 25-item instrument that measures the degree of clinical anxiety. Higher scores indicate increased anxiety. This instrument has a clinical cutoff score of 30 (+5). Mrs. Generic’s score was 18.
Mrs. Generic is a friendly, outgoing person. She is verbally expressive, and has a rich vocabulary. She is open, cooperative, and capable of interacting with others in a socially appropriate manner. She views herself as genuinely caring, responsible, and friendly.
Mrs. Generic is internally motivated and guided by her Christian faith. External motivation stems from her extraverted personality. She prefers to be in the company of others and finds extended time alone emotionally difficult. She values actions of service toward others. She enjoys helping others and offering support to those with physical needs. This should make her an asset to the mission team.
Results of the IPIP-NEO (Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism domains), the SQ (Depression, Anxiety, and Anger-Hostility sub-scales), the DASS (Depression and Anxiety sub-scales), and the CAS (Anxiety scale) support that Mrs. Generic is generally extraverted, suggests that she enjoys new social settings, and that her life is not greatly hindered by depression or anxiety.
She is likely to express a positive mood and enthusiasm that is encouraging to those around her. She seems to be an agreeable individual who is considerate of others and values group harmony. She finds interpersonal conflict more difficult to manage than environmental stressors.She may also easily feel intimidated by others and adopt a passive stance when faced with conflictual situations.
She is relatively free of depression and anxiety and is likely to maintain a sense of emotional stability and calmness even in challenging environments. This is supported by the results of the SQ (Anxiety/Relaxed and Depression/Contented sub-scales), the DASS (Depression and Anxiety sub-scales), and the CAS (Depression and Anxiety scales).
Her level of emotional reactivity is low indicating that she may possess personal resources that allow her to effectively cope with stressful situations. Mrs. Generic tends to be calm and able to regulate her emotions. She is not adverse to adventurous activities, which indicates that Mrs. Generic may be reasonably comfortable with the unfamiliar conditions involved in an environment as might be expected on the mission trip.
Her unusually high score on the Neuroticism (Immoderation sub-domain) of the IPIP-NEO suggests that Mrs. Generic has difficulty resisting some cravings and urges.This was consistent with information gathered during the initial interview, wherein Mrs. Generic reported she has difficulty controlling her eating habits. This appears to be constrained to that aspect of her life; otherwise, she reports an organized and disciplined existence.
Mrs. Generic scored slightly above the average of the clinical sample on the SQ (Somatic/Somatic Well-Being sub-scale). This may be explained as Mrs. Generic reported experiencing numerous and chronic physical complaints related to obesity, hypothyroidism, and diabetes.She indicated that her physical complaints have basis in medically verified physical conditions.
The elevated score on the DASS (Stress sub-scale) is indicative of situational stressors of the past week.Affecting this score may be that Mrs. Generic reports she has experienced menstruation during the past week and typically notes increased irritability and feelings of being stressed associated with this event.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
Mrs. Generic is a 45-year-old female who was referred for evaluation concerning her appropriateness for participation in a mission trip to a challenging environment. She is married with 3 children and is employed as a secretary at a medical office.
Mrs. Generic was provided with a battery of psychological assessments, which included the Examinee Biography, IPIP-NEO, Symptom Questionnaire (SQ), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS), and the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS).
Based on the results of the assessments, it is the conclusion of this examiner that Mrs. Generic is an acceptable candidate for participation in the mission trip for the following reasons:
a) Mrs. Generic possesses personal qualities that will support her adaptation to the challenging mission environment and participation on the mission team.
b) Mrs. Generic is not unduly encumbered by anxious or depressive conditions that would be heightened by the challenging mission environment.
c) Mrs. Generic is likely to engage positively with the mission team in a mutually beneficial relationship.
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Beck Anxiety Inventory1
Beck Anxiety Inventory
Below is a list of common symptoms of anxiety. Please carefully read each item in the list.Indicate how much you
have been bothered by that symptom during the past month, including today, by circling the number in the
corresponding space in the column next to each symptom.
