1. Replace the loads by constant shunt impedances. The load impedance can be obtained as Zload = V2/(P – jQ) 2. Convert the generator voltage sources into current sources (phasor or complex) using the relation Ig = Eg/Zg. 3. Write the impedance of various components of the system in a matrix form (z). The shunt capacitors of transmission lines (π-circuit model) should also be included in the z matrix. Note that ground is considered as bus ‘0’. Typical format of the z-matrix …
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