Not At All Mildly but it
didn’t bother me
Moderately – it
wasn’t pleasant at
Severely – it
bothered me a lot
Numbness or tingling 0 1 2 3
Feeling hot 0 1 2 3
Wobbliness in legs 0 1 2 3
Unable to relax 0 1 2 3
Fear of worst
0 1 2 3
Dizzy or lightheaded 0 1 2 3
Heart pounding/racing 0 1 2 3
Unsteady 0 1 2 3
Terrified or afraid 0 1 2 3
Nervous 0 1 2 3
Feeling of choking 0 1 2 3
Hands trembling 0 1 2 3
Shaky / unsteady 0 1 2 3
Fear of losing control 0 1 2 3
Difficulty in breathing 0 1 2 3
Fear of dying 0 1 2 3
Scared 0 1 2 3
Indigestion 0 1 2 3
Faint / lightheaded 0 1 2 3
Face flushed 0 1 2 3
Hot/cold sweats 0 1 2 3
Scoring – Sum each column. Then sum the column totals to achieve a grand score.Write that
score here ____________ .
A grand sum between 0 – 21 indicates very low anxiety.That is usually a good thing.However, it is
possible that you might be unrealistic in either your assessment which would be denial or that you have
learned to “mask” the symptoms commonly associated with anxiety. Too little “anxiety” could indicate that
you are detached from yourself, others, or your environment.
A grand sum between 22 – 35 indicates moderate anxiety.Your body is trying to tell you something.Look
for patterns as to when and why you experience the symptoms described above.For example, if it occurs
prior to public speaking and your job requires a lot of presentations you may want to find ways to calm
yourself before speaking or let others do some of the presentations.You may have some conflict issues that
need to be resolved.Clearly, it is not “panic” time but you want to find ways to manage the stress you feel.
A grand sum that exceeds 36 is a potential cause for concern.Again, look for patterns or times when you
tend to feel the symptoms you have circled.Persistent and high anxiety is not a sign of personal weakness or
failure.It is, however, something that needs to be proactively treated or there could be significant impacts to
you mentally and physically.You may want to consult a physician or counselor if the feelings persist.
This assessment is for academic purposes only. Please do not use this in clinical practice
Scoring – Sum each column. Then sum the column totals to achieve a grand score.Write that score here ____________ .
Beck’s Depression Inventory
This depression inventory can be self-scored. The scoring scale is at the end of the questionnaire.
0 I do not feel sad.
1I feel sad
2 I am sad all the time and I can’t snap out of it.
3 I am so sad and unhappy that I can’t stand it.
0I am not particularly discouraged about the future.
1 I feel discouraged about the future.
2 I feel I have nothing to look forward to.
3I feel the future is hopeless and that things cannot improve.
0 I do not feel like a failure.
1 I feel I have failed more than the average person.
2As I look back on my life, all I can see is a lot of failures.
3 I feel I am a complete failure as a person.
0 I get as much satisfaction out of things as I used to.
1I don’t enjoy things the way I used to.
2I don’t get real satisfaction out of anything anymore.
3I am dissatisfied or bored with everything.
0I don’t feel particularly guilty
1I feel guilty a good part of the time.
2I feel quite guilty most of the time.
3I feel guilty all of the time.
0I don’t feel I am being punished.
1I feel I may be punished.
2I expect to be punished.
3I feel I am being punished.
0I don’t feel disappointed in myself.
1I am disappointed in myself.
2I am disgusted with myself.
3I hate myself.
0I don’t feel I am any worse than anybody else.
1I am critical of myself for my weaknesses or mistakes.
2I blame myself all the time for my faults.
3I blame myself for everything bad that happens.
0I don’t have any thoughts of killing myself.
1I have thoughts of killing myself, but I would not carry them out.
2I would like to kill myself.
3 I would kill myself if I had the chance.
0I don’t cry any more than usual.
1I cry more now than I used to.
2I cry all the time now.
3I used to be able to cry, but now I can’t cry even though I want to.
Please note that this is an older edition that is for academic purposes only. Please do not use this in clinical practice
0I am no more irritated by things than I ever was.
1I am slightly more irritated now than usual.
2I am quite annoyed or irritated a good deal of the time.
3I feel irritated all the time.
0 I have not lost interest in other people.
1 I am less interested in other people than I used to be.
2 I have lost most of my interest in other people.
3 I have lost all of my interest in other people.
0 I make decisions about as well as I ever could.
1 I put off making decisions more than I used to.
2 I have greater difficulty in making decisions more than I used to.
3 I can’t make decisions at all anymore.
0 I don’t feel that I look any worse than I used to.
1 I am worried that I am looking old or unattractive.
2 I feel there are permanent changes in my appearance that make me look
3 I believe that I look ugly.
0 I can work about as well as before.
1 It takes an extra effort to get started at doing something.
2 I have to push myself very hard to do anything.
3 I can’t do any work at all.
0 I can sleep as well as usual.
1 I don’t sleep as well as I used to.
2 I wake up 1-2 hours earlier than usual and find it hard to get back to sleep.
3 I wake up several hours earlier than I used to and cannot get back to sleep.
0I don’t get more tired than usual.
1I get tired more easily than I used to.
2I get tired from doing almost anything.
3I am too tired to do anything.
0My appetite is no worse than usual.
1 My appetite is not as good as it used to be.
2My appetite is much worse now.
3I have no appetite at all anymore.
0I haven’t lost much weight, if any, lately.
1 I have lost more than five pounds.
2I have lost more than ten pounds.
3 I have lost more than fifteen pounds.
Please note that this is an older edition that is for academic purposes only. Please do not use this in clinical practice
0I am no more worried about my health than usual.
1I am worried about physical problems like aches, pains, upset stomach, or
2I am very worried about physical problems and it’s hard to think of much else.
3I am so worried about my physical problems that I cannot think of anything else.
0I have not noticed any recent change in my interest in sex.
1I am less interested in sex than I used to be.
2I have almost no interest in sex.
3I have lost interest in sex completely.
INTERPRETING THE BECK DEPRESSION INVENTORY
Now that you have completed the questionnaire, add up the score for each of the twenty-one
questions by counting the number to the right of each question you marked. The highest possible
total for the whole test would be sixty-three. This would mean you circled number three on all
twenty-one questions. Since the lowest possible score for each question is zero, the lowest
possible score for the test would be zero. This would mean you circles zero on each question.
You can evaluate your depression according to the Table below.
Total Score____________________Levels of Depression
1-10____________________These ups and downs are considered normal
11-16___________________ Mild mood disturbance
17-20___________________Borderline clinical depression
over 40__________________Extreme depression
Please note that this is an older edition that is for academic purposes only. Please do
not use this in clinical practice
Jung Typology Test (Based on MBTI®)
The Jung Typology Test is
Jung’s and Briggs-Myer’s Typology of Personality. It is
the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). You can access the Jung Typology Test at the website Human Metrics.com. When taking the assessment, do not overthink the answers. Rather, go with your first hunch. For some items, you will think of times when a preference is true and times it is not. Go with the answer that describes your preferences 51% of the time or greater.
Once you have finished, access the results (see below).
You will need all the information from this page
. Then click on “Self-Awareness and Personal Growth” and “Careers” links for information specific to your preference type. Copy the information into a Word document or print it off directly from the site (http://typelogic.com/).
This is NOT an empirically validated assessment; DO NOT administer to a client.
Ethical Feedback of MBTI® Results
1. Give results directly to the respondent as part of an active discussion with a certified administrator. Never deliver results in impersonal ways such as through e-mail or mail.
2. Present type results as a working hypothesis, a starting point for further exploration.
3. Make it clear that the respondent is the expert; the only person who can verify which type fits best.
4. Allow respondents to self-assess their preferences based on the introduction to type, prior to giving results of the Indicator.
5. Do not become defensive if the respondent disagrees with the report results. Help the respondent explore his or her hesitations and identify a comfortable best-fit type.
6. Provide descriptions of all sixteen types to help determine best-fit type. Recommend additional materials for further study.
7. Do not counsel a person toward or away from a particular career, relationship, or activity based solely upon personality type information; personality type does not explain everything.
8. Make it clear that the preference clarity indexes in the results do not imply excellence, competence, or maturity. They reflect only consistency in choosing one preference over another.
9. Make sure the respondent sees the feedback session as the beginning of the process. Knowing one’s type is not a one-time understanding, but a guide to ongoing growth and development toward an individual’s potential.
The 16 MBTI® Types
ISTJ: Quiet, serious, earns success by thoroughness and dependability. Practical, matter-of-fact, realistic, and responsible. Decide logically what should be done and work toward it steadily, regardless of distractions. Take pleasure in making everything orderly and organized – their work, their home, their life. Value traditions and loyalty.
ISFJ: Quiet, friendly, responsible, and conscientious. Committed and steady in meeting their obligations. Thorough, painstaking, and accurate. Loyal, considerate, notice and remember specifics about people who are important to them, concerned with how others feel. Strive to create an orderly and harmonious environment at work and at home.
INFJ: Seek meaning and connection in ideas, relationships, and material possessions. Want to understand what motivates people and are insightful about others. Conscientious and committed to their firm values. Develop a clear vision about how best to serve the common good. Organized and decisive in implementing their vision.
INTJ: Have original minds and great drive for implementing their ideas and achieving their goals. Quickly see patterns in external events and develop long-range explanatory perspectives. When committed, organize a job and carry it through. Skeptical and independent, have high standards of competence and performance – for themselves and others.
ISTP: Tolerant and flexible, quiet observers until a problem appears, then act quickly to find workable solutions. Analyze what makes things work and readily get through large amounts of data to isolate the core of practical problems. Interested in cause and effect, organize facts using logical principles, value efficiency.
ISFP: Quiet, friendly, sensitive, and kind. Enjoy the present moment, what’s going on around them. Like to have their own space and to work within their own time frame. Loyal and committed to their values and to people who are important to them. Dislike disagreements and conflicts, do not force their opinions or values on others.
INFP: Idealistic, loyal to their values and to people who are important to them. Want an external life that is congruent with their values. Curious, quick to see possibilities, can be catalysts for implementing ideas. Seek to understand people and to help them fulfill their potential. Adaptable, flexible, and accepting unless a value is threatened.
INTP: Seek to develop logical explanations for everything that interests them. Theoretical and abstract, interested more in ideas than in social interaction. Quiet, contained, flexible, and adaptable. Have unusual ability to focus in depth to solve problems in their area of interest. Skeptical, sometimes critical, always analytical.
ESTP: Flexible and tolerant, they take a pragmatic approach focused on immediate results. Theories and conceptual explanations bore them – they want to act energetically to solve the problem. Focus on the here-and-now, spontaneous, enjoy each moment that they can be active with others. Enjoy material comforts and style. Learn best through doing.
ESFP: Outgoing, friendly, and accepting. Exuberant lovers of life, people, and material comforts. Enjoy working with others to make things happen. Bring common sense and a realistic approach to their work, and make work fun. Flexible and spontaneous, adapt readily to new people and environments. Learn best by trying a new skill with other people.
ENFP: Warmly enthusiastic and imaginative. See life as full of possibilities. Make connections between events and information very quickly, and confidently proceed based on the patterns they see. Want a lot of affirmation from others, and readily give appreciation and support. Spontaneous and flexible, often rely on their ability to improvise and their verbal fluency.
ENTP: Quick, ingenious, stimulating, alert, and outspoken. Resourceful in solving new and challenging problems. Adept at generating conceptual possibilities and then analyzing them strategically. Good at reading other people. Bored by routine, will seldom do the same thing the same way, apt to turn to one new interest after another.
ESTJ: Practical, realistic, matter-of-fact. Decisive, quickly move to implement decisions. Organize projects and people to get things done, focus on getting results in the most efficient way possible. Take care of routine details. Have a clear set of logical standards, systematically follow them and want others to also. Forceful in implementing their plans.
ESFJ: Warmhearted, conscientious, and cooperative. Want harmony in their environment, work with determination to establish it. Like to work with others to complete tasks accurately and on time. Loyal, follow through even in small matters. Notice what others need in their day-by-day lives and try to provide it. Want to be appreciated for who they are and for what they contribute.
ENFJ: Warm, empathetic, responsive, and responsible. Highly attuned to the emotions, needs, and motivations of others. Find potential in everyone, want to help others fulfill their potential. May act as catalysts for individual and group growth. Loyal, responsive to praise and criticism. Sociable, facilitate others in a group, and provide inspiring leadership.
ENTJ: Frank, decisive, assume leadership readily. Quickly see illogical and inefficient procedures and policies, develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve organizational problems. Enjoy long-term planning and goal setting. Usually well informed, well-read, enjoy expanding their knowledge and passing it on to others. Forceful in presenting their ideas.
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